The title molecule, C21H28O5, is composed of three six-membered rings (A/B/C) and a five-membered ring (D). Ring A adopts a 1α-sofa conformation, while rings B and C adopt chair conformations. Cyclopentane ring D adopts a 14α-envelope conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of ribbons running along the a axis. The structure is further consolidated by C—H⋯O interactions, which link the molecules head-to-tail into ribbons along the a axis.
Polymorphism of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes is known to play an important role in increased susceptibility of colorectal cancer. UGT1A gene locus has been suggested to define tissue-specific glucuronidation activity. Reduced capacity of glucuronidation is correlated with the development of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we sought to explore polymorphism of UGTlA gene in human colorectal cancer.
Cancerous and healthy tissues were obtained from selectedpatients. Blood samples were collected and UGTlA mRNA transcriptions were analyzed. Genomic DNA was prepared and UGTlA8 exon-1 sequences were amplified, visualized and purified. The extracted DNA was subcloned and sequenced. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test, Odds ratios (ORs), confidence interval (CIs) and Logistics Regression Analysis were used for statistical analysis.
UGTlA mRNA expression was reduced in cancerous tissues compared with healthy tissues from the same patient . The UGTlA mRNA expression of healthy tissue in study patients was lower than control . The mRNA expression of cancerous tissue was down-regulated in UGTlAl, 1A3, 1A4, lA6, 1A9 and up-regulated in UGTlA8 and UGTlAl0 UGT1A5 and UGT1A7 were not expressed in colonic tissue of either group. The allele frequency of WT UGTlA8*1 was higher (p = 0.000), frequency of UGTlA8*3 was lowered in control group (p = 0.000). The expression of homozygous UGTlA8*1 was higher in control group (p = 0.000). Higher frequency of both heterozygous UGTlA8*1/*3 and UGTlA8*2/*3 were found in study group (p = 0.000; p = 0.000). The occurrence of colorectal cancer was mainly related to the presence of polymorphic UGTlA8*3 alleles (p = 0.000).
Regulation of human UGT1A genes is tissue-specific. Individual variation in polymorphic expressions of UGTlA gene locus was noted in all types of colonic tissue tested, whereas hepatic tissue expression was uniform. The high incidence of UGTlA8 polymorphism exists in colorectal cancer patients. UGTlA8*1 allele is a protective factor and UGTlA8*3 allele is a risk factor.
Current etching routes to process large graphene sheets into nanoscale graphene so as to open up a bandgap tend to produce structures with rough and disordered edges. This leads to detrimental electron scattering and reduces carrier mobility. In this work, we present a novel yet simple direct-growth strategy to yield graphene nanomesh (GNM) on a patterned Cu foil via nanosphere lithography. Raman spectroscopy and TEM characterizations show that the as-grown GNM has significantly smoother edges than post-growth etched GNM. More importantly, the transistors based on as-grown GNM with neck widths of 65-75 nm have a near 3-fold higher mobility than those derived from etched GNM with the similar neck widths.
Mesenchymal stem cells may differentiate into cardiomyocytes and participate in local tissue repair after heart injury. In the current study, rat adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) grown on chitosan membranes were observed to form cell spheroids after 3 days. The cell seeding density and surface modification of chitosan with Arg-Gly-Asp–containing peptide had an influence on the sizes of ASC spheroids. In the absence of induction, these spheroids showed an increased level of cardiac marker gene expression (Gata4, Nkx2-5, Myh6, and Tnnt2) more than 20-fold versus cells on the tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dish. Induction by 5-azacytidine or p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB202190) did not further increase the cardiac marker gene expression of these spheroids. Moreover, the enhanced cardiomyogenic potential of the spheroids was highly associated with the chitosan substrates. When ASC spheroids were plated onto TCPS with either basal or cardiac induction medium for 9 days, the spheroids spread into a monolayer and the positive effect on cardiomyogenic marker gene expression disappeared. The possible role of calcium ion and the up-regulation of adhesion molecule P-selectin and chemokine receptor Cxcr4 were demonstrated in ASC spheroids. Applying these spheroids to the chronic myocardial infarction animal model showed better functional recovery versus single cells after 12 weeks. Taken together, this study suggested that the ASC spheroids on chitosan may form as a result of calcium ion signaling, and the transplantation of these spheroids may offer a simple method to enhance the efficiency of stem cell–based therapy in myocardial infarction.
biomaterials; cardiology; regeneration; stem cells; tissue engineering
Background and aim
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is reported to initiate flexible inflammation in the hippocampus of the human brain in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of atorvastatin on the production of inflammation cytokines in the hippocampus and the potential impacts on behavioral ability, in an AD model.
