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1.  Establishing a Pilot Surveillance System for Venous Thromboembolism 
doi:10.5210/ojphi.v6i1.5090
PMCID: PMC4050827
venous thromboembolism; pulmonary embolism; deep vein thrombosis; incidence; recurrence
2.  Operationalization of community-based participatory research principles across the National Cancer Institute’s Community Network Programs 
American Journal of Public Health  2011;102(6):1195-1203.
Objectives
To examine how the National Cancer Institute-funded Community Network Program (CNP) operationalized principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR).
Methods
Based on our review of the literature and extant CBPR measurement tools, scientists from nine of 25 CNPs developed a 27-item questionnaire to self-assess CNP operationalization of nine CBPR principles.
Results
Of 25 CNPs, 22 (88%) completed the questionnaire. Most scored well on CBPR principles to recognize community as a unit of identity, build on community strengths, facilitate co-learning, embrace iterative processes in developing community capacity, and achieve a balance between data generation and intervention. CNPs varied in extent to which they employed CBPR principles of addressing determinants of health, sharing power among partners, engaging community in research dissemination, and striving for sustainability.
Conclusions
Although tool development in this field is in its infancy, findings suggest that fidelity to CBPR processes can be assessed in a variety of settings.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300304
PMCID: PMC3292685  PMID: 22095340
Cancer disparities; community health; empowerment; health status disparities; indigenous populations; minority health; partnerships; training
3.  Relation of Worsened Renal Function during Hospitalization for Heart Failure to Long-Term Outcomes and Rehospitalization 
Worsened renal function (WRF) during heart failure (HF) hospitalization is associated with in-hospital mortality, but there are limited data regarding its relationship to long-term outcomes after discharge. The influence of WRF resolution is also unknown. This retrospective study analyzed patients who received care from a large health system and had a primary hospital discharge diagnosis of HF between 1/2000 and 6/2008. Renal function was estimated from creatinine levels during hospitalization. The first available value was considered baseline. WRF was defined a creatinine increase of ≥0.3mg/dl on any subsequent hospital day compared to baseline. Persistent WRF was defined as having WRF at discharge. Proportional hazards regression, adjusting for baseline renal function and potential confounding factors, was used to assess time to re-hospitalization or death. Among 2465 patients who survived to discharge, 887 (36%) developed WRF. Median follow up was 2.1 years. In adjusted models, WRF was associated with higher rates of post-discharge death or re-hospitalization (HR 1.12, 95%CI 1.02 – 1.22). Among those with WRF, 528 (60%) had persistent WRF while 359 (40%) recovered. Persistent WRF was significantly associated with higher post-discharge event rates (HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.02 – 1.27), whereas transient WRF showed only a non-significant trend towards risk (HR 1.09 95%CI 0.96-1.24). In conclusion, among patients surviving hospitalization for HF, WRF was associated with increased long-term mortality and re-hospitalization, particularly if renal function did not recover by the time of discharge.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.045
PMCID: PMC3016846  PMID: 21146690
heart failure; cardiorenal syndrome; mortality; morbidity
4.  Dual specificity phosphatase-1 as a pharmacogenetic modifier of inhaled steroid response among asthma patients 
Background
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are considered first-line treatment for persistent asthma; yet, there is significant variability in treatment response. Dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) appears to mediate the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids.
Objective
To determine whether variants in the DUSP1 gene are associated with clinical response to ICS treatment.
Methods
Study participants with asthma were drawn from the following multi-ethnic cohorts: the Genetics of Asthma in Latino Americans (GALA) study, the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE), and the Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-ethnicity (SAPPHIRE). We screened GALA participants for genetic variants that modified the relationship between ICS use and bronchodilator response. We then replicated our findings in SAGE and SAPPHIRE participants. In a group of SAPPHIRE participants treated with ICS for 6 weeks, we examined whether a DUSP1 polymorphism was associated with changes in forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and self-reported asthma control.
Results
DUSP1 polymorphisms, rs881152 and rs34507926, localized to different haplotype blocks and appeared to significantly modify the relationship between ICS use and bronchodilator response among GALA participants. This interaction was also seen for rs881152 among SAPPHIRE, but not SAGE participants. Among the group of SAPPHIRE patients prospectively treated with ICS for 6 weeks, rs881152 genotype was significantly associated with changes in self-reported asthma control but not FEV1.
Conclusion
DUSP1 polymorphisms were associated with clinical response to ICS therapy, and therefore, may be useful in the future to identify asthma patients more likely to respond to this controller treatment.
