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1.  Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives’ Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0130680.
This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4476655  PMID: 26098744
2.  IL-10 Genetic Polymorphisms Were Associated with Valvular Calcification in Han, Uygur and Kazak Populations in Xinjiang, China 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0128965.
Valvular calcification occurs via ongoing endothelial injury associated with inflammation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and 75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically determined. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 and valvular calcification has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between valvular calcification and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms in the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations in China.
Patients and Methods
All of the participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Three independent case-control studies involving the Han population, the Uygur population and the Kazak population were used in the analysis.
For the Han and Kazak populations, rs1800871 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the recessive model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.031, respectively). For the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations, rs1800872 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the dominant model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.009, and p=0.023,respectively)
Both rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene are associated with valvular calcification in the Han and Kazak populations in China. Rs1800872 is also associated with valvular calcification in the Uygur population.
PMCID: PMC4454577  PMID: 26039365
3.  Relationship between Spinal Cord Volume and Spinal Cord Injury due to Spinal Shortening 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0127624.
Vertebral column resection is associated with a risk of spinal cord injury. In the present study, using a goat model, we aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in spinal cord volume and spinal cord injury due to spinal shortening, and to quantify the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height in order to clarify a safe limit for shortening. Vertebral column resection was performed at T10 in 10 goats. The spinal cord was shortened until the somatosensory-evoked potential was decreased by 50% from the baseline amplitude or delayed by 10% relative to the baseline peak latency. A wake-up test was performed, and the goats were observed for two days postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the spinal cord volume, T10 height, disc height, osteotomy segment height, and spinal segment height pre- and postoperatively. Two of the 10 goats were excluded, and hence, only data from eight goats were analyzed. The somatosensory-evoked potential of these eight goats demonstrated meaningful changes. With regard to neurologic function, five and three goats were classified as Tarlov grades 5 and 4 at two days postoperatively. The mean shortening distance was 23.6 ± 1.51 mm, which correlated with the d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) and with the height of the T10 body (r = 0.79, p = 0.02). The mean d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment was 142.87 ± 0.59 mm3 (range, 142.19–143.67 mm3). The limit for shortening was approximately 106% of the vertebral height. The mean volumes of the osteotomy and spinal segments did not significantly change after surgery (t = 0.310, p = 0.765 and t = 1.241, p = 0.255, respectively). Thus, our results indicate that the safe limit for shortening can be calculated using the change in spinal cord volume per 1-mm height.
PMCID: PMC4441488  PMID: 26001196
4.  Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and recurrent wheezing in infancy: evidence from a meta-analysis 
Background: Quantification of the association between the maternal smoking during pregnancy and recurrent wheezing in infancy is still conflicting. Thus, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that maternal smoking during pregnancy may increase the risk of recurrent wheezing in infancy. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed and Web of Knowledge up to October 2014. Random-effect model (REM) or fixed effects model (FEM) was used to combine study-specific results. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. Results: Seven articles (3 cohort study and 4 cross-sectional studies) involving 8579 recurrent wheezing infant cases about maternal smoking during pregnancy and recurrent wheezing risk were used in this meta-analysis. The combined relative risks (RRs) of recurrent wheezing infants associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy was 1.491 (95% CIs = 1.329-1.672) overall. Significant associations were found both in Europe [RRs = 1.471, 95% CIs = 1.287-1.681] and other populations [RRs = 1.720, 95% CIs = 1.119-2.644] and cross-sectional studies [RRs = 1.474, 95% CIs = 1.306-1.663]. No publication bias was found. Conclusions: Our analysis indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy could increase the risk of recurrent wheezing in infancy.
PMCID: PMC4509158  PMID: 26221213
Maternal smoking; recurrent wheezing; infancy; meta-analysis
5.  Expression of ezrin, CD44, and VEGF in giant cell tumor of bone and its significance 
This research aimed to study the role of ezrin, CD44, and VEGF in invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and prognosis of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and its association with the clinical and pathological features of GCTB.
