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1.  Assessment of Olfactory Function in MAPT-Associated Neurodegenerative Disease Reveals Odor-Identification Irreproducibility as a Non-Disease-Specific, General Characteristic of Olfactory Dysfunction 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(11):e0165112.
Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer’s disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms. We evaluated olfactory dysfunction in 28 carriers of two MAPT mutations (p.N279K, p.P301L), which cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Olfactory dysfunction in carriers does not appear to be allele specific, but is strongly age-dependent and precedes symptomatic onset. Severe olfactory dysfunction, however, is not a fully penetrant trait at the time of symptom onset. Principal component analysis revealed that olfactory dysfunction is not odor-class specific, even though individual odor responses cluster kindred members according to genetic and disease status. Strikingly, carriers with incipient olfactory dysfunction show poor inter-test consistency among the sets of odors identified incorrectly in successive replicate tests, even before severe olfactory dysfunction appears. Furthermore, when 78 individuals without neurodegenerative disease and 14 individuals with sporadic Parkinson’s disease were evaluated twice at a one-year interval using the Brief Smell Identification Test, the majority also showed inconsistency in the sets of odors they identified incorrectly, independent of age and cognitive status. While these findings may reflect the limitations of these tests used and the sample sizes, olfactory dysfunction appears to be associated with the inability to identify odors reliably and consistently, not with the loss of an ability to identify specific odors. Irreproducibility in odor identification appears to be a non-disease-specific, general feature of olfactory dysfunction that is accelerated or accentuated in neurodegenerative disease. It may reflect a fundamental organizational principle of the olfactory system, which is more “error-prone” than other sensory systems.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165112
PMCID: PMC5113898  PMID: 27855167
2.  Genetic disorders with tau pathology: a review of the literature and report of two patients with tauopathy and positive family histories 
Neuro-degenerative diseases  2015;16(0):12-21.
Background
Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the pathologic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and insoluble tau protein within neurons and glia. Although most cases are sporadic, hereditary tauopathies have also been reported.
Summary
In this article, we review genetic disorders in which tau pathology has been reported and present two novel families with primary tauopathies. Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) cause a small subset of primary tauopathies. Mutations in 21 other genes and a 18q deletion syndrome have also been reported to be associated with tau pathology reminiscent of Alzheimer’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, argyrophilic grain disease, or Pick’s disease. In eight of the 21 genes, tau pathology was only seen in cases with some “specific” mutations. In the remaining genes, tau pathology, often in the form of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary lesions, was a common finding but was “not mutation-specific”. The probands of the two families were diagnosed with progressive supranuclear palsy based on clinicopathological evaluation. Their family histories were relevant for parkinsonism in three siblings of Family 1 and one brother and the father from Family 2, but these were not autopsy-confirmed. DNA from the brains of the probands from these families was screened for MAPT and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutations, but no mutations were identified.
doi:10.1159/000440840
PMCID: PMC4674317  PMID: 26550830
3.  Three families with Perry syndrome from distinct parts of the world 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;20(8):884-888.
Objectives
Perry syndrome consists of autosomal dominant Parkinsonism, depression, weight loss, and central hypoventilation. Eight mutations in 16 families have been reported: p.F52L, p.G67D, p.G71R, p.G71E, p.G71A, p.T72P, p.Q74P, and p.Y78C located in exon 2 of the dynactin 1 (DCTN1) gene on chromosome 2p13.1.
Methods
Genealogical, clinical, genetic, and functional studies were performed in three kindreds from New Zealand, the United States, and Colombia. A diaphragmatic pacemaker was implanted in the proband from the Colombian family to treat her respiratory insufficiency. Dopaminergic therapy was initiated in probands from two families.
Results
Besides the probands, 17 symptomatic relatives from all families were identified. The cardinal signs of Perry syndrome were present in all three probands with symptomatic disease onset in their fifth or sixth decade of life. Parkinsonism was moderate with a partial response to dopaminergic treatment. All affected persons but two died of respiratory insufficiency. The proband from the Colombian family is alive most likely due to early diagnosis and implantation of a diaphragmatic pacemaker. Two-and-a-half-year follow-up examination has revealed that the diaphragmatic pacemaker is optimally functioning without any major complications. In the Colombian and US families, the DCTN1 p.G71R and in the New Zealand family the DCTN1 p.Y78C mutations were identified. In functional assays, both mutations altered microtubule binding consistent with a pathogenic role.
