A vast amount of DNA variation is being identified by increasingly large-scale exome and genome sequencing projects. To be useful, variants require accurate functional annotation and a wide range of tools are available to this end. McCarthy et al recently demonstrated the large differences in prediction of loss-of-function (LoF) variation when RefSeq and Ensembl transcripts are used for annotation, highlighting the importance of the reference transcripts on which variant functional annotation is based.
We describe a detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between the gene and transcript annotation in the GENCODE and RefSeq genesets. We demonstrate that the GENCODE Comprehensive set is richer in alternative splicing, novel CDSs, novel exons and has higher genomic coverage than RefSeq, while the GENCODE Basic set is very similar to RefSeq. Using RNAseq data we show that exons and introns unique to one geneset are expressed at a similar level to those common to both. We present evidence that the differences in gene annotation lead to large differences in variant annotation where GENCODE and RefSeq are used as reference transcripts, although this is predominantly confined to non-coding transcripts and UTR sequence, with at most ~30% of LoF variants annotated discordantly. We also describe an investigation of dominant transcript expression, showing that it both supports the utility of the GENCODE Basic set in providing a smaller set of more highly expressed transcripts and provides a useful, biologically-relevant filter for further reducing the complexity of the transcriptome.
The reference transcripts selected for variant functional annotation do have a large effect on the outcome. The GENCODE Comprehensive transcripts contain more exons, have greater genomic coverage and capture many more variants than RefSeq in both genome and exome datasets, while the GENCODE Basic set shows a higher degree of concordance with RefSeq and has fewer unique features. We propose that the GENCODE Comprehensive set has great utility for the discovery of new variants with functional potential, while the GENCODE Basic set is more suitable for applications demanding less complex interpretation of functional variants.
The cooperation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels of control to shape gene regulation is only partially understood. Here we show that a combination of two simple and non-invasive genomic techniques, coupled with kinetic mathematical modeling, affords insight into the intricate dynamics of RNA regulation in response to oxidative stress in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This study reveals a dominant role of transcriptional regulation in response to stress, but also points to the first minutes after stress induction as a critical time when the coordinated control of mRNA turnover can support the control of transcription for rapid gene regulation. In addition, we uncover specialized gene expression strategies associated with distinct functional gene groups, such as simultaneous transcriptional repression and mRNA destabilization for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, delayed mRNA destabilization with varying contribution of transcription for ribosome biogenesis genes, dominant roles of mRNA stabilization for genes functioning in protein degradation, and adjustment of both transcription and mRNA turnover during the adaptation to stress. We also show that genes regulated independently of the bZIP transcription factor Atf1p are predominantly controlled by mRNA turnover, and identify putative cis-regulatory sequences that are associated with different gene expression strategies during the stress response. This study highlights the intricate and multi-faceted interplay between transcription and RNA turnover during the dynamic regulatory response to stress.
fission yeast; mathematical modeling; mRNA turnover; oxidative stress; RNA Polymerase II; post-transcriptional control; gene regulation; Atf1; ribosome biogenesis
One purpose of the biomedical literature is to report results in sufficient detail so that the methods of data collection and analysis can be independently replicated and verified. Here we present for consideration a minimum information specification for gene expression localization experiments, called the “Minimum Information Specification For In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry Experiments (MISFISHIE)”. It is modelled after the MIAME (Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment) specification for microarray experiments. Data specifications like MIAME and MISFISHIE specify the information content without dictating a format for encoding that information. The MISFISHIE specification describes six types of information that should be provided for each experiment: Experimental Design, Biomaterials and Treatments, Reporters, Staining, Imaging Data, and Image Characterizations. This specification has benefited the consortium within which it was initially developed and is expected to benefit the wider research community. We welcome feedback from the scientific community to help improve our proposal.
The ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) is an international functional genomics database at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) recommended by most journals as a repository for data supporting peer-reviewed publications. It contains data from over 7000 public sequencing and 42 000 array-based studies comprising over 1.5 million assays in total. The proportion of sequencing-based submissions has grown significantly over the last few years and has doubled in the last 18 months, whilst the rate of microarray submissions is growing slightly. All data in ArrayExpress are available in the MAGE-TAB format, which allows robust linking to data analysis and visualization tools and standardized analysis. The main development over the last two years has been the release of a new data submission tool Annotare, which has reduced the average submission time almost 3-fold. In the near future, Annotare will become the only submission route into ArrayExpress, alongside MAGE-TAB format-based pipelines. ArrayExpress is a stable and highly accessed resource. Our future tasks include automation of data flows and further integration with other EMBL-EBI resources for the representation of multi-omics data.