We firstly established AD rat models using intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42. A Morris water maze was also performed to determine the spatial learning and memory ability in the AD models. Intracellular staining of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was determined using immunohistochemical staining at 6 hours and day 7 after the injection of Aβ.
The escape latency of the atorvastatin-treated AD group (5 mg/kg/d) was significantly shorter than that of AD group on day 3 (41 ± 1.05 seconds versus 47 ± 1.05 seconds, P < 0.01) and day 4 (34 ± 1.25 seconds versus 43 ± 1.01 seconds, P < 0.01) after the beginning of the training. Furthermore, the atorvastatin-treated AD group displayed a significant higher mean number of annulus crossings than did the AD group (2.9 ± 0.5 versus 2.4 ± 0.9, P < 0.05). Fewer injured nerve cells and proliferated glial cells were also demonstrated in the atorvastatin-treated AD group than in the AD group. Of great importance, we demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly decreased in the atorvastatin-treated AD group than that in the AD group.
Atorvastatin might attenuate the damage of nerve cells and improve learning and memory ability by inhibiting inflammatory response in the progression of AD.
amyloid-beta; inflammation; interleukin-1β; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor
The EML4-ALK fusion gene has been recently identified in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who respond positively to ALK inhibitors. The characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese patients with NSCLC are poorly understood. Here, we report on the prevalence of EML4-ALK, EGFR status and KRAS mutations in 208 Chinese patients with NSCLC. EGFR mutations were found in 24.5% (51/208) of patients. In concordance with previous reports, these mutations were identified at high frequencies in females (47.5% vs 15.0% in males; P<0.05); never-smokers (42.3% vs 13.9% in smokers; P<0.05), and adenocarcinoma patients (44.2% vs 8.0% in non-adenocarcinoma patients; P<0.05). There were only 2.88% (6/208) patients with KRAS mutations in our study group. We identified 7 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (3.37%, 7/208), including 4 cases with variant 3 (57.1%), 2 with variant 1, and 1 with variant 2. All positive cases corresponded to female patients (11.5%, 7/61). Six of the positive cases were non-smokers (7.69%, 6/78). The incidence of EML4-ALK translocation in female, non-smoking adenocarcinoma patients was as high as 15.2% (5/33). No EGFR/KRAS mutations were detected among the EML4-ALK positive patients. Pathological analysis showed no difference between solid signet-ring cell pattern (4/7) and mucinous cribriform pattern (3/7) in ALK-positive patients. Immunostaining showed intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and 50% (3/6) of metastatic tumors with ALK-negative staining. Meta-analysis demonstrated that EML4-ALK translocation occurred in 4.84% (125/2580) of unselected patients with NSCLC, and was also predominant in non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma. Taken together, EML4-ALK translocations were infrequent in the entire NSCLC patient population, but were frequent in the NSCLC subgroup of female, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma patients. There was intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and at metastatic sites.
Native C-reactive protein (CRP) is composed of five identical subunits arranged in a pentameric structure (pCRP). Binding of pCRP to damaged cell membranes produces a second isoform, modified CRP, which has similar antigenicity to isolated monomeric subunits of CRP (mCRP). Emerging evidence indicates that modified CRP plays a role in inflammation and atherosclerosis, however, there are very few techniques that can distinguish the different isoforms of CRP. Here we show that an RNA aptamer binds specifically to mCRP and not to pCRP. Using this aptamer, we describe a simple, fast, and sensitive assay to detect nanomolar concentrations of mCRP using fluorescence anisotropy. In addition, we show that this aptamer can be used to detect mCRP in polyacrylamide gels and bound to a surface using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The biological activity of the mCRP we prepared by heating pCRP with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate was confirmed by observing binding to the complement protein, C1q. This probe provides an important tool for CRP research and has the potential to improve clinical diagnostics that predict risk for cardiovascular disease.