Conclusions
Perry syndrome is a rare condition, but new cases are expected to be diagnosed worldwide. Early diagnosis prevents life-threatening acute respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic pacemakers should be considered as an effective symptomatic treatment option.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.05.004
PMCID: PMC4125456  PMID: 24881494
4.  In vivo dopaminergic and serotonergic dysfunction in DCTN1 gene mutation carriers 
Introduction
We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess dopaminergic and serotonergic terminal density in three subjects carrying a mutation in the DCT1 gene, two clinically affected with Perry syndrome.
Methods
All subjects had brain imaging using 18F-6-fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA, dopamine synthesis and storage), (+)-11C-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2), and 11C-raclopride (RAC, dopamine D2/D3 receptors). One subject also underwent PET with 11C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (DASB, serotonin transporter).
Results
FDOPA-PET and DTBZ-PET in the affected individuals showed a reduction of striatal tracer uptake. Also, RAC-PET showed higher uptake in these area. DASB-PET showed significant uptake changes in left orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left caudate and left ventral striatum.
Conclusions
Our data showed evidence of both striatal dopaminergic and widespread cortical/subcortical serotonergic dysfunctions in individuals carrying a mutation in the DCTN1 gene.
doi:10.1002/mds.25893
PMCID: PMC4139463  PMID: 24797316
Perry syndrome; dynactin gene; positron emission tomography; dopaminergic dysfunction; serotonergic dysfunction
5.  A novel de novo pathogenic mutation in CACNA1A gene 
doi:10.1002/mds.25198
PMCID: PMC3477248  PMID: 23038654
episodic ataxia type 2; CACNA1A; p.R1346Stop; acetazolamide; cerebellar vermis
6.  First neuropathological description of a patient with Parkinson's disease and LRRK2 p.N1437H mutation 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2011;18(4):332-338.
The c.4309A>C mutation in the LRRK2 gene (LRRK2 p.N1437H) has recently been reported as the seventh pathogenic LRRK2 mutation causing monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, only two families worldwide have been identified with this mutation. By screening DNA from seven brains of PD patients, we found one individual with seemingly sporadic PD and LRRK2 p.N1437H mutation. Clinically, the patient had levodopa-responsive PD with tremor, and developed severe motor fluctuations during a disease duration of 19 years. There was severe and painful ON-dystonia, and severe depression with suicidal thoughts during OFF. In the advanced stage, cognition was slow during motor OFF, but there was no noticeable cognitive decline. There were no signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus had unsatisfactory results on motor symptoms. The patient committed suicide. Neuropathological examination revealed marked cell loss and moderate alpha-synuclein positive Lewy body pathology in the brainstem. There was sparse Lewy pathology in the cortex. A striking finding was very pronounced ubiquitin-positive pathology in the brainstem, temporolimbic regions and neocortex. Ubiquitin positivity was most pronounced in the white matter, and was out of proportion to the comparatively weaker alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. Immunostaining for tau was mildly positive, revealing non-specific changes, but staining for TDP-43 and FUS was entirely negative. The distribution and shape of ubiquitin positive lesions in this patient differed from the few previously described patients with LRRK2 mutations and ubiquitin pathology, and the ubiquitinated protein substrate remains undefined.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.11.019
PMCID: PMC3330199  PMID: 22154298
Autosomal Dominant Parkinsonism; LRRK2; alpha-Synuclein; Ubiquitin; Deep Brain Stimulation; Suicide
7.  An African-American Family with Dystonia 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2011;17(7):547-550.
The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5,870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.04.019
PMCID: PMC3137742  PMID: 21601506
Dystonia; Genetics; African American; DYT6; THAP1; Adult-Onset Dystonias; Dystonia, Hereditary; Focal Dystonia
8.  Whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool in a family with episodic ataxia type 1 
Mayo Clinic proceedings  2015;90(3):366-371.