Expression status of ezrin, CD44, and VEGF in 80 GCTB tissues and its adjacent noncancerous tissue samples were measured with immunohistochemical and Elivison staining. Their correlation with the clinical and pathologic factors was statistically analyzed by chi-square test.
The expression status of ezrin, CD44, and VEGF were significantly higher in GCTB tissue samples than in its adjacent noncancerous tissue samples and in GCTB at Campanacci stage III than in Campanacci stages I and II (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in age and sex of the patients and locations of the tumor (P > 0.05). Survival analysis showed that the expression status of ezrin, CD44, VEGF, and Campanacci clinical stages of GCTB were positively associated with the survival rate of GCTB patients and negatively associated with ezrin and Campanacci stages of GCTB, indicating that ezrin, CD44, VEGF, and Campanacci clinical stages of GCTB are the independent factors for GCTB.
Ezrin, CD44, and VEGF are over-expressed in GCTB tissue and its adjacent noncancerous tissue samples and may play an important role in the occurrence, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence of GCTB. Measurement of ezrin, CD44, and VEGF expression status may contribute to the judgment of prognosis of GCTB patients.
PMCID: PMC4434870  PMID: 25929323
Giant cell tumor of bone; Ezrin; CD44; VEGF; Prognosis
6.  Association between LMP2 and LMP7 gene polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer: A case-control study 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(1):509-517.
The integrality of low molecular weight protein (LMP)2/LMP7 function plays an important role in the processing of GC cell antigens. The purpose of the present hospital-based case-control study was to estimate the effect of polymorphisms in the LMP2 and LMP7 genes on the risk of GC. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to distinguish the Arg to His substitution at codon 60 of LMP2 (LMP2-60) and the Gln to Lys substitution at codon 145 of LMP7 (LMP7-145) in 502 gastric cancer patients and 502 age and gender-matched cancer-free control individuals. The Lys allele of the LMP7-145 variant was more frequent in GC patients compared with control individuals [P=0.004; adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.74]. The Gln/Lys and Lys/Lys genotypes increased the risk of GC compared with the Gln/Gln genotype (P=0.049 and P=0.041, respectively; adjusted OR, 1.32 and 2.13, respectively; 95% CI, 1.00–1.73 and 1.03–4.39, respectively). Compared with the Gln/Gln genotype, the LMP7-145 Gln/Lys and Lys/Lys variants of the LMP7 gene were also associated with increased susceptibility to GC (P=0.017; adjusted OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06–1.80). Haplotype analysis revealed that the LMP2 (Arg)-LMP7 (Lys) haplotype was associated with increased risk of GC (P=0.013, adjusted OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.06–1.70). Stratified analysis revealed that the association between the risk of GC and the variant genotypes of LMP7-145 was stronger in older individuals (>59 years), males and non-smokers. However, no association between the LMP2-60 polymorphism and the risk of GC was observed. The present results suggest that the LMP7-145 genetic variant contributes to increased susceptibility to GC, and the Lys allele is an independent risk factor for GC.
PMCID: PMC4487101  PMID: 26171060
gastric cancer; LMP2/LMP7; gene polymorphism
7.  Dynamic Distribution of the Gut Microbiota and the Relationship with Apparent Crude Fiber Digestibility and Growth Stages in Pigs 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:9938.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in nutrient digestibility in animals. To examine changes in the pig gut microbiota across growth stages and its effects on nutrient digestion, the gut microbiota population in pigs at 28 days (before weaning), and 60, 90, and 150 days of age was assessed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was also assessed in these pigs. A total of 19,875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from all samples. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased with age. A total of 22 phyla and 249 genera were identified from all fecal samples; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla in all samples. With increasing age, the proportion of TM7 and Tenericutes increased, whereas the proportion of Lentisphaerae and Synergistetes decreased. The abundance of 36 genera varied with age, and the apparent digestibility of CF increased with age. Three phyla, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and TM7, and 11 genera, including Anaeroplasma, Campylobacter, and Clostridium, were correlated with apparent CF digestibility.
