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1.  Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 
School psychology review  2012;41(4):447-466.
Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multi-modal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not beeti an explicit focus on the connection between fatnily and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school ititervention, Family-School Success—Early Elementary (FSS-EE), for kindergarten and first-grade studetits with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Key components of FSS-EE were family-school behavioral consultatioti, daily report cards, and strategies to improve parent-child relationships atid family involvement in educatioti. FSS-EE was developed using a multistep iterative process. The piloted version consisted of 12 weekly sessions including 6 group meetings, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their childreti on medication; 25% of children were on medication at the time of random assignmetit. Childreti (n = 61) were randomly assigned to FSS-EE or a comparison group controlling for nonspecific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post interventioti and 2-month follow-up. Study findings indicated that FSS-EE was feasible to implement and acceptable to paretits atid teachers. In addition, the findings provided preliminary evidence that FSS-EE is effective in improving parenting practices, child behavior at school, and the student-teacher relationship.
PMCID: PMC3864191  PMID: 24353368
2.  Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status 
Social science & medicine (1982)  2012;74(9):10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.006.
Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ≤ 50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.006
PMCID: PMC3846180  PMID: 22405687
adolescent behavior/psychology; adolescent health; perceptions of mortality; expectation of early death; socioeconomic status; hopelessness; United States
3.  Association between serum and urine biomarkers and lumbar spine individual radiographic features: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project 
Objective
1) To determine associations between radiographic features of lumbosacral spine disc space narrowing (DSN) and osteophytes (OST) and joint metabolism biomarkers (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), hyaluronic Acid (HA), collagen neoepitope (C2C), C-propeptide of type II procollagen (CP-II), urine C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CTX-II) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX-I)). 2) To explore interactions with race, gender and low back symptoms.
Design
Cross-sectional analysis of 547 participants enrolled in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project from 2003–2004. Mean biomarker levels were estimated with linear regression. Proportional and partial proportional odds models were used to estimate associations. Interactions were tested with likelihood ratio tests at a p-value<0.10. Biomarkers were natural log (ln) transformed.
Results
Significant differences in mean biomarker levels were found across severity of DSN for lnHA and lnC2C and lnCTX-II across severity of both DSN and OST. Moderate to strong associations were found between biomarkers of type II collagen and DSN, whereas associations with OST were weak. An association between lnHA and DSN was seen in women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.34 (95% CI 1.08, 1.65)) but no association among men (aOR=0.90 (95% CI 0.63, 1.26)). In Caucasians there was a decreased association with NTX-I and OST (aOR=0.67 (95% CI 0.49, 0.91)) and no association in African Americans (aOR=1.06 (95% CI 0.76, 1.47)). There was a positive association of lnCOMP with DSN among those with low back symptoms (aOR=1.82 (95% CI 1.02, 3.27)), but no association in those without low back symptoms (aOR=0.65 (95% CI 0.35, 1.20)).
Conclusion
Joint metabolism biomarkers suggest biological differences in the pathologic process involved in DSN and OST that may be gender (HA) and ethnicity (NTX-I) specific.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.08.003
PMCID: PMC3608522  PMID: 22890183
4.  Lumbar spine radiographic features and demographic, clinical, and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project 
Arthritis care & research  2012;64(10):1536-1544.
Objective
1) To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine individual radiographic features (IRF) of disc space narrowing (DSN), osteophytes (OST) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FOA). 2) To describe the frequencies of demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis (OA) across lumbar spine IRF. 3) To determine factors associated with lumbar spine IRF.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of 840 participants enrolled in the Johnston County OA Project (2003-4). Sample-based prevalence estimates were generated for each lumbar spine IRF. Associations between lumbar spine IRF and demographic, clinical and peripheral joint OA were determined with logistic regression models.
Results
Sample-based prevalence estimates were similar for DSN (57.6%) and FOA (57.9%) but higher for OST (88.1%) with significant differences across race and gender. Hand and knee OA frequencies increased across IRF whereas the effect was absent for hip OA. African Americans had lower odds of FOA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.45 (95% CI 0.32, 0.62)) while there was no racial association with DSN and OST. Low back symptoms were associated with DSN (aOR=1.37 (95% CI 1.04, 1.80)) but not OST or FOA. Knee OA was associated with OST (aOR=1.62 (95% CI 1.16, 2.27)) and FOA (aOR=1.69 (95% CI 1.15, 2.49)) but not DSN. Hand OA was associated with FOA (aOR=1.67 (95% CI 1.20, 2.28)) but not with DSN or OST. No associations were found with hip OA.