Complex neurological phenotypes are inherently difficult to diagnose. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a new tool in the neurologist's diagnostic armamentarium. WES can be applied to investigate the “diagnostic odyssey” cases. These cases involve patients with rare diseases of likely genetic etiology who have failed to obtain a diagnosis by clinical evaluation and targeted gene testing.
The 22-year-old adopted proband presented with episodes of jerking ataxic movements that affected his whole body and mild intellectual developmental disability. He underwent numerous multidisciplinary and multicentric evaluations throughout his life that failed to establish a clear diagnosis. Following his visit to the Mayo Clinic, WES was applied for genetic determination of the unknown disorder in the proband, his biological parents and sister. Besides, four other paternal relatives were reported to have similar complaints. Additional clinical evaluation, and magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG) of the proband were performed to verify the phenotype after the WES results were available.
Eleven months after the proband's initial visit, WES identified the c.1210G>A (p.V404I) mutation in the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 1 gene in the proband, his father, and his sister, and thus the diagnosis of episodic ataxia type 1 was established. The proband's MRI demonstrated mild vermian hypoplasia, EMG myokymic discharges, and EEG generalized background slowing. Acetazolamide therapy was beneficial for him at the daily dose of 500 mg.
doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.01.001
PMCID: PMC4354704  PMID: 25659636
Episodic ataxia type 1; KCNA1 gene mutation; therapy with acetazolamide; whole exome sequencing
9.  Clinical presentation of a patient with SLC20A2 and THAP1 deletions: differential diagnosis of oromandibular dystonia 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2015;21(3):329-331.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.12.024
PMCID: PMC4408548  PMID: 25609077
SLC20A2; THAP1; oromandibular dystonia; basal ganglia calcification; IBGC3; genetic testing
10.  LRRK2 variation and Parkinson's disease in African Americans 
The global impact of LRRK2 mutations is yet to be realized with a lack of studies in specific ethnic groups, including those of Asian and African descent. Herein we investigated the frequency of common LRRK2 variants by complete exon sequencing in a series of publicly available African American Parkinson's disease patients. Our study identified three novel synonymous exonic variants and thirteen known coding variations however, there did not appear to be any frequent (>5%) pathogenic mutations. Given the ethnic-specific LRRK2 variation previously identified in PD further studies in under-represented populations are warranted.
doi:10.1002/mds.23163
PMCID: PMC2939165  PMID: 20669299
Parkinsonism; Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2; genetics
11.  Three sib-pairs of autopsy-confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;21(2):101-105.
Objective
To describe the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of three sib-pairs of pathologically-confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).
Methods
We searched the Mayo Clinic neurodegenerative diseases brain bank for cases of PSP in which more than one family member had pathologically-confirmed PSP. Clinical and pathological data were reviewed and all individuals were screened for mutations in MAPT, by sequencing exons 1, 7, and 9 – 13.
Results
We identified three sib-pairs of pathologically-confirmed PSP. Sufficient information was available to suggest an autosomal dominant inheritance in two. The mean age at symptom onset was 41 years in one pair, and 76 in the other two. The young onset pair had a p.S285R mutation in MAPT, but no mutations were detected in the other two.
Conclusions
All sib-pairs had typical pathological features of PSP; however, the age at onset of the sib-pair with MAPT mutation was significantly younger than sporadic PSP. Future studies are warranted to identify a possible genetic basis for PSP associated with late onset and typical PSP pathology.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.10.028
PMCID: PMC4306617  PMID: 25443551
progressive supranuclear palsy; MAPT; p.S285R; tau pathology
12.  Autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease caused by SNCA duplications 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2015;22(Suppl 1):S1-S6.