PMCID: PMC4404679  PMID: 25898122
8.  WIP1 stimulates migration and invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma by inducing MMP-9 and VEGF-C 
Oncotarget  2015;6(11):9031-9044.
The wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is an oncogene overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Here, we demonstrated that WIP1 silencing reduced MMP-9 and VEGF-C expression as well as migration and invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) cells. Overexpression of MMP-9 or VEGF-C restored migration and invasion in WIP1 knockdown cells, indicating that MMP-9 and VEGF-C are downstream targets of WIP1 signaling. Levels of cyclin D1 and c-Myc, targets of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, were significantly decreased by WIP1 silencing. In addition, WIP1 expression was positively associated with metastasis and prognosis of ACC patients as well as with MMP-9 or VEGF-C in ACC tissues.
PMCID: PMC4496200  PMID: 25797250
wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1); adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC); salivary gland; invasion; metastasis
9.  Snail and Slug collaborate on EMT and tumor metastasis through miR-101-mediated EZH2 axis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma 
Oncotarget  2015;6(9):6794-6810.
microRNAs(miRNAs) can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through transcription factors, however, little is known whether EMT transcription factors can modulate miRNAs and further induce EMT and cancer metastasis. Here we show that overexpression of Snail and Slug leads to a mesenchymal phenotype and morphology and enhances cell invasion along with stem cell properties in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue (OTSCC) cells. Repression of miR-101 expression by Snail and Slug is essential for Snail/Slug-induced malignant phenotypes. The suppression of miR-101 subsequently activates EZH2, the sole histone methyltransferase, inducing EMT, migration and invasion of OTSCC cells. Importantly, co-overexpression of Slug and Snail correlates with poor survival and elevated EZH2 expression in two independent patient cohorts of OTSCC specimens. These findings defined a Snail and Slug/miR-101/EZH2 pathway as a novel regulatory axis of EMT-mediated-microRNA signaling.
PMCID: PMC4466650
Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC); epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); miR-101; Snail; Slug
10.  Transplantation of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for End-Stage Liver Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Seven Controlled Trials 
Background. The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have demonstrated great potential as regenerative medicine in different therapeutic applications. This study aims to pool previous controlled clinical trials to make an update assessment of the effectiveness of BM-MSC transplantation on end-stage liver cirrhosis. Methods. Relevant studies published between January 1990 and June 2014 were searched among Pubmed, Embase, and A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of BM-MSCs on liver function indicators, including Models of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, serum albumin (g/L), total bilirubin (mg/dl), Prothrombin concentration (%), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (U/L). Results. BM-MSCs therapy could significantly improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis, in terms of MELD score, serum albumin, total bilirubin, and prothrombin concentration, at least during the half year after transplantation. Conclusions. Due to BM-MSCs' immunomodulatory functions and the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, they are a promising therapeutic agent to liver cirrhosis. Considering currently available evidence, this therapy is relatively safe and effective in improving liver function. However, how different variables should be controlled to optimize the therapeutic effect is still not clear. Thus, future mechanism studies and clinical trials are required for this optimization.
PMCID: PMC4377544  PMID: 25861263
11.  Hepatitis B screening among Chinese Americans: a structural equation modeling analysis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:120.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) disproportionately affects new immigrants from endemic regions such as China. Untreated infections increase health risks for liver diseases including cancer. Yet most of those infected are unaware of their disease limiting prevention and early treatment options. The purpose of this community based study was to evaluate a heuristic model identifying factors contributing to Hepatitis B (HBV) screening among Chinese Americans.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 924 Chinese men and women 18 years of age and older of which 718 had complete data for final analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis verified conceptual indicators including access/satisfaction with health care and enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling was used to identify direct and indirect predictors of Hepatitis B screening.
Bivariate analysis revealed that Chinese respondents who were never screened for HBV were significantly more likely to be below age 40 (69.8%), male (69.2%), had less than a high school education (76.4%), with less than 6 years living in the US (72.8%) and had no health insurance (79.2%). The final model identified enabling factors (having health insurance, a primary health care provider to go to when sick and more frequent visits to a doctor in the last year) as the strongest predictor of HBV screening (coefficient = 0.470, t = 7.618, p < .001). Predisposing factors (education variables) were also significantly related to HBV screening. Cultural factors and Satisfaction with Health care were associated with HBV screening only through their significant relationships with enabling factors.
