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1.  The Japanese guidelines for the management of sepsis 
This is a guideline for the management of sepsis, developed by the Sepsis Registry Committee of The Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (JSICM) launched in March 2007. This guideline was developed on the basis of evidence-based medicine and focuses on unique treatments in Japan that have not been included in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines (SSCG), as well as treatments that are viewed differently in Japan and in Western countries. Although the methods in this guideline conform to the 2008 SSCG, the Japanese literature and the results of the Sepsis Registry Survey, which was performed twice by the Sepsis Registry Committee in intensive care units (ICUs) registered with JSICM, are also referred. This is the first and original guideline for sepsis in Japan and is expected to be properly used in daily clinical practice.
This article is translated from Japanese, originally published as “The Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis” in the Journal of the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (J Jpn Soc Intensive Care Med), 2013; 20:124–73. The original work is at
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40560-014-0055-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4336273
2.  A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of the effects of antithrombin on disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with sepsis 
Critical Care  2013;17(6):R297.
To test the hypothesis that the administration of antithrombin concentrate improves disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), resulting in recovery from DIC and better outcomes in patients with sepsis, we conducted a prospective, randomized controlled multicenter trial at 13 critical care centers in tertiary care hospitals.
We enrolled 60 DIC patients with sepsis and antithrombin levels of 50 to 80% in this study. The participating patients were randomly assigned to an antithrombin arm receiving antithrombin at a dose of 30 IU/kg per day for three days or a control arm treated with no intervention. The primary efficacy end point was recovery from DIC on day 3. The analysis was conducted with an intention-to-treat approach. DIC was diagnosed according to the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) scoring system. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score, platelet count and global markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured on day 0 and day 3.
Antithrombin treatment resulted in significantly decreased DIC scores and better recovery rates from DIC compared with those observed in the control group on day 3. The incidence of minor bleeding complications did not increase, and no major bleeding related to antithrombin treatment was observed. The platelet count significantly increased; however, antithrombin did not influence the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score or markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis on day 3.
Moderate doses of antithrombin improve DIC scores, thereby increasing the recovery rate from DIC without any risk of bleeding in DIC patients with sepsis.
Trial registration
UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000882
PMCID: PMC4057033  PMID: 24342495
3.  A Case of Secondary Aortoesophageal Fistula Inserted a Covered Self-Expanding Esophageal Stent to Control Gastrointestinal Bleeding 
A 73-year-old man presented with melena. After a thorough workup including esophageal endoscopy, computed tomography scans, and esophagography, the diagnosis of secondary aortoesophageal fistula was made. Two years previously, he had undergone endovascular stent-graft repair for the dissection of his descending thoracic aorta. Because of the generally poor condition of the patient and the high risk of any aggressive surgical intervention, we inserted a covered self-expanding esophageal stent on postadmission day 18. Esophagography after insertion did not show any evidence of a leak of contrast medium. Despite treatment with antibiotics, he developed sepsis and expired on day 52, but rebleeding did not occur in this period. We consider insertion of a covered self-expanding esophageal stent as a feasible option in the management of secondary aortoesophageal fistula in high-risk patients.
PMCID: PMC3679725  PMID: 23781353
4.  Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis following paraspinal muscle abscess and septic lumbar spondylodiscitis with epidural abscess in a patient with diabetes: a case report 
Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is extremely rare, and usually appears to result from hematogenous spread. Predisposing factors include immunocompromising diseases such as diabetes.
Case presentation
A 61-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to our emergency department with low back pain, high fever, and a painful mass over his left SCJ. He had received two epidural blocks over the past 2 weeks for severe back and leg pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation. He did not complain of weakness or sensory changes of his lower limbs, and his bladder and bowel function were normal. He had no history of shoulder injection, subclavian vein catheterization, intravenous drug abuse, or focal infection including tooth decay. CT showed an abscess of the left SCJ, with extension into the mediastinum and sternocleidomastoid muscle, and left paraspinal muscle swelling at the level of L2. MRI showed spondylodiscitis of L3-L4 with a contiguous extradural abscess. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from cultures of aspirated pus from his SCJ, and from his urine and blood. The SCJ abscess was incised and drained, and appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered. Two weeks after admission, the purulent discharge from the left SCJ had completely stopped, and the wound showed improvement. He was transferred to another ward for treatment of the ongoing back pain.
Diabetic patients with S. aureus bacteremia may be at risk of severe musculoskeletal infections via hematogenous spread.