Accurately quantifying gene expression levels is a key goal of experiments using RNA-sequencing to assay the transcriptome. This typically requires aligning the short reads generated to the genome or transcriptome before quantifying expression of pre-defined sets of genes. Differences in the alignment/quantification tools can have a major effect upon the expression levels found with important consequences for biological interpretation. Here we address two main issues: do different analysis pipelines affect the gene expression levels inferred from RNA-seq data? And, how close are the expression levels inferred to the “true” expression levels? We evaluate fifty gene profiling pipelines in experimental and simulated data sets with different characteristics (e.g, read length and sequencing depth). In the absence of knowledge of the ‘ground truth’ in real RNAseq data sets, we used simulated data to assess the differences between the “true” expression and those reconstructed by the analysis pipelines. Even though this approach does not take into account all known biases present in RNAseq data, it still allows to estimate the accuracy of the gene expression values inferred by different analysis pipelines. The results show that i) overall there is a high correlation between the expression levels inferred by the best pipelines and the true quantification values; ii) the error in the estimated gene expression values can vary considerably across genes; and iii) a small set of genes have expression estimates with consistently high error (across data sets and methods). Finally, although the mapping software is important, the quantification method makes a greater difference to the results.
Chimeric RNAs originating from two or more different genes are known to exist not only in cancer, but also in normal tissues, where they can play a role in human evolution. However, the exact mechanism of their formation is unknown. Here, we use RNA sequencing data from 462 healthy individuals representing 5 human populations to systematically identify and in depth characterize 81 RNA tandem chimeric transcripts, 13 of which are novel. We observe that 6 out of these 81 chimeras have been regarded as cancer-specific. Moreover, we show that a prevalence of long introns at the fusion breakpoint is associated with the chimeric transcripts formation. We also find that tandem RNA chimeras have lower abundances as compared to their partner genes. Finally, by combining our results with genomic data from the same individuals we uncover intronic genetic variants associated with the chimeric RNA formation. Taken together our findings provide an important insight into the chimeric transcripts formation and open new avenues of research into the role of intronic genetic variants in post-transcriptional processing events.
Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of mRNA and miRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project – the first uniformly processed RNA-seq data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discovered extremely widespread genetic variation affecting regulation of the majority of genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allowed us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.
Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) is a value-added database providing information about gene, protein and splice variant expression in different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other biological and experimental conditions. The database consists of selected high-quality microarray and RNA-sequencing experiments from ArrayExpress that have been manually curated, annotated with Experimental Factor Ontology terms and processed using standardized microarray and RNA-sequencing analysis methods. The new version of Expression Atlas introduces the concept of ‘baseline’ expression, i.e. gene and splice variant abundance levels in healthy or untreated conditions, such as tissues or cell types. Differential gene expression data benefit from an in-depth curation of experimental intent, resulting in biologically meaningful ‘contrasts’, i.e. instances of differential pairwise comparisons between two sets of biological replicates. Other novel aspects of Expression Atlas are its strict quality control of raw experimental data, up-to-date RNA-sequencing analysis methods, expression data at the level of gene sets, as well as genes and a more powerful search interface designed to maximize the biological value provided to the user.
The BioSamples database at the EBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biosamples) provides an integration point for BioSamples information between technology specific databases at the EBI, projects such as ENCODE and reference collections such as cell lines. The database delivers a unified query interface and API to query sample information across EBI’s databases and provides links back to assay databases. Sample groups are used to manage related samples, e.g. those from an experimental submission, or a single reference collection. Infrastructural improvements include a new user interface with ontological and key word queries, a new query API, a new data submission API, complete RDF data download and a supporting SPARQL endpoint, accessioning at the point of submission to the European Nucleotide Archive and European Genotype Phenotype Archives and improved query response times.