C-reactive protein; isoform; aptamer; cardiovascular disease; TIRF microscopy; fluorescence anisotropy
Here we demonstrate that aptamers tethered to gold nanoparticles enable direct visualization of protein-oligonucleotide interactions during gel electrophoresis. This technique is used to confirm that an aptamer previously identified as binding to C-reactive protein (CRP) only binds to the monomeric form of CRP. While native, pentameric CRP (pCRP) is used in clinical assays to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is the monomeric isoform that is more strongly associated with pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic effects. To visualize this selectivity, the CRP-aptamer was conjugated to streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles and the mobility of the free oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugate (ON-NP) and the protein/ON-NP complex bands were visualized and recorded during electrophoresis using a simple digital camera. At a concentration of 6 mg/mL, monomeric CRP showed a significant decrease in the observed ON-NP mobility, whereas no change in mobility was observed with pCRP up to 18 mg/mL. Advantages of this nanoparticle-based electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NP-EMSA) over traditional EMSA include real-time detection of protein-oligonucleotide interactions, the avoidance of harmful radioisotopes, and elimination of the need for expensive gel imagers. The availability of both the NP-EMSA technique and an mCRP specific probe will allow for improved clinical diagnostic to more accurately predict future CVD risk.
Aptamer; C-reactive protein; EMSA; Nanoparticle; Real-time detection
To better understand the molecular mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance in ovarian carcinoma, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs using miRNA microarray between human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and paclitaxel resistant SKOV3-TR30 cells. Results showed that 69 miRNAs were upregulated while 102 miRNAs were downregulated in SKOV3-TR30 cells. Using real-time PCR, we further clarified that miR-17~92 was overexpressed in SKOV3-TR30 cells compared with that in SKOV3 cells. We then established stable virally transduced SKOV3-TR30-m-PTIP-Sponge all SKOV3-TR30 cells and its vector-only control SKOV3-TR30-m-PTIP-GFP cells. Real time-PCR revealed that SKOV3-TR30-m-PTIP-Sponge all cells expressed approximately 6.18-fold lower levels of miR-17~92 compared with the control group. Decreased expression of miR-17~92 resulted in cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and growth inhibition. After the transduction, the BIM protein level was increased in SKOV3-TR30 cells and luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-17~92 binds directly to the 3′-UTR of BIM. Results of luciferase reporter assays accompanied with Western Blot showed that although miR-17~92 binds directly to the 3′-UTR of PTEN, the PTEN protein expression level was upregulated slightly while the result is of no statistical significance. Our results showed that miR-17~92 could be a causal factor of the downregulation of BIM in SKOV3-TR30 cells and thus induce the paclitaxel resistance in SKOV3-TR30 cells.
miR-17~92 cluster; transduction; ovarian carcinoma; paclitaxel resistance; PTEN; BIM
Using condoms consistently could prevent unintended pregnancy among young people. This study highlights multiple domains of inﬂuence on condom use among male college students in China, including knowledge, attitudes, health services utility on condom use and reproductive health information sources.
To identify factors associated with condom use in Chinese male college students, we examined a sample of 870 sexually experienced male students in seven colleges in Wuhan, China, 2009. 535 (61.5%) of 870 male students reported condom use during their most recent sexual encounter. Male students with steady partners were more likely to use condoms than students with casual partners (adjusted OR = 3.11, 95%CI 2.30–4.20). And positive attitudes toward contraceptive responsibility were associated with greater odds of condom use (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.02–1.92). Only 54(6.2%) and 83(9.5%) of respondents reported that free condoms and reproductive health counseling were available at the student health center. Providing free condoms and reproductive health counseling at the student health central were associated with increased condom use among college students (both P<0.05). In addition, students who gained reproductive health information mainly through websites, television and radio programs were more likely to use condoms than through school education (all P<0.05).
Improving attitudes of male students toward contraceptive responsibility, providing proper reproductive health information through mass media and making free condoms and reproductive health counseling available in school may help increase condom use among college students in China.
Both HCV genotypes and viral loads are predictors of therapeutic outcomes among patients treated with α-interferon plus ribavirin; however, such correlation has only been studied for genotypes 1, 2, and 3 but not for genotype 6.