The tested theoretical model shows promise in predicting HBV testing among Chinese Americans. Increasing access to health care by expanding insurance options and improving culturally sensitivity in health systems are critical to reach new immigrants like Chinese for HBV screening. Yet such strategies are consistent with DHHS Action plan for the Prevention and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. Implementing community-based strategies like partnering with relevant Community-Based Organizations are important for meeting HBV policy targets.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0854-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4357149  PMID: 25880870
HBV; Hepatitis B; HBV screening; Chinese; Health care access
12.  The Impact of a Community-Based Clinical Trial Educational Intervention Among Underrepresented Chinese Americans 
Clinical trials are a critical resource for the discovery of new prevention, diagnostic and treatment methods for cancer. The most effective prevention and treatment modalities are based on previous clinical trial results. However, participation in clinical trials is underrepresented by racial/ethnic minority populations, Asian Americans in particular. Asian Americans are the least represented of any ethnic groups in clinical trials.
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a culturally and linguistically appropriate community-based educational intervention to increase knowledge of and intent to participate in cancer clinical trials among underrepresented Chinese Americans.
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach was used to guide the development, cultural tailoring, implementation and evaluation of clinical trial intervention. First, 22 Asian community representatives were recruited as community health educators (CHEs) who received 12-hour training on clinical trial education. Second, 262 members were recruited from 11 Chinese community organizations (CBOs). Of those recruited, a total of 247 eligible Chinese enrolled and participated in the clinical trial education delivered by trained CHEs. Participants completed pre-test before and post-test after the intervention.
Fifteen out of 21 measures of clinical trial knowledge showed significant changes post the intervention (p<.05). Education remained the sole demographic factor increasing clinical trial knowledge in multivariate analysis.
Clinical trial education should emphasize both benefits to science and the larger Asian community. This community-based clinical trial intervention demonstrated promising results and has potential to enhance recruitment and participation in clinical trial research among the underrepresented Asian Americans.
PMCID: PMC3951588  PMID: 24092627
clinical trial intervention; underrepresented Chinese-Americans; health disparities
13.  Down-regulated FSTL5 promotes cell proliferation and survival by affecting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma 
Follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5), a member of the follistatin family of genes, encodes a secretory glycoprotein. Previous study revealed that it might play a suppressive role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its clinical significances, biological functions and molecular mechanisms in HCC development are poorly understood. To gain insight to the functions of FSTL5 in HCC, We examined FSTL5 expression pattern in 117 HCC tissue samples. The results of immunohistochemical staining analysis showed that FSTL5 is more commonly down-regulated in HCC compared to adjacent tissues and further clinicopathological analysis showed that its expression level is closely correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, local infiltration and patient prognosis. Both gain function assays and recombinant human FSTL5 protein treatment assays in vitro revealed that over-expressing FSTL5 could inhibit the abilities of cancer cell proliferation and survival. Further, we found that those effects on HCC growth and survival are associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, all of our results validate that FSTL5 plays a suppressive role in HCC and suggest that down-regulated FSTL5 could elevate abilities of growth and survival of HCC cells by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
PMCID: PMC4440185  PMID: 26045876
Follistatin-like 5; hepatocellular carcinoma; cell proliferation; apoptosis; Wnt/β-catenin signaling
14.  The Tripartite Virions of the Brome Mosaic Virus Have Distinct Physical Properties That Affect the Timing of the Infection Process 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(11):6483-6491.
