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1.  Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education 2013 Educational Outcomes 
An initiative of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (formerly the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education) (CAPE), the CAPE Educational Outcomes are intended to be the target toward which the evolving pharmacy curriculum should be aimed. Their development was guided by an advisory panel composed of educators and practitioners nominated for participation by practitioner organizations. CAPE 2013 represents the fourth iteration of the Educational Outcomes, preceded by CAPE 1992, CAPE 1998 and CAPE 2004 respectively. The CAPE 2013 Educational Outcomes were released at the AACP July 2013 Annual meeting and have been revised to include 4 broad domains, 15 subdomains, and example learning objectives.
doi:10.5688/ajpe778162
PMCID: PMC3806946  PMID: 24159203
CAPE; educational outcomes
3.  Progress Examinations in Pharmacy Education 
Interest in the use of the progress examination has grown in the current culture of accountability in higher education. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE's) Standards 2007 calls for comprehensive, knowledge- and performance-based examinations as part of a school or college of pharmacy's evaluation and assessment of student learning. Progress examinations have been used primarily in medical education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the literature on progress examinations and considerations for their potential use within an effective assessment plan.
PMCID: PMC1959206  PMID: 17806209
progress examinations; assessment
4.  Use of Reflective Portfolios in Health Sciences Education 
Reflective portfolios are a collection of evidence that through critical reflection on its contents demonstrate achievement as well as personal and professional development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the use of reflective portfolios and to develop a set of factors to guide schools and colleges of pharmacy as they implement reflective portfolios into their respective curricula as stated in Standards 2007.
PMCID: PMC1858617  PMID: 17533443
reflective portfolios; assessment; Standards 2007
5.  Curriculum Mapping in Program Assessment and Evaluation 
Objectives
To demonstrate a curriculum mapping technique and its use in program evaluation and assessment, as well as to provide specific recommendations for potential uses in pharmacy education.
Methods
This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design based on a learning outcomes document and several existing student and curricular data sets.
Results
The population consisted of 209 PharmD students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy (UACOP) during the 2004-2005 academic year and mapped 31 of the 34 required didactic courses in the curriculum. There was concordance between student and faculty member ranking of domain coverage in their respective curricular maps.
Conclusions
The agreement between the student and faculty graphical curriculum maps on the order of the ranking of the relative emphasis of each domain suggests concordance between the intended/delivered and received curriculums. This study demonstrated a curriculum mapping methodology that can be used to both make sense and use of existing data in curricular evaluation.
PMCID: PMC1858603  PMID: 17533429
curriculum evaluation; curriculum mapping; assessment; curriculum
8.  A 20-Year Perspective on Preparation Strategies and Career Planning of Pharmacy Deans 
Objective
To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans.
Methods
A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects.
Results
The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths.
Conclusions
Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions.
PMCID: PMC2996752  PMID: 21301596
dean; career planning
9.  Best Practices for Survey Research Reports Revisited: Implications of Target Population, Probability Sampling, and Response Rate 
Several papers have been published recently in the Journal addressing “best practices” for survey research manuscripts. This paper explores in more detail the effects of the target population size on sample size determination, probability sampling versus census approaches, and response rates and the relationship to potential nonresponse bias. Survey research is a complex methodology requiring expertise in the planning, execution, and analytic stages.
PMCID: PMC2828303  PMID: 20221335
survey research; methodology; target population; sampling; response rate
10.  The Impact of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences on Students' Readiness for Self-directed Learning 
Objective
To evaluate the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' readiness for self-directed learning.
Methods
The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to students prior to and after completing their APPEs. SDLRS is a validated instrument that determines the relative degree to which students have the attitudes and motivation to engage in self-directed learning.
Results
Seventy-seven (64%) students completed the SDLRS prior to starting their APPEs and 80 (67%) students completed the instrument after completing their APPEs. Forty-six (38%) students completed both. Prior to starting their APPEs, 74% of students scored greater than 150 on the SDLRS, indicating a high level of readiness for self-directed learning. No significant difference was found between the mean scores of students who took the SDLRS both prior to (159 ± 20) and after completing their APPEs (159 ± 24; p > 0.05).
Conclusion
Students at our institution appear to be ready for self-directed learning but APPEs had a minimal impact on their readiness for self-directed learning.
PMCID: PMC2720361  PMID: 19657498
self-directed learning; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; self-directed learning readiness scale; assessment

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