299 voluntary blood donors were recruited who were HCV viremic. Their mean age was 31.8; the male/female ratio was 3.82 (225/59). The viral loads of HCV were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan test (CAP/CTM) while HCV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing the partial NS5B region. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6 were determined in 48.9%, 8.7%, 12.3%, and 30.1% of the donors, respectively, and the levels of mean viral loads in genotype 1 and 6 significantly higher than that of 2 and 3 (P<0.001). As a whole, the viral loads in male donors were higher than in female (P = 0.006). Moreover, the donors' gender and HCV genotypes are independently correlated with the measured viral loads.
HCV genotype 1 and 6 had significantly higher viral loads than genotype 2 and 3.
The purpose of this community-based participatory study was to identify factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compliance and non-compliance among Cambodians, Vietnamese, Koreans and Chinese men and women 50 years and older living in the United States. A cross-sectional design was used in the study. The completed sample included 815 Asian Americans which included Cambodians (N=215), Vietnamese (N=195), Koreans (N=94) and Chinese (N=311). A 95-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested for content validity and reliability. An in-person data collection approach was utilized and participants were given choice in responding in English or their native language. Of the 815 participants, 79.1% (N=645) reported never-screened, 7.9% (N=64), non-compliance, and 13.0% (N=106) compliance. Education was significantly associated with never-screened for CRC for Vietnamese and Chinese; employment status for Cambodians and Koreans; lack of health insurance for Cambodians, Korean and Chinese; English fluency and years lived in the U.S. for Vietnamese, Koreans, and Chinese. Less acculturated Asian Americans were more likely to be never screened, but differentially across ethnic subgroups. Barriers to screening included lack of knowledge, language, transportation, and time. Increased culturally-targeted public awareness and education programs are needed to improve CRC screening and compliance among high risk Asian American ethnic subgroups.
sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy; fecal occult blood test; Vietnamese; Korean; Chinese; Cambodian; correlates of colorectal cancer screening
The Gram-negative bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that causes severe invasive infections in neonates. Variation in the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane provides the basis for Gram-negative bacteria serotyping. The O-antigen serotyping scheme for C. sakazakii, which includes seven serotypes (O1 to O7), has been recently established, and the O-antigen gene clusters and specific primers for three C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, and O3) have been characterized. In this study, the C. sakazakii O4, O5, O6, and O7 O-antigen gene clusters were sequenced, and gene functions were predicted on the basis of homology. C. sakazakii O4 shared a similar O-antigen gene cluster with Escherichia coli O103. The general features and anomalies of all seven C. sakazakii O-antigen gene clusters were evaluated and the relationship between O-antigen structures and their gene clusters were investigated. Serotype-specific genes for O4 to O7 were identified, and a molecular serotyping method for all C. sakazakii O serotypes, a multiplex PCR assay, was developed by screening against 136 strains of C. sakazakii and closely related species. The sensitivity of PCR-based serotyping method was determined to be 0.01 ng of genomic DNA and 103 CFU of each strain/ml. This study completes the elucidation of C. sakazakii O-antigen genetics and provides a molecular method suitable for the identification of C. sakazakii O1 to O7 strains.
Many genomes have been sequenced to high-quality draft status using Sanger capillary electrophoresis and/or newer short-read sequence data and whole genome assembly techniques. However, even the best draft genomes contain gaps and other imperfections due to limitations in the input data and the techniques used to build draft assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. Traditionally, draft genomes were upgraded to “phase 3 finished” status using time-consuming and expensive Sanger-based manual finishing processes. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, we present here an automated approach to finishing using long-reads from the Pacific Biosciences RS (PacBio) platform. Our algorithm and associated software tool, PBJelly, (publicly available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/pb-jelly/) automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. PBJelly also provides “lift-over” co-ordinate tables to easily port existing annotations to the upgraded assembly. Using PBJelly and long PacBio reads, we upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version 2 draft Drosophila pseudoobscura, an assembly of the Assemblathon 2.0 budgerigar dataset, and a preliminary assembly of the Sooty mangabey. With 24× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads, we addressed 99% of gaps and were able to close 69% and improve 12% of all gaps in D. pseudoobscura. With 4× mapped coverage of PacBio long-reads we saw reads address 63% of gaps in our budgerigar assembly, of which 32% were closed and 63% improved. With 6.8× mapped coverage of mangabey PacBio long-reads we addressed 97% of gaps and closed 66% of addressed gaps and improved 19%. The accuracy of gap closure was validated by comparison to Sanger sequencing on gaps from the original D. pseudoobscura draft assembly and shown to be dependent on initial reference quality.