The three subsets of virions that comprise the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) were previously thought to be indistinguishable. This work tested the hypothesis that distinct capsid-RNA interactions in the BMV virions allow different rates of viral RNA release. Several results support distinct interactions between the capsid and the BMV genomic RNAs. First, the deletion of the first eight residues of the BMV coat protein (CP) resulted in the RNA1-containing particles having altered morphologies, while those containing RNA2 were unaffected. Second, subsets of the BMV particles separated by density gradients into a pool enriched for RNA1 (B1) and for RNA2 and RNA3/4 (B2.3/4) were found to have different physiochemical properties. Compared to the B2.3/4 particles, the B1 particles were more sensitive to protease digestion and had greater resistivity to nanoindentation by atomic force microscopy and increased susceptibility to nuclease digestion. Mapping studies showed that portions of the arginine-rich N-terminal tail of the CP could interact with RNA1. Mutational analysis in the putative RNA1-contacting residues severely reduced encapsidation of BMV RNA1 without affecting the encapsidation of RNA2. Finally, during infection of plants, the more easily released RNA1 accumulated to higher levels early in the infection.
IMPORTANCE Viruses with genomes packaged in distinct virions could theoretically release the genomes at different times to regulate the timing of gene expression. Using an RNA virus composed of three particles, we demonstrated that the RNA in one of the virions is released more easily than the other two in vitro. The differential RNA release is due to distinct interactions between the viral capsid protein and the RNAs. The ease of RNA release is also correlated with the more rapid accumulation of that RNA in infected plants. Our study identified a novel role for capsid-RNA interactions in the regulation of a viral infection.
PMCID: PMC4093861  PMID: 24672042
15.  Fusion of mApple and Venus fluorescent proteins to the Sindbis virus E2 protein leads to different cell-binding properties 
Virus research  2013;177(2):138-146.
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in real-time single virus particle studies to visualize, track and quantify the spatial and temporal parameters of viral pathways. However, potential functional differences between the wild type and the FP-tagged virus may specifically affect particular stages in the virus life-cycle. In this work, we genetically modified the E2 spike protein of Sindbis virus (SINV) with two FPs. We inserted mApple, a red FP, or Venus, a yellow FP, at the N-terminus of the E2 protein of SINV to make SINV-Apple and SINV-Venus. Our results indicate that SINV-Apple and SINV-Venus have similar levels of infectivity and are morphologically similar to SINV-wild-type by negative stain transmission electron microscop. Both mutants are highly fluorescent and have excellent single-particle tracking properties. However, despite these similarities, when measuring cell entry at the single-particle level, we found that SINV-Apple and SINV-Venus are different in their interaction with the cell surface and FPs are not always interchangeable. We went on to determine that the FP changes the net surface charge on the virus particles, the folding of the spike proteins, and the conformation of the spikes on the virus particle surface, ultimately leading to different cell-binding properties between SINV-Apple and SINV-Venus. Our results are consistent with recent findings that FPs may alter the biological and cellular localization properties of bacterial proteins to which they are fused.
PMCID: PMC3797254  PMID: 23916968
Alphaviruses; fluorescent proteins; surface properties
16.  The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study 
Clinics  2014;69(11):750-757.
The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure.
A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories.
There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth.
It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications.
PMCID: PMC4255074  PMID: 25518033
Transoral Atlantoaxial Reduction Plate; Accuracy; Atlantoaxial Dislocation; Transoral Transpedicular Screw
17.  The sociocultural health behavioral model and disparities in colorectal cancer screening among Chinese Americans 
The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening.
Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be “never screened” for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care.
The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates.
PMCID: PMC4214268  PMID: 25364475
Colorectal cancer; Cancer screening; Chinese Americans; Sociocultural health behavior model; Structural equation modeling
18.  Physiochemical Properties of Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast: a Localized Bacterial Adhesive 
The journal of physical chemistry. B  2013;117(36):10492-10503.
To colonize surfaces, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus employs a polar polysaccharide, the holdfast, located at the end of a thin, long stalk protruding from the cell body. Unlike many other bacteria which adhere through an extended extracellular polymeric network, the holdfast footprint area is tens of thousands times smaller than that of the total bacterium cross-sectional surface, making for some very demanding adhesion requirements. At present, the mechanism of holdfast adhesion remains poorly understood. We explore it here along three lines of investigation: a) the impact of environmental conditions on holdfast binding affinity, b) adhesion kinetics by dynamic force spectroscopy, and c) kinetic modeling of the attachment process to interpret the observed time-dependence of the adhesion force at short and long time scales. A picture emerged in which discrete molecular units called adhesins are responsible for initial holdfast adhesion, by acting in a cooperative manner.