Clinical implications
These findings further our understanding of ICS pharmacogenetics and will hopefully result in improved tailoring of this controller therapy among individuals with asthma and in better disease control.
Capsule summary
We identified genetic variants in DUSP1 which appeared to mediate the clinical response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication. These findings may eventually assist in identifying individuals with asthma most likely to respond this controller therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.06.007
PMCID: PMC2943151  PMID: 20673984
Asthma; inhaled corticosteroids; dual specificity phosphatase-1; DUSP1; corticosteroid responsiveness
5.  A cluster-randomized trial to provide clinicians inhaled corticosteroid adherence information for their patients with asthma 
Background
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) non-adherence is common among patients with asthma; however, interventions to improve adherence have often been complex and not easily applied to large patient populations.
Objective
To assess the effect of supplying patient adherence information to primary care providers.
Methods
Patients and providers were members of a health system serving southeast Michigan. Providers (88 intervention; 105 control) and patients (1,335 intervention; 1,363 control) were randomized together by practice. Patients were age 5–56 years; had a diagnosis of asthma; and had existing prescriptions for ICS medication. Adherence was estimated using prescription and fill data. Unlike clinicians in the control arm, intervention arm providers could view updated ICS adherence information on their patients via electronic prescription software, and further details on patient ICS use could be viewed by selecting that option. The primary outcome was ICS adherence in last 3-months of the study period.
Results
At study end for the intention-to-treat analysis, ICS adherence was not different among patients in the intervention arm when compared with those in the control arm (21.3% vs. 23.3%, respectively; P=0.553). However, adherence was significantly higher among patients whose clinician elected to view their detailed adherence information (35.7%) when compared with both control arm patients (P=0.026) and intervention arm patients whose provider did not view adherence data (P=0.002).
Conclusions
Overall, providing adherence information to clinicians did not improve ICS use among patients with asthma. However, patient use may improve when clinicians are sufficiently interested in adherence to view the details of this medication use.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.03.034
PMCID: PMC2917519  PMID: 20569973
Medication adherence; inhaled corticosteroids; asthma; randomized controlled trial
6.  Race-Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated with Inhaled Steroid Adherence among Adults with Asthma 
Rationale: Adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication is known to be low overall, but tends to be lower among African-American patients when compared with white patients.
Objectives: To understand the factors that contribute to ICS adherence among African-American and white adults with asthma.
Methods: Eligible individuals had a prior diagnosis of asthma, one or more ICS prescriptions, and were members of a large health maintenance organization in southeast Michigan. Individuals were sent a survey that included questions about internal factors (e.g., patient beliefs, knowledge, and motivation) and external factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, barriers to care, social support, and stressors) potentially related to ICS adherence. Adherence was calculated using electronic prescription and fill data. Stepwise regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence before and after stratifying by race-ethnicity.
Measurements and Main Results: Surveys were returned by 1,006 (56.3%) of 1,787 eligible patients. Adjusting for internal factors, but not external factors, diminished the relationship between race-ethnicity and ICS adherence. Among African-American patients, readiness to take ICS medication was the only internal or external factor significantly associated with ICS adherence; it explained 5.6% of the variance in adherence. Among white patients, perceived ICS necessity, ICS knowledge, doctors being perceived as the source of asthma control, and readiness to take medication were the internal factors associated with ICS adherence; these accounted for 19.8% of the variance in adherence.
Conclusions: Factors associated with ICS adherence appear to differ between African-American and white patients, suggesting that group-specific approaches are needed to improve adherence.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200808-1233OC
PMCID: PMC2599867  PMID: 18849496
medication adherence; inhaled corticosteroids; asthma; race-ethnicity; patient compliance
7.  STUDY ON GROWTH OF RICKETTSIAE  
A system has been described in which the penetration of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (Karp strain) into tissue culture cells can be quantitated, and the factors affecting this process studied. The results indicated that rickettsial penetration in vitro depended largely on the viability of the organisms. Certain components of the fluid environment such as the divalent cations and protein were found to be of importance. The temperature dependence of the penetration process was found to vary with the nature of the suspending medium. A number of compounds related to L-glutamic acid enhanced penetration, whereas metabolic inhibitors depressed this process. Aureomycin at concentrations between 50 and 250 µg./ml. inhibited the penetration of rickettsiae while chloramphenicol at similar concentrations was ineffective. The results are discussed in terms of the biological and biochemical properties of this group of agents.
PMCID: PMC2136944  PMID: 13620854

Results 1-7 (7)