To mechanistically characterize the microevolutionary processes active in altering transcription factor (TF) binding among closely related mammals, we compared the genome-wide binding of three tissue-specific TFs that control liver gene expression in six rodents. Despite an overall fast turnover of TF binding locations between species, we identified thousands of TF regions of highly constrained TF binding intensity. Although individual mutations in bound sequence motifs can influence TF binding, most binding differences occur in the absence of nearby sequence variations. Instead, combinatorial binding was found to be significant for genetic and evolutionary stability; cobound TFs tend to disappear in concert and were sensitive to genetic knockout of partner TFs. The large, qualitative differences in genomic regions bound between closely related mammals, when contrasted with the smaller, quantitative TF binding differences among Drosophila species, illustrate how genome structure and population genetics together shape regulatory evolution.
•Earliest steps of regulatory evolution in mammals captured using five mouse species•Interspecies differences in TF binding are rarely caused by DNA variation in motifs•Cobound TFs change their genomic binding cooperatively in closely related mammals•Genetic knockouts revealed the extent of cooperative stabilization in TF binding clusters
Microevolutionary mechanisms create different transcription factor binding patterns between mammals, shedding light on the regulatory mechanisms partially underlying speciation.
RNA sequencing has opened new avenues for the study of transcriptome composition. Significant evidence has accumulated showing that the human transcriptome contains in excess of a hundred thousand different transcripts. However, it is still not clear to what extent this diversity prevails when considering the relative abundances of different transcripts from the same gene.
Here we show that, in a given condition, most protein coding genes have one major transcript expressed at significantly higher level than others, that in human tissues the major transcripts contribute almost 85 percent to the total mRNA from protein coding loci, and that often the same major transcript is expressed in many tissues. We detect a high degree of overlap between the set of major transcripts and a recently published set of alternatively spliced transcripts that are predicted to be translated utilizing proteomic data. Thus, we hypothesize that although some minor transcripts may play a functional role, the major ones are likely to be the main contributors to the proteome. However, we still detect a non-negligible fraction of protein coding genes for which the major transcript does not code a protein.
Overall, our findings suggest that the transcriptome from protein coding loci is dominated by one transcript per gene and that not all the transcripts that contribute to transcriptome diversity are equally likely to contribute to protein diversity. This observation can help to prioritize candidate targets in proteomics research and to predict the functional impact of the detected changes in variation studies.
splicing; transcriptome; gene expression; RNA-seq
Genes for the production of a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites are frequently colinear. The prevalence of such gene clusters was systematically examined across the genome of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The topological structure of transcriptional networks was also examined to investigate control mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis and other processes.
The genes associated with transcriptional processes were identified, and the genomic location of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) analyzed in conjunction with the locations of genes exhibiting similar expression patterns. Highly conserved TAPs reside in regions of chromosomes with very low or no recombination, contrasting with putative regulator genes. Co-expression group profiles were used to define positionally clustered genes and a number of members of these clusters encode proteins participating in secondary metabolism. Gene expression profiles suggest there is an abundance of condition-specific transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the promoter regions of co-expressed genes showed enrichment for conserved DNA-sequence motifs. Potential global transcription factors recognising these motifs contain distinct sets of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from those present in local regulators.
Proteins associated with basal transcriptional functions are encoded by genes enriched in regions of the genome with low recombination. Systematic searches revealed dispersed and compact clusters of co-expressed genes, often containing a transcription factor, and typically containing genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. Transcriptional networks exhibit a layered structure in which the position in the hierarchy of a regulator is closely linked to the DBD structural class.
Transcriptional networks; DNA-binding domains; mycotoxin biosynthesis; filamentous fungi; gene clusters
Rapid accumulation of large and standardized microarray data collections is opening up novel opportunities for holistic characterization of genome function. The limited scalability of current preprocessing techniques has, however, formed a bottleneck for full utilization of these data resources. Although short oligonucleotide arrays constitute a major source of genome-wide profiling data, scalable probe-level techniques have been available only for few platforms based on pre-calculated probe effects from restricted reference training sets. To overcome these key limitations, we introduce a fully scalable online-learning algorithm for probe-level analysis and pre-processing of large microarray atlases involving tens of thousands of arrays. In contrast to the alternatives, our algorithm scales up linearly with respect to sample size and is applicable to all short oligonucleotide platforms. The model can use the most comprehensive data collections available to date to pinpoint individual probes affected by noise and biases, providing tools to guide array design and quality control. This is the only available algorithm that can learn probe-level parameters based on sequential hyperparameter updates at small consecutive batches of data, thus circumventing the extensive memory requirements of the standard approaches and opening up novel opportunities to take full advantage of contemporary microarray collections.
The ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) is one of three international functional genomics public data repositories, alongside the Gene Expression Omnibus at NCBI and the DDBJ Omics Archive, supporting peer-reviewed publications. It accepts data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies and currently contains data from almost a million assays, from over 30 000 experiments. The proportion of sequencing-based submissions has grown significantly over the last 2 years and has reached, in 2012, 15% of all new data. All data are available from ArrayExpress in MAGE-TAB format, which allows robust linking to data analysis and visualization tools, including Bioconductor and GenomeSpace. Additionally, R objects, for microarray data, and binary alignment format files, for sequencing data, have been generated for a significant proportion of ArrayExpress data.
Autoimmune diseases are common and debilitating, but their severe manifestations could be reduced if biomarkers were available to allow individual tailoring of the potentially toxic immunosuppressive therapy required for their control. Gene expression-based biomarkers facilitating individual tailoring of chemotherapy in cancer, but not autoimmunity, have been identified and translated into clinical practice1,2. We show that transcriptional profiling of purified CD8 T cells, which avoids the confounding influences of unseparated cells3,4, identifies two distinct patient subgroups predicting long-term prognosis in two different autoimmune diseases, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) – associated vasculitis (AAV), a chronic, severe disease characterized by inflammation of medium and small blood vessels5, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and diverse clinical manifestations ranging from glomerulonephritis to neurological dysfunction6. We show that genes defining the poor prognostic group are enriched for genes of the IL7R pathway, TCR signalling and those expressed by memory T cells. Furthermore, the poor prognostic group is associated with an expanded CD8 T cell memory population. These subgroups, which are also found in the normal population and can be identified by measuring expression of only three genes, raise the prospect of individualized therapy and suggest novel potential therapeutic targets in autoimmunity.
Motivation: Meta-analysis of large gene expression datasets obtained from public repositories requires consistently annotated data. Curation of such experiments, however, is an expert activity which involves repetitive manipulation of text. Existing tools for automated curation are few, which bottleneck the analysis pipeline.
Results: We present MageComet, a web application for biologists and annotators that facilitates the re-annotation of gene expression experiments in MAGE-TAB format. It incorporates data mining, automatic annotation, use of ontologies and data validation to improve the consistency and quality of experimental meta-data from the ArrayExpress Repository.
Availability and implementation: Source and tutorials for MageComet are openly available at goo.gl/8LQPR under the GNU GPL v3 licenses. An implementation can be found at goo.gl/IdCuA
email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes is essential for generating the tRNA adapter molecules that link genetic sequence and protein translation. By mapping pol III occupancy genome-wide in the livers of mouse, rat, human, macaque, dog and opossum, we found that pol III binding to individual tRNA genes varies substantially in strength and location. However, taking into account tRNA redundancies by grouping pol III occupancy into 46 anticodon isoacceptor families or 21 amino acid-based isotype classes shows strong conservation. Similarly, pol III occupancy of amino-acid isotypes is almost invariant among transcriptionally and evolutionarily diverse tissues in mouse. Thus, synthesis of functional tRNA isotypes has been highly constrained, though the usage of individual tRNA genes has evolved rapidly.
Motivation: Genome-wide measurement of transcript levels is an ubiquitous tool in biomedical research. As experimental data continues to be deposited in public databases, it is becoming important to develop search engines that enable the retrieval of relevant studies given a query study. While retrieval systems based on meta-data already exist, data-driven approaches that retrieve studies based on similarities in the expression data itself have a greater potential of uncovering novel biological insights.
Results: We propose an information retrieval method based on differential expression. Our method deals with arbitrary experimental designs and performs competitively with alternative approaches, while making the search results interpretable in terms of differential expression patterns. We show that our model yields meaningful connections between biological conditions from different studies. Finally, we validate a previously unknown connection between malignant pleural mesothelioma and SIM2s suggested by our method, via real-time polymerase chain reaction in an independent set of mesothelioma samples.
Availability: Supplementary data and source code are available from http://www.ebi.ac.uk/fg/research/rex.
Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
The BioSample Database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biosamples) is a new database at EBI that stores information about biological samples used in molecular experiments, such as sequencing, gene expression or proteomics. The goals of the BioSample Database include: (i) recording and linking of sample information consistently within EBI databases such as ENA, ArrayExpress and PRIDE; (ii) minimizing data entry efforts for EBI database submitters by enabling submitting sample descriptions once and referencing them later in data submissions to assay databases and (iii) supporting cross database queries by sample characteristics. Each sample in the database is assigned an accession number. The database includes a growing set of reference samples, such as cell lines, which are repeatedly used in experiments and can be easily referenced from any database by their accession numbers. Accession numbers for the reference samples will be exchanged with a similar database at NCBI. The samples in the database can be queried by their attributes, such as sample types, disease names or sample providers. A simple tab-delimited format facilitates submissions of sample information to the database, initially via email to email@example.com
Gene Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) is an added-value database providing information about gene expression in different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, disease states, sample treatments and other biological/experimental conditions. The content of this database derives from curation, re-annotation and statistical analysis of selected data from the ArrayExpress Archive and the European Nucleotide Archive. A simple interface allows the user to query for differential gene expression either by gene names or attributes or by biological conditions, e.g. diseases, organism parts or cell types. Since our previous report we made 20 monthly releases and, as of Release 11.08 (August 2011), the database supports 19 species, which contains expression data measured for 19 014 biological conditions in 136 551 assays from 5598 independent studies.
Summary: We present an R based pipeline, ArrayExpressHTS, for pre-processing, expression estimation and data quality assessment of high-throughput sequencing transcriptional profiling (RNA-seq) datasets. The pipeline starts from raw sequence files and produces standard Bioconductor R objects containing gene or transcript measurements for downstream analysis along with web reports for data quality assessment. It may be run locally on a user's own computer or remotely on a distributed R-cloud farm at the European Bioinformatics Institute. It can be used to analyse user's own datasets or public RNA-seq datasets from the ArrayExpress Archive.
Availability: The R package is available at www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/rcloud with online documentation at www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/rwiki/, also available as supplementary material.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
It is widely accepted that orthologous genes between species are conserved at the sequence level and perform similar functions in different organisms. However, the level of conservation of gene expression patterns of the orthologous genes in different species has been unclear. To address the issue, we compared gene expression of orthologous genes based on 2,557 human and 1,267 mouse samples with high quality gene expression data, selected from experiments stored in the public microarray repository ArrayExpress.
In a principal component analysis (PCA) of combined data from human and mouse samples merged on orthologous probesets, samples largely form distinctive clusters based on their tissue sources when projected onto the top principal components. The most prominent groups are the nervous system, muscle/heart tissues, liver and cell lines. Despite the great differences in sample characteristics and experiment conditions, the overall patterns of these prominent clusters are strikingly similar for human and mouse. We further analyzed data for each tissue separately and found that the most variable genes in each tissue are highly enriched with human-mouse tissue-specific orthologs and the least variable genes in each tissue are enriched with human-mouse housekeeping orthologs.
The results indicate that the global patterns of tissue-specific expression of orthologous genes are conserved in human and mouse. The expression of groups of orthologous genes co-varies in the two species, both for the most variable genes and the most ubiquitously expressed genes.
Summary: The Sample avAILability system—SAIL—is a web based application for searching, browsing and annotating biological sample collections or biobank entries. By providing individual-level information on the availability of specific data types (phenotypes, genetic or genomic data) and samples within a collection, rather than the actual measurement data, resource integration can be facilitated. A flexible data structure enables the collection owners to provide descriptive information on their samples using existing or custom vocabularies. Users can query for the available samples by various parameters combining them via logical expressions. The system can be scaled to hold data from millions of samples with thousands of variables.
Availability: SAIL is available under Aferro-GPL open source license: https://github.com/sail.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online and from http://www.simbioms.org.
The ArrayExpress Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) is one of the three international public repositories of functional genomics data supporting publications. It includes data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies. Data are submitted by users and imported directly from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus. The ArrayExpress Archive is closely integrated with the Gene Expression Atlas and the sequence databases at the European Bioinformatics Institute. Advanced queries provided via ontology enabled interfaces include queries based on technology and sample attributes such as disease, cell types and anatomy.