PMCID: PMC3926197  PMID: 23924278
Caulobacter crescentus; bacterial bioadhesive; atomic force microscopy; dynamic force spectrometry; adhesion kinetics
19.  Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2014;31(3):226-230.
Objective: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China.
Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks.
Results: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier.
Conclusion: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4287022  PMID: 25330515
Hemophilia B; Factor IX; mutation; Intron 3; mRNA splice site
20.  Association of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5 gene with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han people 
Meta Gene  2014;2:514-524.
MLL5, a member of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase family, has been implicated in the control of the cell cycle progression and survival. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the interaction of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5 gene polymorphism and CAD in a Chinese Han population.
Using a case–control study of Chinese CAD patients (n = 565) and healthy controls (n = 694), we investigated the MLL5 gene polymorphism by the use of polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) analysis.
For total, the distribution of SNP1 (rs12671368) and SNP2 (rs2192932) genotypes showed a significant difference between CAD and control participants (P1 = 0.03, P2 = 0.02). For total the distribution of SNP1 (rs12671368) and SNP2 (rs2192932) alleles in the dominant model (GG vs. AA + AG) and the recessive model (AA vs. AG + GG) showed a significant difference between CAD and control participants (for allele: P1 < 0.01 and P2 = 0.05, for dominant model: P1 > 0.05 and P2 = 0.02, for recessive model: P1 = 0.03 and P2 = 0.78, respectively). For total the significant difference of the distribution of SNP1 and SNP2 in the dominant model and recessive model was retained after adjusting for covariates (for dominant model: SNP1 OR: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–2.64, P = 0.02; SNP2 OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.36–0.72, P = 0.01; for recessive model: SNP1 OR: 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–2.64, P < 0.01; SNP2 OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.35–1.22, P = 0.18).
The GG genotype of rs12671368 and the AA genotype of rs2192932 in the MLL5 gene could be protective genetic markers of CAD.
PMCID: PMC4287819  PMID: 25606435
MLL5; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Coronary artery disease; Case–control study
21.  Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang 
The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR.
The Cardiovascular Risk Survey was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each WHR level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR for detecting cardiovascular risk factors.
In women, the WHR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of serum total cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia increased as the WHR increased. The same results were not observed among men. The optimal WHR cutoffs for predicting hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and ≥ two of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 in men and 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.89 in women, respectively.
Higher cutoffs for the WHR are required in the identification of Han adults aged ≥ 35 years with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang.
PMCID: PMC4122671  PMID: 25074400
Cutoff; Waist-to-hip ratio; Cardiovascular risk factors; Han adults; Xinjiang
22.  Association of Egr3 genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Uygur and Han of China 
Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction are the foundation of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Endothelial cell activation is mediated by the level of gene transcription. Early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a critical determinant of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling in activated endothelial cells. If endothelial cells are excessively activated, it may lead to vasculopathic diseases, such as pathologic angiogenesis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the Egr3 gene polymorphisms and CAD.
Two independent case–control studies that involved the Han group (409 CAD patients and 351 control subjects) and the Uygur group (299 CAD patients and 303 control subjects) analysed the relationship between Egr3 SNPs (rs1996147 and rs1008949) and CAD. Genotyping was undertaken using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay.