MAPK cascades are universal signal transduction modules and play important roles in plant growth, development and in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs and MAPKKs have been systematically investigated in several plant species including Arabidopsis, rice and poplar, no systematic analysis has been conducted in the emerging monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, a total of 16 MAPK genes and 12 MAPKK genes were identified from B. distachyon. An analysis of the genomic evolution showed that both tandem and segment duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of MAPK and MAPKK families. Evolutionary relationships within subfamilies were supported by exon-intron organizations and the architectures of conserved protein motifs. Synteny analysis between B. distachyon and the other two plant species of rice and Arabidopsis showed that only one homolog of B. distachyon MAPKs was found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, while 13 homologs of B. distachyon MAPKs and MAPKKs were found in that of rice, which was consistent with the speciation process of the three species. In addition, several interactive protein pairs between the two families in B. distachyon were found through yeast two hybrid assay, whereas their orthologs of a pair in Arabidopsis and other plant species were not found to interact with each other. Finally, expression studies of closely related family members among B. distachyon, Arabidopsis and rice showed that even recently duplicated representatives may fulfill different functions and be involved in different signal pathways. Taken together, our data would provide a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in B. distachyon and other plant species to unravel their biological roles.
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp [a]) is known being correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster, relating with modulating the level of plasma Lp (a), has recently been reported to be associated with CAD in Caucasians. The purpose of this study was to verify whether this finding can be expanded to the Chinese Han population.
Methods and Results
Using a Chinese Han sample, which consisted of 1012 well-characterized CAD patients and 889 healthy controls, we tested the associations of four SNPs (rs2048327, rs3127599, rs7767084 and rs10755578) in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster, and their inferred haplotypes with the risk of CAD. Allelic, genotypic and haplotype association analyses all showed that the gene cluster was not associated with CAD in this Chinese Han sample.
We for the first time explored the association of the four SNPs in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster with CAD in a large Chinese Han sample. Nevertheless, this study did not reveal any significant evidence of this gene cluster to increase the risk of CAD in this population.
Association study; CAD; Lp(a); SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA; SNP
In this study, we observed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human chromosomal fragment 6q25.1 in sporadic lung cancer patients. LOH was observed in 65% of the 26 lung tumors examined and was narrowed down to a 2.2-Mb region. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genes located within this region identified a candidate gene, termed p34. This gene, also designated as ZC3H12D, C6orf95, FLJ46041, or dJ281H8.1, carries an A/G nonsynonymous SNP at codon 106, which alters the amino acid from lysine to arginine. Nearly 73% of heterozygous lung cancer tissues with LOH and the A/G SNP also exhibited loss of the A allele. In vitro clonogenic and in vivo nude mouse studies showed that overexpression of the A allele exerts tumor suppressor function compared with the G allele. p34 is located within a recently mapped human lung cancer susceptibility locus, and association of the p34 A/G SNP was tested among these families. No significant association between the less frequent G allele and lung cancer susceptibility was found. Our results suggest that p34 may be a novel tumor suppressor gene involved in sporadic lung cancer but it seems not to be the candidate familial lung cancer susceptibility gene linked to chromosomal region 6q23-25.
We demonstrated ultrafast femtosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption characteristics of bilayered fullerosome vesicle nanostructures derived from molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic oligo(ethylene glycolated) C60-(light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna). Fullerene conjugates were designed to enhance photoresponse in a femtosecond time scale by applying an isomerizable periconjugation linker between the C60 cage and diphenylaminofluorene antenna subunit in an intramolecular contact distance of only < 3.0 Å. Morphology of C60(>DPAF-EG12C1)-based fullerosome nanovesicles in H2O was characterized to consist of a bilayered shell with a sphere diameter of 20–70 nm and a chromophore shell-width of 9.0–10 nm, fitting well with a head-to-head packing configuration of the molecular length. At the estimated effective nanovesicle concentration as low as 5.5 × 10−8 MV (molecular molar concentration of 5.0 × 10−4 M) in H2O, two-photon absorption (2PA) phenomena were found to be the dominating photophysical events showing a large molar concentration-insensitive 2PA cross-section value equivalent to 8500 GM in a form of nanovesicles, on average. The observed NLO characteristics led to a sharp trend of efficient light-transmittance intensity reduction at the input laser intensity above 100 GW/cm2.
