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1.  A Reflective Teaching Challenge to Motivate Educational Innovation 
Objective. To describe a teaching challenge intended to increase faculty use of evidence-based and student-centered instructional strategies in the demanding school of pharmacy context with technology-savvy students.
Design. A teaching challenge was created that required faculty members to incorporate a “new-to-you” innovative teaching method in a class, course, or experiential activity. The method was linked to at least 1 of 7 evidence-based principles for effective teaching. Faculty members were exposed to colleagues' teaching strategies via brief voluntary presentations at department meetings.
Assessment. A post-challenge survey provided assessment data about the challenge. Responses to a baseline survey provided additional information about what faculty members were already doing (52% response rate). Eighty-one percent of faculty respondents completed the challenge. A wide array of new strategies (13 categories such as flipped classrooms and social media) was implemented and 75% included the use of technology. Nearly all respondents (96%) thought that participation in the challenge was worth the effort and planned to participate again the following year. All faculty members intended to continue using their new strategy and 56% planned additional modifications with future implementations. The challenge demonstrated how multiple goals of curricular improvement, faculty development, and student-centered instruction could be achieved together.
Conclusion. The teaching challenge motivated most of the faculty members to try something new to them. Links between evidence-based principles and day-to-day activities were strengthened. The new-to-you design placed the challenge within reach of faculty members regardless of their background, subject, or experience.
doi:10.5688/ajpe785103
PMCID: PMC4064480  PMID: 24954943
faculty development; teaching innovation; reflective teaching challenge; faculty survey
2.  Providers' Perceptions of Student Pharmacists on Inpatient General Medicine Practice Experiences 
Objective. To assess health care providers’ perceptions of student pharmacists involved as members of a general medicine team.
Methods. A brief, anonymous, online survey instrument was distributed to 134 health care providers at 4 major medical centers in Massachusetts who interacted with Northeastern University student pharmacists during inpatient general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experiences beginning in March 2011. The survey instrument assessed health care provider perception of student pharmacists’ involvement, preparedness, clinical skills, and therapeutic recommendations.
Results. Of the 79 providers who responded, 96.2% reported that student pharmacists were prepared for medical rounds and 87.3% reported that student pharmacists were active participants in patient care. Also, 94.9% and 98.7% of providers indicated that student pharmacist recommendations were appropriate and accurate, respectively. The majority (61.8%) of providers believed that student pharmacist involvement on internal medicine teams was beneficial.
Conclusions. Provider perceptions regarding student pharmacist participation on general medicine practice experiences were mostly positive.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77226
PMCID: PMC3602850  PMID: 23519602
experiential education; perception; pharmacy; student pharmacist
4.  Follow-up Assessment of a Faculty Peer Observation and Evaluation Program 
Objective. To assess a previously described peer observation and evaluation program 2 years after implementation.
Methods. An pre-implementation survey assessed faculty needs and attitudes related to peer evaluation. Two years after implementation, the survey was repeated and additional questions asked regarding adherence to peer observation and evaluation policies and procedures, feedback received, and impact on teaching.
Results. Faculty attitudes towards peer evaluation stayed the same or improved post-implementation. Adherence to the initial 3 steps of the process was high (100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively); however, step 4, which required a final discussion after student assessments were finished, was completed by only 47% of the respondents. All faculty members reported receiving a balance of positive and constructive feedback; 78% agreed that peer observation and evaluation gave them concrete suggestions for improving their teaching; and 89% felt that the benefits of peer observation and evaluation outweighed the effort of participating.
Conclusions. Faculty members adhered to the policies and procedures of peer observation and evaluation and found peer feedback was beneficial.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76461
PMCID: PMC3355281  PMID: 22611270
peer assessment; peer evaluation; assessment
5.  The Role of Curriculum Committees in Pharmacy Education 
Objective. To conduct a follow-up survey of curriculum committee chairs in US colleges and schools of pharmacy to describe current committee structures and functions and determine whether changes have occurred over time.
Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a 30-item survey instrument regarding the structure, function, and charges of curriculum committees was sent to 100 curriculum committee chairs. Several new variables were added to the questionnaire to explore the use of systematic reviews, oversight of experiential education, and the impact of accreditation standards on work focus.
Results. Eighty-five chairs responded. Curriculum committees are on average 1 person larger, less likely to have a student vote, more likely to have formal charges, and more likely to be involved in implementing an outcomes-based curriculum compared with 1994. Committees have shifted their work focus from review of curricular content to curricular revision.
Conclusions. Curriculum committees continue to evolve as they respond to changes in pharmacy education and accreditation standards.
doi:10.5688/ajpe758154
PMCID: PMC3220335  PMID: 22102744
curriculum committee; curriculum; pharmacy education; survey
6.  School-wide Clinical Intervention System to Document Pharmacy Students' Impact on Patient Care 
Objectives
To implement and evaluate a school wide, Web-based clinical intervention system to document types and impact of pharmacy students' clinical activities during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Methods
A clinical intervention form was developed by pharmacy practice faculty consensus and uploaded to a secure Web site. Prior to APPEs, all pharmacy students were trained on the purpose and use of the system as well as strategies to document interventions appropriately.
Results
Over the 3-year period of data collection, 15,393 interventions were documented. Most common intervention types included dosage adjustments, education of patients and providers, and optimization of therapeutic regimens. The majority of the interventions were accepted by the medical team and resulted in positive clinical and economic outcomes.
Conclusions
Our school-wide system allowed students and faculty members to document clinical activities. Reporting can serve a number of purposes, including incorporation into student portfolios and faculty merit and promotion dossiers, and demonstration of the positive impact on patient care.
PMCID: PMC2829142  PMID: 20221365
clinical interventions; documentation; patient care; advanced pharmacy practice experience
7.  Development of a Peer Teaching-Assessment Program and a Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool 
Objectives
To develop a formalized, comprehensive, peer-driven teaching assessment program and a valid and reliable assessment tool.
Methods
A volunteer taskforce was formed and a peer-assessment program was developed using a multistep, sequential approach and the Peer Observation and Evaluation Tool (POET). A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and practicality of the process and to establish interrater reliability of the tool. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated.
Results
ICCs for 8 separate lectures evaluated by 2-3 observers ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, indicating good interrater reliability of the tool.
Conclusion
Our peer assessment program for large classroom teaching, which includes a valid and reliable evaluation tool, is comprehensive, feasible, and can be adopted by other schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2661155  PMID: 19325963
peer assessment; large classroom teaching; peer observation and evaluation tool
8.  Development of Progressive Oral Presentations in a Therapeutics Course Series 
Objectives
To develop and implement a series of progressive evidence-based, oral presentation activities within the therapeutics series to strengthen interprofessional oral communication and literature evaluation skills.
Design
A step-wise progression of oral presentations was created to establish interprofessional communication skills and reinforce such skills in successive modules. Students progressed from a basic oral presentation to a brief clinical trial presentation, followed by a full journal club, culminating with a therapeutic debate. Guidelines and assessment tools were developed for each presentation focusing on style, content and organization, and analytic approach. Feedback was obtained from students and faculty members through the administration of survey instruments at the midpoint of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE).
Assessment
The majority of students successfully completed each oral presentation. Most felt prepared for APPE presentations due to increased Microsoft PowerPoint skills, literature exposure/evaluation, and comfort/confidence in presenting before an audience. Faculty members stated that the innovation organized students’ thoughts and increased presentation clarity, resulting in less need to offer student assistance during APPEs.
Conclusion
Our progressive approach to oral presentations has been successful and well received by students and faculty members. Our innovation has fostered oral interprofessional communication skills in our pharmacy students, and we will continue to utilize this approach.
PMCID: PMC1636917  PMID: 17139337
communication; presentation skills; interprofessional education; assessment; therapeutics

Results 1-8 (8)