The entire Uygur group and the males in the Uygur group showed a higher frequency of the A allele (rs1996147) in CAD patients than in the control subjects (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, the distribution of the recessive model of rs1996147 (AA vs GG + AG) for the total sample and the males was significantly different between CAD patients and control participants (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, respectively), and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (Total: OR = 1.705; 95% CI: 1.166-2.494, P = 0.006; males: OR = 1.908, 95% CI: 1.189-3.062, P = 0.007). However, for Uygur females, we did not observe a difference in the allele frequency or genotypic distribution of rs1996147 between CAD patients and control participants. Similarly, the distribution of the rs1996147 allele frequency or genotypes showed no significant difference between patients with CAD and control participants in the Han group. The distribution of rs1008949 genotypes, dominant model, recessive model, and allele frequency did not show a significant difference between patients with CAD and the control subjects in the Han and Uygur groups.
rs1996147 may be a novel polymorphism of the Egr3 gene associated with CAD in males of the Chinese Uygur population.
PMCID: PMC4040484  PMID: 24886494
Egr3; Coronary artery disease; Polymorphism
23.  Folate receptor-targeted liposomes enhanced the antitumor potency of imatinib through the combination of active targeting and molecular targeting 
Imatinib inhibits platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and evidence shows that PDGFR participates in the development and progression of cervical cancer. Although imatinib has exhibited preclinical activity against cervical cancer, only minimal clinical therapeutic efficacy was observed. This poor therapeutic efficacy may be due to insufficient drug delivery to the tumor cells and plasma protein binding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore a novel folate receptor (FR)-targeted delivery system via imatinib-loaded liposomes to enhance drug delivery to tumor cells and to reduce plasma protein binding.
Imatinib was remote-loaded into FR-targeted liposomes which were prepared by thin film hydration followed by polycarbonate membrane extrusion. Encapsulation efficiency, mean size diameter, and drug retention were characterized and cellular uptake, cell cytotoxicity, and cell apoptosis on cervical cancer HeLa cells were evaluated. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies were also carried out with FR-targeted imatinib liposomes, simple imatinib liposomes, and free imatinib.
High encapsulation efficiency (>90%), appropriate mean particle size (143.5 nm), and zeta potential (−15.97 mV) were obtained for FR-targeted imatinib liposomes. The drug release profile showed minimal imatinib leakage (<5%) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH =7.4 within 72 hours of incubation, while more leakage (>25%) was observed in PBS at pH =5.5. This indicates that these liposomes possess a certain degree of pH sensitivity. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the FR-targeted imatinib liposomes promoted a six-fold IC50 reduction on the non-targeted imatinib liposomes from 910 to 150 μM. In addition, FR-targeted imatinib liposomes enhanced HeLa cell apoptosis in vitro compared to the non-targeted imatinib liposomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that both targeted and non-targeted liposomes exhibited long circulation properties in Kunming mice.
These findings indicate that the nano-sized FR-targeted PDGFR antagonist imatinib liposomes may constitute a promising strategy in cervical cancer therapy through the combination of active targeting and molecular targeting.
PMCID: PMC4019625  PMID: 24855354
liposomes; imatinib; folate receptor; tumor targeting; PDGFR
24.  Association between the APC gene D1822V variant and the genetic susceptibility of colorectal cancer 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):139-144.
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene polymorphisms are believed to contribute to tumor susceptibility. However, the association between genetic variants (A/T) in the APC gene D1822V polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility remains unknown. To determine this association, a case-control study was performed. The genotype of the APC gene D1822V variants was analyzed by DNA sequencing in blood samples collected from 196 patients with CRC and 279 healthy subjects. There were no significant associations between the case and control groups in the distribution of AT [odds ratio (OR), 0.604; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.355–1.029) and TT genotypes (OR, 0.438; 95% CI, 0.045–4.247) relative to the AA genotype. The ratio of the T allele was significantly lower (P=0.047) in the case group compared with the control group (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.374–0.997), indicating that the T allele conferred a protective effect in CRC. The frequency of the AT genotype among the subjects diagnosed at >45 years of age was lower than those diagnosed at a younger age (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that the T allele of the D1822V polymorphism may exert a protective effect against CRC, however, these findings require further validation in a larger sample size.
PMCID: PMC4063591  PMID: 24959234
colorectal cancer; APC gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; genetic susceptibility
25.  Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4759.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
PMCID: PMC3996487  PMID: 24755767

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