C60 monoadduct; fullerosome; nonlinear optical absorption; nanovesicle; light-transmittance reduction; 2PA cross-section
The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has yielded great success in treatment of lung adenocarcinomas. However, patients who develop resistance to TKI treatment often acquire a somatic resistance mutation (T790M) located in the catalytic cleft of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) enzyme. Recently, a report describing EGFR-T790M as a germ-line mutation suggested that this mutation may be associated with inherited susceptibility to lung cancer. Contrary to previous reports, our analysis indicates that the T790M mutation confers increased Y992 and Y1068 phosphorylation levels. In a human bronchial epithelial cell line, overexpression of EGFR-T790M displayed a growth advantage over wild-type (WT) EGFR. We also screened 237 lung cancer family probands, in addition to 45 bronchoalveolar tumors, and found that none of them contained the EGFR-T790M mutation. Our observations show that EGFR-T790M provides a proliferative advantage with respect to WT EGFR and suggest that the enhanced kinase activity of this mutant is the basis for rare cases of inherited susceptibility to lung cancer.
During the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) outbreak, school students were at an increased risk of infection by the pH1N1 virus. However, the estimation of the attack rate showed significant variability.
Two school outbreaks were investigated in this study. A questionnaire was designed to collect information by interview. Throat samples were collected from all the subjects in this study 6 times and sero samples 3 times to confirm the infection and to determine viral shedding. Data analysis was performed using the software STATA 9.0.
The attack rate of the pH1N1 outbreak was 58.3% for the primary school, and 52.9% for the middle school. The asymptomatic infection rates of the two schools were 35.8% and 37.6% respectively. Peak virus shedding occurred on the day of ARI symptoms onset, followed by a steady decrease over subsequent days (p = 0.026). No difference was found either in viral shedding or HI titer between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic infectious groups.
School children were found to be at a high risk of infection by the novel virus. This may be because of a heightened risk of transmission owing to increased mixing at boarding school, or a lack of immunity owing to socio-economic status. We conclude that asymptomatically infectious cases may play an important role in transmission of the pH1N1 virus.
Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a chronic inflammation associated with elevations of several inflammatory and cardiac markers. Studies implicated CP as one of the etiologies in coronary heart disease (CHD). Cardiotoxicity is a major complication of anticancer drugs, including anthracyclines and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). The most severe cardiac complications are heart failure, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we compared the level of inflammatory factors and cardiac markers between chronic periodontitis patients and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
108 blood samples of periodontally healthy subjects were obtained on random from Hong Kong Red Cross, and these represented the controlled population. Forty-four patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were recruited from the West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University. They have received scaling and root planning with mean pocket depths of 6.05 mm. Thirty breast cancer patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma from UNIMED Medical Institute, Hong Kong gave consent to participate in this study. They received 4 cycles of 500mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, 75 mg/m2 epirubicin and 500mg/m2 cyclophosphamide at a 3-week interval between each cycle. Peripheral venous blood from each group was taken for measurement of blood cells, inflammatory marker (P-selectin, high sensitvity C-reactive protein) and cardiac markers (troponin T; troponin I; N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
The lymphocyte count was higher (p < 0.05) in periodontitis patients than the other two groups, and more neutrophils (p < 0.05) were seen in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The two test groups demonstrated higher levels (p < 0.01) of inflammatory and cardiac markers than the control group.
The elevated cardiac markers found in periodontitis patients suggested that they may carry potential risks in developing cardiac lesions. Troponin T, troponin I, pro-BNP, LDH and high sensitvity C-reactive protein may be used as markers to monitor cardiac lesions in chronic inflammatory patients.
Periodontal disease is thought to arise from the interaction of various factors, including the susceptibility of the host, the presence of pathogenic organisms, and the absence of beneficial species. The genetic factors may play a significant role in the risk of periodontal diseases. Cytokines initiate, mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to compare genotypes and soluble protein of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-4) in subjects with or free of chronic periodontitis.