PMCID: PMC3447652  PMID: 22702399
Sternoclavicular joint; Septic arthritis; Spondylitis; Epidural abscess; Epidural anesthesia; Staphylococcus aureus
5.  Green Urine Discoloration due to Propofol Infusion: A Case Report 
We present a 19-year-old man who excreted green urine after propofol infusion. The patient was admitted to our hospital for injuries sustained in a traffic accident and underwent surgery. After starting continuous infusion of propofol for postoperative sedation, his urine became dark green. Serum total bilirubin and urine bilirubin were both elevated. We believe that the green discoloration of the urine was caused by propofol infusion and was related to impaired enterohepatic circulation and extrahepatic glucuronidation in the kidneys.
PMCID: PMC3542914  PMID: 23326690
6.  Multiple Scedosporium apiospermum abscesses in a woman survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan: a case report 
Scedosporium apiospermum is increasingly recognized as a cause of localized and disseminated mycotic infections in near-drowning victims.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman who was a survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan and who had lung and brain abscesses caused by S. apiospermum. Initially, an aspergillus infection was suspected, so she was treated with micafungin. However, computed tomography scans of her chest revealed lung abscesses, and magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple abscesses in her brain. S. apiospermum was cultured from her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and antimycotic therapy with voriconazole was initiated. Since she developed an increase in the frequency of premature ventricular contractions, an adverse drug reaction to the voriconazole was suspected. She was started on a treatment of a combination of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. After combination therapy, further computed tomography scans of the chest and magnetic resonance images of her brain showed a demarcation of abscesses.
Voriconazole appeared to have a successful record in treating scedosporiosis after a near drowning but, owing to several adverse effects, may possibly not be recommended. Thus, a combination treatment of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B may be a safe and effective treatment for an S. apiospermum infection. Even though a diagnosis of scedosporiosis may be difficult, a fast and correct etiological diagnosis could improve the patient's chance of recovery in any case.
PMCID: PMC3223506  PMID: 22027347
7.  Multiple Transverse Colonic Perforations Associated with Slow-Release Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Corticosteroids: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Critical Care  2011;2011:824639.
The patient was a 36-year-old woman with sarcoidosis and Sjogren's syndrome, and had been prescribed slow-release diclofenac sodium and prednisolone for the treatment of pain associated with uveitis and erythema nodosum. She was admitted to our emergency center with abdominal pain and distention. A chest X-ray showed free air under the diaphragm on both sides, and an emergency laparotomy was performed for suspected panperitonitis associated with intestinal perforation. Laparotomy revealed several perforations on the antimesenteric aspect of the transverse colon. The resected specimen showed 11 punched-out ulcerations, many of which were up to 10 mm in diameter. The microscopic findings were non-specific, with leukocytic infiltration around the perforations. She showed good postoperative recovery, as evaluated on day 42. The present case highlights the need for exercising caution while prescribing slow-release nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with corticosteroids to patients with autoimmune diseases, as such treatment may exacerbate intestinal epithelial abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC4010013  PMID: 24826325
8.  Study of the outcome of suicide attempts: characteristics of hospitalization in a psychiatric ward group, critical care center group, and non-hospitalized group 
BMC Psychiatry  2010;10:4.
The allocation of outcome of suicide attempters is extremely important in emergency situations. Following categorization of suicidal attempters who visited the emergency room by outcome, we aimed to identify the characteristics and potential needs of each group.
The outcomes of 1348 individuals who attempted suicide and visited the critical care center or the psychiatry emergency department of the hospital were categorized into 3 groups, "hospitalization in the critical care center (HICCC)", "hospitalization in the psychiatry ward (HIPW)", or "non-hospitalization (NH)", and the physical, mental, and social characteristics of these groups were compared. In addition, multiple logistic analysis was used to extract factors related to outcome.
The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. The hospitalized groups, particularly the HICCC group, were found to have biopsychosocially serious findings with regard to disturbance of consciousness (JCS), general health performance (GAS), psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), and life events (LCU), while most subjects in the NH group were women who tended to repeat suicide-related behaviors induced by relatively light stress. The HIPW group had the highest number of cases, and their symptoms were psychologically serious but physically mild. On multiple logistic analysis, outcome was found to be closely correlated with physical severity, risk factor of suicide, assessment of emergent medical intervention, and overall care.
There are different potential needs for each group. The HICCC group needs psychiatrists on a full-time basis and also social workers and clinical psychotherapists to immediately initiate comprehensive care by a medical team composed of multiple professionals. The HIPW group needs psychological education to prevent repetition of suicide attempts, and high-quality physical treatment and management skill of the staff in the psychiatric ward. The NH group subjects need a support system to convince them of the risks of attempting suicide and to take a problem-solving approach to specific issues.
PMCID: PMC2821663  PMID: 20064269

Results 1-8 (8)