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Nicotine & Tobacco Research (1)
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Zhou, Dinglun (2)
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Improving the Performance of Outbreak Detection Algorithms by Classifying the Levels of Disease Incidence
Buckeridge, David L.
Bausch, Daniel G.
We evaluated a novel strategy to improve the performance of outbreak detection algorithms, namely setting the alerting threshold separately in each region according to the disease incidence in that region. By using data on hand, foot and mouth disease in Shandong province, China, we evaluated the impact of disease incidence on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms (EARS-C1, C2 and C3). Compared to applying the same algorithm and threshold to the whole region, setting the optimal threshold in each region according to the level of disease incidence (i.e., high, middle, and low) enhanced sensitivity (C1: from 94.4% to 99.1%, C2: from 93.5% to 95.4%, C3: from 91.7% to 95.4%) and reduced the number of alert signals (the percentage of reduction is C1∶4.3%, C2∶11.9%, C3∶10.3%). Our findings illustrate a general method for improving the accuracy of detection algorithms that is potentially applicable broadly to other diseases and regions.
The effect of a culturally tailored smoking cessation for Chinese American smokers
Ma, Grace X.
Poon, Adrienne N.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among low-income Chinese Americans with limited English proficiency. Chinese men are at high risk for smoking-related morbidity and mortality. We tested the feasibility of a culturally and linguistically sensitive smoking intervention program with combined counseling and pharmacological components for Chinese smokers in New York City; identified factors and techniques that enhance the administration and appropriateness of the intervention program; and examined the overall impact of this program on quit attempts, quit rates, and overall smoking reduction.
We were guided by the transtheoretical model and used an adapted motivational interviewing (MI) approach. The study involved a randomized sample with pretreatment assessment and multiple follow-up measures. Eligible participants (N = 122) were randomly assigned to intervention (4 individualized counselor-led MI sessions and nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) or control groups (4 general health education sessions, self-help materials, and NRT).
Quit rate at 6 months in the intervention group was 67% versus 32% for the control group, indicating minimal relapse and a highly successful intervention program. Increase in self-efficacy and decease in pros of smoking from baseline to 6-month follow-up were positively associated with smoking cessation. The number of cigarette smoked at baseline was inversely related to smoking cessation. Results indicate that a combined intensive behavioral counseling and pharmacological intervention can reduce smoking substantially.
The results of this pilot will be used as a basis for a large-scale randomized trial of an intervention with combined culturally and linguistically sensitive MI and NRT components for Chinese and other Asian ethnic groups.
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