A total of 1,290 Chinese subjects were recruited to this clinical trial: 850 periodontally healthy controls and 440 periodontal patients. All subjects were free of systemic diseases. Oral examinations were performed, and the following parameters were recorded for each subject: supragingival/subgingival calculus, gingival recession, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival recession and tooth mobility. The peripheral blood samples were collected for genetic and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Restriction enzymes were used for digestion of amplified fragments of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-4.
The protein expressions of patient and control samples for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 measured by ELISA confirmed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The digestion of fragments of various genes showed that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 demonstrated a correlation with chronic inflammation in patients (X2: p < 0.001). The remaining genes investigated in patients and healthy subjects (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10) did not show any significant difference.
The cytokine gene polymorphisms may be used as a marker for periodontitis susceptibility, clinical behaviour and severity. This detection offers early diagnosis and induction of prophylaxis to other family members against disease progression.
Periodontitis is a common disease that affects the periodontal tissue supporting the teeth. This disease is attributed to multiple risk factors, including diabetes, cigarette smoking, alcohol, pathogenic microorganisms, genetics and others. Human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with cysteine-rich ß-sheets and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. CD14 is a protein involved in the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has also been associated with periodontitis. This study investigates the single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) region, -1654(V38I), of the human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) gene as well as the -159 region of the CD14 gene in subjects with chronic periodontitis.
Blood samples from periodontally healthy subjects and periodontitis patients were obtained. DNA was extracted from the blood and was used to perform restriction digest at the polymorphic G1654A site of DEFB1 with the enzyme HincII. The polymorphic site 159TT of CD14 was digested with the enzyme AvaII. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on soluble samples to determine the protein expressions.
The control and patient groups expressed 35% and 38% 1654 A/A genotype of DEFB1, respectively. The A allele frequency of the control group was 40%, while the patient blood group was 54%. The mean hBD-1 protein levels of the control and patient samples were 102.83 pg/mL and 252.09 pg/mL, respectively. The genotype distribution of CD14 in healthy subjects was 16% for C/C, 26% for T/T and 58% for C/T. The genotype frequencies of CD14 in periodontitis patients were 10% for C/C, 43% for T/T and 47% for C/T. The CD14 protein expression determined by ELISA showed a mean protein level of the control samples at 76.28ng/mL and the patient blood samples at 179.27ng/mL with a p value of 0.001.
Our study demonstrated that patients suffering from chronic periodontitis present more commonly with the 1654A/A genotype on the DEFB1 gene and the 159T/T genotype on the CD14 gene.
This study purely investigated the association between periodontitis and one polymorphic site on both DEFB1 and CD14 gene, with the purpose of expanding knowledge for the future development in diagnostic markers or therapeutic interventions to combat this disease.
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between breast cancer-specific gene 1 (BCSG1) and the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of BCSG1 mRNA and protein levels of 32 TNBC patients before and after NAC. Tumor size was reduced significantly after NAC in all 32 TNBC patients. The expression of BCSG1 was also decreased after NAC at both mRNA and protein levels. There was a negative correlation between BCSG1 levels after NAC and the effect of NAC. BCSG1 may be a potential target for NAC in the treatment of TNBC.
SNCG protein; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant chemotherapy; breast neoplasms
Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells is an effective therapeutic approach to ameliorating autoimmune diseases, while the underlying mechanisms that regulate autoreactive T cells are not completely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that T-cell vaccination (TCV) inhibits autoimmune diabetes in mice through the suppression of Th17 cells. The results showed that TCV treatment decreased hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) as compared with the controls, preserved the number of healthy pancreatic islets and increased the production of insulin in the islets. Further study revealed that TCV significantly decreased the production of both interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 in intrapancreatic infiltrating lymphocytes (IPL) through marked inhibition of mRNA level of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) phosphorylation. The role of TCV-induced Th17 suppression was further validated in adoptive transfer experiments with polarized Th17 cells in sub-diabetogenic mice, which was similar to the effect of anti-IL-17 antibody treatment. Collectively our study shows that intrapancreatic Th17 cell suppression and healthy islet preservation play an important role in the treatment of T1D by TCV.
type 1 diabetes; T-cell vaccination; Th17; intrapanceatic infiltrating lymphocytes