The discovery in 1997 that mutations in the SNCA gene cause Parkinson’s disease (PD) greatly advanced our understanding of this illness. There are pathogenic missense mutations and multiplication mutations in SNCA. Thus, not only a mutant protein, but also an increased dose of wild-type protein can produce autosomal dominant parkinsonism. We review the literature on SNCA duplications and focus on pathologically-confirmed cases. We also report a newly-identified American family with SNCA duplication whose proband was autopsied. We found that over half of the reported cases with SNCA duplication had early-onset parkinsonism and non-motor features, such as dysautonomia, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hallucinations (usually visual) and cognitive deficits leading to dementia. Only a few cases have presented with typical features of PD. Our case presented with depression and RBD that preceded parkinsonism, and dysautonomia that led to an initial diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Dementia and visual hallucinations followed. Our patient and the other reported cases with SNCA duplications had widespread cortical Lewy pathology. Neuronal loss in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 2/3 regions were seen in about half of the autopsied SNCA duplication cases. Similar pathology was also observed in SNCA missense mutation and triplication carriers.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.09.007
PMCID: PMC4820832  PMID: 26350119
Parkinson’s disease; alpha-synuclein; SNCA; duplication; pathology
13.  A familial form of parkinsonism, dementia, and motor neuron disease: a longitudinal study 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;20(11):1129-1134.
Objective
To describe clinical, positron emission tomography (PET), pathological, and genetic findings of a large kindred with progressive neurodegenerative phenotypes in which the proband had autopsy-confirmed corticobasal degeneration (CBD).
Methods
Five family members, including the proband, were examined neurologically. Clinical information from the other family members was collected by questionnaires. Three individuals underwent PET with 11C-dihydrotetrabenazine and 18F-fludeoxyglucose. The proband was examined post-mortem. Genetic studies were performed.
Results
The pedigree contains 64 individuals, including 8 affected patients. The inheritance is likely autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance. The proband developed progressive speech and language difficulties at the age of 64 years. Upon examination at the age of 68 years, she showed non-fluent aphasia, word-finding difficulties, circumlocution, frontal release signs, and right-sided bradykinesia, rigidity, and pyramidal signs. She died 5 years after disease onset. The neuropathology was consistent with CBD, including many cortical and subcortical astrocytic plaques. Other family members had progressive neurodegenerative phenotypes – two were diagnosed with parkinsonism and behavioral problems, two with parkinsonism alone, one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alone, one with dementia, and one with progressive gait and speech problems. PET on three potentially affected individuals showed no significant pathology. Genetic sequencing of DNA from the proband excluded mutations in known neurodegenerative-related genes including MAPT, PGRN, LRRK2, and C9ORF72.
Conclusions
Families with such complex phenotypes rarely occur. They are usually associated with MAPT mutations; however, in this family, MAPT mutations have been excluded, implicating another causative gene or genes. Further genetic studies on this family may eventually disclose the etiology.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.07.014
PMCID: PMC4252974  PMID: 25175602
Cognitive Disorders; Dementia; corticobasal degeneration; genetics; PET; Parkinson's disease/Parkinsonism
14.  Early-onset Parkinson's disease due to PINK1 p.Q456X mutation - clinical and functional study 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;20(11):1274-1278.
Background
Recessive mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). The clinical phenotype of families that have this PINK1-associated disease may present with different symptoms, including typical PD. The loss of the PINK1 protein may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which causes dopaminergic neuron death.
Methods
The clinical phenotypes of a large Polish family with EOPD and an identified PINK1 homozygous nonsense mutation were assessed. Ubiquitination and degradation of mitochondrial parkin substrates as well as mitochondrial bioenergetics were investigated as direct functional readouts for PINK1's kinase activity in biopsied dermal fibroblasts.
Results
A four-generation family was genealogically evaluated. Genetic screening identified two affected subjects who were both homozygous carriers of the pathogenic PINK1 p.Q456X substitution. Both patients presented with dystonia and gait disorders at symptom onset. Seven heterozygous mutation carriers remained unaffected. Functional studies revealed that the PINK1 p.Q456X protein is non-functional in activating the downstream ubiquitin ligase parkin and priming the ubiquitination of its substrates, and that the RNA levels of PINK1 were significantly reduced.
Conclusions
The PINK1 p.Q456X mutation leads to a decrease in mRNA and a loss of protein function. The foot dystonia and gait disorders seen at disease onset in affected members of our family, which were accompanied by parkinsonism had a similar clinical presentation to what has been described in previous reports of PINK1 mutation carriers.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.08.019
PMCID: PMC4253017  PMID: 25226871
PINK1 p.Q456X mutation; familial Parkinson's disease; autosomal recessive parkinsonism; clinical characteristic; mitochondrial dysfunction
15.  Mitochondrial targeting sequence variants of the CHCHD2 gene are a risk for Lewy body disorders 
Neurology  2015;85(23):2016-2025.