Conclusion
These findings underscore the importance of analyzing lumbar spine IRF separately as the associations with demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand OA differ widely.
doi:10.1002/acr.21720
PMCID: PMC3427717  PMID: 22556059
lumbar spine; knee osteoarthritis; hip osteoarthritis; hand osteoarthritis
5.  Integrating Oral and General Health Screening at Senior Centers for Minority Elders 
American journal of public health  2013;103(6):1022-1025.
Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities regarding untreated oral disease exist for older adults, and poor oral health diminishes quality of life. The ElderSmile program integrated screening for diabetes and hypertension into its community-based oral health activities at senior centers in northern Manhattan. Findings were that minority seniors were willing to be screened for primary care sensitive conditions by dental professionals, and a high level of unrecognized disease was found (7.8% and 24.6% of ElderSmile participants had positive screening results for previously undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension, respectively). Dental professionals may screen for primary care sensitive conditions and refer patients to health care providers for definitive diagnosis and treatment. The ElderSmile program is a replicable model for community-based oral and general health screening.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301259
PMCID: PMC3670655  PMID: 23597378
6.  Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial 
Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school.
Objective
This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, referred to as Family-School Success (FSS), designed to improve the family and educational functioning of students in grades 2 through 6 who meet criteria for ADHD combined and inattentive types. Key components of FSS were conjoint behavioral consultation, daily report cards, and behavioral homework interventions.
Methods
FSS was provided over the course of 12 weekly sessions, which included 6 group sessions, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their children on medication; 43% of children were on medication at the time of random assignment. Children (n=199) were randomly assigned to FSS or a comparison group controlling for non-specific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post intervention and 3-month follow-up. The analyses controlled for child medication status.
Results
Study findings indicated that FSS had a significant effect on the quality of the family-school relationship, homework performance, and parenting behavior.
Conclusions
The superiority of FSS was demonstrated even though about 40% of the participants in FSS and CARE were on an optimal dose of medication and there were significant Time effects on each measure. This relatively brief intervention was able to produce effect sizes that were comparable to those of the more intensive MTA behavioral intervention.
doi:10.1037/a0028188
PMCID: PMC3404236  PMID: 22506793
ADHD; intervention; behavioral; family; school
7.  Exploring the role of peer density in the self-reported oral health outcomes of older adults: A kernel density based approach 
Health & place  2012;18(4):782-788.
Previous research has documented that oral health is inextricably linked with overall health and is an important component of successful aging. Additionally, peer social interactions are known to improve older adults' general well-being by increasing social opportunities and knowledge of local resources. This study examines the relationship between peer density of participants aged 50 and older in the ElderSmile program and self-reported oral health in northern Manhattan. Results from logistic regression models found that higher peer kernel density estimation values are associated with better self-reported oral health. This reinforces the need for place-based health interventions, and provides new evidence of the importance of peer communities for older adults.
doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.004
PMCID: PMC3372621  PMID: 22542440
8.  Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan 
Gerodontology  2011;29(2):e464-e473.
Objective
To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan.
Background
The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City.
Materials and Methods
Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%).
Results
The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism.
Conclusion
Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults.
doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00502.x
PMCID: PMC3189437  PMID: 21718349
elderly; oral health; dental caries; tooth loss; ageing; geriatric dentistry
9.  What contributes to self-rated oral health among community-dwelling older adults? Findings from the ElderSmile program 
Objectives
As part of ongoing efforts by the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine to devise community-based models of health promotion and care for local residents, we sought to answer the following query: “What contributes to self-rated oral health among community-dwelling older adults?”
Methods
The present study is cross sectional in design and centrally concerned with baseline data collected during community-based screenings of adults aged 50 years and older who agreed to participate in the ElderSmile program in northern Manhattan, New York City. The primary outcome measure of interest is self-rated oral health, which was assessed as follows: “Overall, how would you rate the health of your teeth and gums – excellent, good, fair, or poor?”
Results
More than a quarter (28.5 percent) of ElderSmile participants aged 50 years and older reported that their oral health was poor. After adjustment for age (in years), place of birth, educational level, and dental insurance status in a logistic regression model, recent visits to the dentist (within the past year versus more than a year ago) contributed to better self-rated oral health and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, dentate (versus edentulous) status, tooth decay as measured by decayed missing filled teeth, and severe periodontal inflammation contributed to worse self-rated oral health in this population.
Conclusions
Recent dental care contributed to better self-rated oral health among community-dwelling older adults living in northern Manhattan. Significant gradients were evident in the caries experience and periodontal inflammation of dentate adults by self-rated oral health, suggesting that untreated oral disease contributes to poor self-rated oral health.
doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00313.x
PMCID: PMC3614486  PMID: 22316102
self-rated oral health; older adults; community-based oral health care; edentulism; untreated dental caries; periodontal inflammation; oral pain; access to oral health care; oral health-related quality of life; oral health disparities
10.  Phylogeny of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) Based on Combined Morphological and Molecular Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e51190.
The Archiborborinae is a diverse Neotropical subfamily of Sphaeroceridae, with many undescribed species. The existing generic classification includes three genera consisting of brachypterous species, with all other species placed in the genus Archiborborus. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on morphological, molecular, and combined datasets. Morphological data include 53 characters and cover all valid described taxa (33 species in 4 genera) in the subfamily, as well as 83 undescribed species. Molecular data for five genes (mitochondrial 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, and cytochrome B, and nuclear alanyl-tRNA synthetase and 28S rDNA) were obtained for 21 ingroup taxa. Data support the separation of the Archiborborinae from the Copromyzinae, with which they were formerly combined. Analyses support consistent groups within the subfamily, but relationships between groups are poorly resolved. The validity of the brachypterous genera Penola Richards and Frutillaria Richards is supported. The former genus Archiborborus Duda is paraphyletic, and will be divided into monophyletic genera on the basis of this work. Aptery and brachyptery have evolved multiple times in the subfamily. Antrops Enderlein, previously including a single brachypterous species, is a senior synonym of Archiborborus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051190
PMCID: PMC3548823  PMID: 23349671
11.  Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2012;23(1):95-106.
Background
Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear.
Methods
In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods.
Results
We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure.
Conclusions
We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31823b504c
PMCID: PMC3240855  PMID: 22157306
12.  Hip Kinematics During a Stop-Jump Task in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability 
Journal of Athletic Training  2011;46(5):461-467.
Context:
Chronic ankle instability (CAI) commonly develops after lateral ankle sprain. Movement pattern differences at proximal joints may play a role in instability.
Objective:
To determine whether people with mechanical ankle instability (MAI) or functional ankle instability (FAI) exhibited different hip kinematics and kinetics during a stop-jump task compared with “copers.”
Design:
Cross-sectional study.
Setting:
Sports medicine research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
Sixty-three recreational athletes, 21 (11 men, 10 women) per group, matched for sex, age, height, mass, and limb dominance. All participants reported a history of a moderate to severe ankle sprain. The participants with MAI and FAI reported 2 or more episodes of giving way at the ankle in the last year and decreased functional ability; copers did not. The MAI group demonstrated clinically positive anterior drawer and talar tilt tests, whereas the FAI group and copers did not.
Intervention(s):
Participants performed a maximum-speed approach run and a 2-legged stop jump followed by a maximum vertical jump.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
An electromagnetic tracking device synchronized with a force plate collected data during the stance phase of a 2-legged stop jump. Hip motion was measured from initial contact to takeoff into the vertical jump. Group differences in hip kinematics and kinetics were assessed.
Results:
The MAI group demonstrated greater hip flexion at initial contact and at maximum (P = .029 and P = .017, respectively) and greater hip external rotation at maximum (P = .035) than the coper group. The MAI group also demonstrated greater hip flexion displacement than both the FAI (P = .050) and coper groups (P = .006). No differences were noted between the FAI and coper groups in hip kinematic variables or among any of the groups in ground reaction force variables.
Conclusions:
The MAI group demonstrated different hip kinematics than the FAI and coper groups. Proximal joint motion may be affected by ankle joint function and laxity, and clinicians may need to assess proximal joints after repeated ankle sprains.
PMCID: PMC3418949  PMID: 22488131
motion analysis; landings; ankle sprains
14.  Validity of Soccer Injury Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System 
Journal of Athletic Training  2011;46(5):489-499.
Context:
Few validation studies of sport injury-surveillance systems are available.
Objective:
To determine the validity of a Web-based system for surveillance of collegiate sport injuries, the Injury Surveillance System (ISS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA).
Design:
Validation study comparing NCAA ISS data from 2 fall collegiate sports (men's and women's soccer) with other types of clinical records maintained by certified athletic trainers.
Setting:
A purposive sample of 15 NCAA colleges and universities that provided NCAA ISS data on both men's and women's soccer for at least 2 years during 2005–2007, stratified by playing division.