Objective:
To assess the role of CHCHD2 variants in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body disease (LBD) in Caucasian populations.
Methods:
All exons of the CHCHD2 gene were sequenced in a US Caucasian patient-control series (878 PD, 610 LBD, and 717 controls). Subsequently, exons 1 and 2 were sequenced in an Irish series (355 PD and 365 controls) and a Polish series (394 PD and 350 controls). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies were performed on pathologic LBD cases with rare CHCHD2 variants.
Results:
We identified 9 rare exonic variants of unknown significance. These variants were more frequent in the combined group of PD and LBD patients compared to controls (0.6% vs 0.1%, p = 0.013). In addition, the presence of any rare variant was more common in patients with LBD (2.5% vs 1.0%, p = 0.050) compared to controls. Eight of these 9 variants were located within the gene's mitochondrial targeting sequence.
Conclusions:
Although the role of variants of the CHCHD2 gene in PD and LBD remains to be further elucidated, the rare variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence may be a risk factor for Lewy body disorders, which may link CHCHD2 to other genetic forms of parkinsonism with mitochondrial dysfunction.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002170
PMCID: PMC4676755  PMID: 26561290
16.  Parkinsonian Syndrome in Familial Frontotemporal Dementia 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;20(9):957-964.
Parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was first described in families with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PRGN) genes. Since then, mutations in several other genes have been identified for FTD with Parkinsonism, including chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), chromatin modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B), valosin-containing protein (VCP), fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive DNA-binding protein (TARDBP). The clinical presentation of patients with familial forms of FTD with Parkinsonism is highly variable. The Parkinsonism seen in FTD patients is usually characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome and is mostly associated with the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD); however, some cases may present with classical Parkinson’s disease. In other cases, atypical Parkinsonism resembling progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has also been described. Although rare, Parkinsonism in FTD may coexist with motor neuron disease. Structural neuroimaging, which is crucial for the diagnosis of FTD, shows characteristic patterns of brain atrophy associated with specific mutations. Structural neuroimaging is not helpful in distinguishing among patients with parkinsonian features. Furthermore, dopaminergic imaging that shows nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in FTD with Parkinsonism cannot discriminate parkinsonian syndromes that arise from different mutations. Generally, Parkinsonism in FTD is levodopa unresponsive, but there have been cases where a temporary benefit has been reported, so dopaminergic treatment is worth trying, especially, when motor and non-motor manifestations can cause significant problems with daily functioning. In this review, we present an update on the clinical and genetic correlations of FTD with Parkinsonism.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.06.004
PMCID: PMC4160731  PMID: 24998994
Parkinsonism; familial; frontotemporal dementia; genetics; autosomal dominant; mutation; phenotype
17.  ALS-FTD complex disorder due to C9ORF72 gene mutation – description of first Polish family 
European neurology  2014;72(0):64-71.
Background
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are complex neurodegenerative disorders that can be either sporadic or familial and can overlap clinically and pathologically. We present the first Central-Eastern European family with ALS-FTD syndrome due to a C9ORF72 repeat expansion.
Methods
We studied a family consisting of 37 family members, and six of these family members were genetically evaluated for C9ORF72 expansions. Family members were evaluated clinically, by history, and by chart review.
Results
Five generations of the family were studied, and six affected family members were identified. All affected members were females and had a different clinical presentation, which was either ALS, FTD, or both. Among genetically evaluated subjects, five carried a C9ORF72 expansion; four of these individuals remain clinically unaffected.