Patients or Other Participants:
A total of 737 men's and women's soccer athletes and 37 athletic trainers at these 15 institutions.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
The proportion of injuries captured by the NCAA ISS (capture rate) was estimated by comparing NCAA ISS data with the other clinical records on the same athletes maintained by the athletic trainers. We reviewed all athletic injury events resulting from participation in NCAA collegiate sports that resulted in 1 day or more of restricted activity in games or practices and necessitated medical care. A capture-recapture analysis estimated the proportion of injury events captured by the NCAA ISS. Agreement for key data fields was also measured.
Results:
We analyzed 664 injury events. The NCAA ISS captured 88.3% (95% confidence interval = 85.9%, 90.8%) of all time-lost medical-attention injury events. The proportion of injury events captured by the NCAA ISS was higher in Division I (93.8%) and Division II (89.6%) than in Division III (82.3%) schools. Agreement between the NCAA ISS data and the non–NCAA ISS data was good for the majority of data fields but low for date of full return and days lost from sport participation.
Conclusions:
The overall capture rate of the NCAA ISS was very good (88%) in men's and women's soccer for this period.
PMCID: PMC3418955  PMID: 22488136
capture-recapture analysis; injury epidemiology; time loss; collegiate athletes
15.  Toward interoperable bioscience data 
Nature genetics  2012;44(2):121-126.
To make full use of research data, the bioscience community needs to adopt technologies and reward mechanisms that support interoperability and promote the growth of an open ‘data commoning’ culture. Here we describe the prerequisites for data commoning and present an established and growing ecosystem of solutions using the shared ‘Investigation-Study-Assay’ framework to support that vision.
doi:10.1038/ng.1054
PMCID: PMC3428019  PMID: 22281772
16.  Biomarkers of incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis: Do they vary by chronic knee symptoms? 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2011;63(8):2276-2283.
Objective
To explore prognostication of incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) with OA-related biomarkers in a large sample of African-American and Caucasian men and women.
Methods
Baseline serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), hyaluronan (HA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and keratan sulfate (KS) and baseline and follow-up radiographs were available for 353 knees without baseline osteophyte formation (OST), and 446 knees without baseline joint space narrowing (JSN). Cox models estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for incident knee OA for a 1-unit increase in the natural log (ln) of each biomarker, adjusting for age, race, gender, body mass index, and knee OA of the contralateral limb. Report of chronic knee symptoms was explored as a modifier of the association.
Results
The hazard of incident knee OST (HR= 2.16, 95% CI =1.39-3.37) and incident JSN (HR=1.82, 95% CI = 1.15-2.89) increased with higher baseline lnCOMP levels. The hazard of incident knee JSN increased with higher lnHA levels (HR=1.46, 95% CI= 1.14-1.87). Baseline lnhsCRP and lnKS did not predict incident knee outcomes. HRs per unit increase in lnCOMP, lnHA, and lnKS were higher among knees with chronic symptoms than those without symptoms.
Conclusion
Higher baseline lnCOMP and lnHA levels were associated with incident knee OA over an average follow-up period of 6.3 years. These results represent detection of a molecular stage of OA prior to radiographic manifestations. Chronic knee symptoms as a modifier of the biomarker-incident knee OA association requires further exploration.
doi:10.1002/art.30412
PMCID: PMC3149729  PMID: 21506100
17.  Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41905.
Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041905
PMCID: PMC3411584  PMID: 22870260
18.  New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species 
ZooKeys  2012;119-206.
The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.186.2947
PMCID: PMC3349194  PMID: 22577320
Canada; Ontario; biodiversity; taxonomy; distributional records; Aleocharinae
19.  Physical activity and injuries during pregnancy 
Background
Although physical activity can provide health benefits to pregnant women, population-based research on the circumstances surrounding injuries from physical activity during pregnancy is lacking.
Methods
Physical activity and subsequent injuries among a cohort of 1,469 pregnant women in North Carolina were examined prospectively from the third phase of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study between 2001 and 2005. Chi-square analyses were used to compare distributions of maternal characteristics among women who sustained injuries from physical activity and women who reported no injuries during pregnancy. Injury incidence rates were calculated.
Results
Few pregnant women (N=34) reported a physical activity-related injury during pregnancy. The rates of physical activity-related and exercise-related injuries during pregnancy were 3.2 per 1,000 physical activity hours and 4.1 per 1,000 exercise hours, respectively. The most common types of injuries were bruises or scrapes (55%). Among all injuries, 33% resulted from exercise and 67% resulted from non-exercise physical activities. Sixty-four percent of all injuries were due to falls.
Conclusions
The incidence of injury from physical activity was low during pregnancy. Women should continue to be encouraged to maintain involvement in physical activity during pregnancy, while being aware of the potential for injury, particularly falls, from these activities.
PMCID: PMC3319730  PMID: 21088307
exercise; leisure activities; women; cohort
20.  Commentary: The Injury Proportion Ratio: What's It All About? 
Journal of Athletic Training  2010;45(5):475-477.
doi:10.4085/1062-6050-45.5.475
PMCID: PMC2938318  PMID: 20831392
22.  Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households 
Background
More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households.
Methods
A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population.
Results
Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device.
Conclusions
Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.09.014
PMCID: PMC3066116  PMID: 15626564
23.  Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada 
ZooKeys  2011;29-68.
Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered ‘relatively well-known’.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.75.767
PMCID: PMC3088045  PMID: 21594139
rove beetles; exotic species; Sepedophilus; Erichsonius; Gabrius; Philonthus; Quedius
24.  A prospective investigation of biomechanical risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome. The joint undertaking to monitor and prevent ACL injury (JUMP-ACL) cohort 
Background
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common chronic knee injuries; however, little research has been done to determine the risk factors for this injury.
Hypothesis
Altered lower extremity kinematics and kinetics, decreased strength, and altered postural measurements will be risk factors.
Study Design
Prospective cohort.
Methods
1597 participants were enrolled in this investigation and prospectively followed from the date of their enrollment (July 2005, July 2006, or July 2007) through January 2008. Each participant underwent baseline data collection during their pre-freshman summer at the United States Naval Academy. Baseline data collection included three-dimensional motion analysis during a jump-landing task, six lower extremity isometric strength tests, and postural alignment measurements (navicular drop and Q-angle). Participants were prospectively followed from their date of enrollment to January 2008 (maximum of 2.5 years of follow up).
Results
Risk factors for the development of PFPS included decreased knee flexion angle, decreased vertical ground reaction force, and increased hip internal rotation angle during the jump-landing task. Additionally, decreased quadriceps and hamstring strength, increased hip external rotator strength, and increased navicular drop were risk factors for the development of PFPS.
Conclusions
Multiple modifiable risk factors for PFPS pain have been identified in this investigation. In order to decrease the incidence of this chronic injury, the risk factors for PFPS need to be targeted in injury prevention programs.
Clinical Relevance
Prevention programs should focus on increasing strength of the lower extremity musculature along with instructing proper mechanics during dynamic movements in order to decrease the incidence of PFPS.
doi:10.1177/0363546509337934
PMCID: PMC2860575  PMID: 19797162
incidence; anterior knee pain; risk factors
25.  Ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in North Carolina crab pot and gill net commercial fishermen 
Background
The objective of this research was to determine the association between LBP that limited or interrupted fishing work and ergonomic low back stress measured by 1) self-reported task, and 2) two ergonomic assessment methods of low back stress.
Methods
Eligible participants were from a cohort of North Carolina commercial fishermen followed for LBP in regular clinic visits from 1999 to 2001 (n=177). Work history, including crab pot and gill net fishing task frequency, was evaluated in a telephone questionnaire (n=105). Ergonomic exposures were measured in previous study of 25 fishermen using two methods. The occurrence rate of LBP that limited or interrupted fishing work since last visit (severe LBP) was evaluated in a generalized Poisson regression model.
Results
Predictors of severe LBP included fishing with crew members and a previous history of severe LBP. Among crab pot and gill net fishermen (n=89), running pullers or net reels, sorting catch, and unloading catch were associated with an increased rate of LBP. Percent of time in forces >20 lbs while in non-neutral trunk posture, spine compression >3400 Newtons, and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lifting indices >3.0 were associated with LBP.
Conclusions
Tasks characterized by higher (unloading boat and sorting catch) and lower (running puller or net reel) ergonomic low back stress were associated with the occurrence of severe LBP. History of LBP, addition of crew members, and self-selection out of tasks were likely important contributors to the patterns of low back stress and outcomes we observed. Based on the results of this study, a participatory ergonomic intervention study is currently being conducted to develop tools and equipment to decrease low back stress in commercial crab pot fishing.
doi:10.1002/ajim.20676
PMCID: PMC2756989  PMID: 19148898

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