Conclusion
Our report reveals that the hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9ORF72, which is the most common genetic cause of ALS-FTD complex disorder, is also present in Central-Eastern Europe. Further studies are needed to assess the frequency of this expansion in the Polish population with familial as well as sporadic ALS, FTD, and the ALS-FTD complex disorder.
doi:10.1159/000362267
PMCID: PMC4111969  PMID: 24861139
ALS-FTD complex disorder; familial ALS-FTD; C9ORF72 gene mutation; phenotype
18.  A Novel Tau Mutation in Exon 12, p.Q336H, Causes Hereditary Pick Disease 
Pick disease (PiD) is a frontotemporal lobar degeneration with distinctive neuronal inclusions (Pick bodies) that are enriched in 3-repeat (3R) tau. Although mostly sporadic, mutations in the tau gene (MAPT) have been reported. We screened 24 cases of neuropathologically confirmed PiD for MAPT mutations and found a novel mutation (c.1008G>C, p.Q336H) in one patient. Pathogenicity was confirmed on microtubule assembly and tau filament formation assays. The patient was compared to sporadic PiD and PiD associated with MAPT mutations from a review of the literature. The patient had behavioral changes at 55 years of age, followed by reduced verbal fluency, parkinsonism and death at 63 years of age. His mother and maternal uncle had similar symptoms. Recombinant tau with p.Q336H mutation formed filaments faster than wild type tau, especially with 3R tau. It also promoted more microtubule assembly than wild type tau. We conclude that mutations in MAPT, including p.Q336H, can be associated with clinical, pathologic, and biochemical features that are similar to those in sporadic PiD. The pathomechanism of p.Q336H, and another previously reported variant at the same codon (p.Q336R), appears to be unique to MAPT mutations in that they not only predispose to abnormal tau filament formation but also facilitate microtubule assembly in a 3R tau-dependent manner.
doi:10.1097/NEN.0000000000000248
PMCID: PMC4607649  PMID: 26426266
Dementia; Frontotemporal dementia; FTDP-17; FTLD-tau; Pick disease; Tau protein; Tau gene
19.  DCTN1 mutation analysis in families with progressive supranuclear palsy-like phenotype 
JAMA neurology  2014;71(2):208-215.
doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.5100
PMCID: PMC4169198  PMID: 24343258
20.  Update on novel familial forms of Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2014;20(0 1):S29-S34.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders classified as synucleinopathies, which are defined by the presence of α-synuclein protein pathology. Genetic studies have identified a total of 18 PARK loci that are associated with PD. The SNCA gene encodes the α-synuclein protein. The first pathogenic α-synuclein p.A53T substitution was discovered in 1997; this was followed by the identification of p.A30P and p.E46K pathogenic substitutions in 1998 and 2004, respectively. In the last year, two possible α-synuclein pathogenic substitutions, p.A18T and p.A29S, and two probable pathogenic substitutions, p.H50Q and p.G51D have been nominated. Next-generation sequencing approaches in familial PD have identified mutations in the VPS35 gene. A VPS35 p.D620N substitution remains the only confirmed pathogenic substitution. A second synucleinopathy, MSA, originally was considered a sporadic condition with little or no familial aggregation. However, recessive COQ2 mutations recently were nominated to be the genetic cause in a subset of familial and sporadic MSA cases. Further studies on the clinicogenetics and pathology of parkinsonian disorders will facilitate clarification of the molecular characteristics and pathomechanisms underlying these disorders.
doi:10.1016/S1353-8020(13)70010-5
PMCID: PMC4215194  PMID: 24262183
SNCA; VPS35; PD; MSA; Genetics; Familial
21.  An adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia accompanied by brain calcifications 
Journal of neurology  2013;260(10):10.1007/s00415-013-7093-x.
doi:10.1007/s00415-013-7093-x
PMCID: PMC3865925  PMID: 24036850
adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia; CSF1R; calcification; computed tomography; white matter; differential diagnosis
22.  Parkinsonian features in hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) and CSF1R mutations 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2013;19(10):869-877.
Atypical Parkinsonism associated with white matter pathology has been described in cerebrovascular diseases, mitochondrial cytopathies, osmotic demyelinating disorders, leukoencephalopathies including leukodystrophies, and others. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with symptomatic onset in midlife and death within a few years after symptom onset. Neuroimaging reveals cerebral white matter lesions that are pathologically characterized by non-inflammatory myelin loss, reactive astrocytosis, and axonal spheroids. Most cases are caused by mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene.
We studied neuropathologically verified HDLS patients with CSF1R mutations to assess Parkinsonian features. Ten families were evaluated with 16 affected individuals. During the course of the illness, all patients had at least some degree of bradykinesia. Fifteen patients had postural instability, and seven had rigidity. Two patients initially presented with Parkinsonian gait and asymmetrical bradykinesia. These two patients and two others exhibited bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and tremor (two with resting) early in the course of the illness. Levodopa/carbidopa therapy in these four patients provided no benefit, and the remaining 12 patients were not treated. The mean age of onset for all patients was about 45 years (range, 18-71) and the mean disease duration was approximately six years (range, 3-11).
We also reviewed HDLS patients published prior to the CSF1R discovery for the presence of Parkinsonian features. Out of 50 patients, 37 had gait impairments, 8 rigidity, 7 bradykinesia, and 5 resting tremor. Our report emphasizes the presence of atypical Parkinsonism in HDLS due to CSF1R mutations.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.05.013
PMCID: PMC3977389  PMID: 23787135
HDLS; CSF1R mutation; Parkinsonism; Autosomal dominant; White matter disorders
23.  A novel tau mutation, p.K317N, causes globular glial tauopathy 
Acta neuropathologica  2015;130(2):199-214.
Globular glial tauopathy (GGT) are 4-repeat tauopathies neuropathologically characterized by tau-positive, globular glial inclusions, including both globular oligodendroglial inclusions (GOI) and globular astrocytic inclusions (GAI). No mutations have been found in 25 of the 30 GGT cases reported in the literature who have been screened for mutations in microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT). In this report, six patients with GGT (four with subtype III and two with subtype I) were screened for MAPT mutations. They included 4 men and 2 women with a mean age at death of 73 years (55–83 years) and mean age at symptomatic onset of 66 years (50–77 years). Disease duration ranged from 5 to 14 years. All were homozygous for the MAPT H1 haplotype. Three patients had a positive family history of dementia, and a novel MAPT mutation (c.951G>C, p.K317N) was identified in one of them, a patient with subtype III. Recombinant tau protein bearing the lysine-to-asparagine substitution at amino acid residue 317 was used to assess functional significance of the variant on microtubule assembly and tau filament formation. Recombinant p.K317N tau had reduced ability to promote tubulin polymerization. Recombinant 3R and 4R tau bearing the p.K317N mutation showed decreased 3R tau and increased 4R tau filament assembly. These results strongly suggest that the p.K317N variant is pathogenic. Sequencing of MAPT should be considered in patients with GGT and a family history of dementia or movement disorder. Since several individuals in our series had a positive family history but no MAPT mutation, genetic factors other than MAPT may play a role in disease pathogenesis.
doi:10.1007/s00401-015-1425-0
PMCID: PMC5039015  PMID: 25900293
FTDP-17; globular glial tauopathy (GGT); hereditary tauopathies; tau biochemistry; tau gene (MAPT)
24.  Similarities between familial and sporadic autopsy-proven progressive supranuclear palsy 
Neurology  2013;80(22):2076-2078.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a relatively common neurodegenerative tauopathy clinically characterized by parkinsonism, axial rigidity, and supranuclear gaze palsy. Pathologic findings of PSP are neuronal loss, gliosis, and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon, and brainstem; there is increasing recognition of clinicopathologic variants of PSP.1
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318294b2eb
PMCID: PMC3716405  PMID: 23635960
25.  DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser mutation screening in Parkinson’s disease and pathologically confirmed Lewy body disease patients 
Recently, a novel mutation in exon 24 of DNAJC13 gene (p.Asn855Ser, rs387907571) has been reported to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD) in a multi-incident Mennonite family. In the present study we have sequenced the mutation containing exon of the DNAJC13 gene in a Caucasian series consisting of 1938 patients with clinical PD and 838 pathologically diagnosed Lewy Body Disease (LBD). Our sequence analysis did not identify any coding variants in exon 24 of DNAJC13. Two previously described variants in intron 23 (rs200204728 and rs2369796) were observed. Our results indicate that the region surrounding the DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser substitution is highly conserved and mutations in this exon are not a common cause of PD or LBD among Caucasian populations.
doi:10.1111/ene.12770
PMCID: PMC4542017  PMID: 26278106
DNAJC13; Parkinson’s disease; Lewy body disease; genetics

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