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2.  Middle-preserving pancreatectomy: report of two cases and review of the literature 
Background
Middle-preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a parenchyma-sparing surgical procedure which has recently been sporadically reported for the treatment of multicentric periampullary-pancreatic lesions. However, a comprehensive recognition of this procedure has not been clearly elucidated.
Case presentation
We herein report two patients undergoing MPP due to synchronous multicentric pancreatic neoplasm. Patient one was a 24-year-old woman with a multicentric solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) and patient two was a 36-year-old woman with a multicentric serous cystic neoplasm (SCN). Simultaneous atypical pancreaticoduodenectomy and atypical left pancreatectomy were performed in patient one; simultaneous standard pancreaticoduodenectomy and atypical left pancreatectomy with spleen preservation were performed in patient two. Approximately 6 cm and 5 cm segments of the middle portion of the pancreas were preserved, respectively. At follow-up at 36 months and 6 months respectively, patient one had developed diabetes and malabsorption requiring dietary control, exercise and pancreatic enzyme supplement whereas patient two showed normal fasting blood glucose without diarrhea. Both patients were disease-free and in good nutritional condition. We reviewed twenty cases of MPP that were previously reported in the literature. Patient characteristics, surgical techniques and short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed.
Conclusion
MPP is mainly beneficial for multicentric noninvasive periampullary-pancreatic lesions. However, for multicentric periampullary-pancreatic lesions involving even primary invasive cancers, as long as the invasive cancers affect only one side of the pancreas (proximal or distal), MPP could serve as a rational choice in well-selected patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-106
PMCID: PMC3681594  PMID: 23702284
Parenchyma-sparing; Pancreatectomy; Outcomes
3.  Ataxin-2 repeat-length variation and neurodegeneration 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(16):3207-3212.
Expanded glutamine repeats of the ataxin-2 (ATXN2) protein cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), a rare neurodegenerative disorder. More recent studies have suggested that expanded ATXN2 repeats are a genetic risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) via an RNA-dependent interaction with TDP-43. Given the phenotypic diversity observed in SCA2 patients, we set out to determine the polymorphic nature of the ATXN2 repeat length across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we genotyped the ATXN2 repeat in 3919 neurodegenerative disease patients and 4877 healthy controls and performed logistic regression analysis to determine the association of repeat length with the risk of disease. We confirmed the presence of a significantly higher number of expanded ATXN2 repeat carriers in ALS patients compared with healthy controls (OR = 5.57; P= 0.001; repeat length >30 units). Furthermore, we observed significant association of expanded ATXN2 repeats with the development of progressive supranuclear palsy (OR = 5.83; P= 0.004; repeat length >30 units). Although expanded repeat carriers were also identified in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease patients, these were not significantly more frequent than in controls. Of note, our study identified a number of healthy control individuals who harbor expanded repeat alleles (31–33 units), which suggests caution should be taken when attributing specific disease phenotypes to these repeat lengths. In conclusion, our findings confirm the role of ATXN2 as an important risk factor for ALS and support the hypothesis that expanded ATXN2 repeats may predispose to other neurodegenerative diseases, including progressive supranuclear palsy.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr227
PMCID: PMC3140823  PMID: 21610160
4.  Association of common KIBRA variants with episodic memory and AD risk 
Neurobiology of aging  2010;32(3):557.e1-557.e9.
KIBRA SNP rs17070145 was identified in a GWAS of memory performance, with some but not all follow-up studies confirming association of its T allele with enhanced memory. This allele was associated with reduced Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in one study, which also found overexpression of KIBRA in memory-related brain regions of ADs. We genotyped rs17070145 and 14 additional SNPs in 2571 LOADs vs. 2842 controls, including African-Americans. We found significantly reduced risk for rs17070145 T allele in the older African-American subjects (p=0.007) and a suggestive effect in the older Caucasian series. Meta-analysis of this allele in >8000 subjects from our and published series showed a suggestive protective effect (p=0.07). Analysis of episodic memory in control subjects did not identify associations with rs17070145, though other SNPs showed significant associations in one series. KIBRA showed evidence of overexpression in the AD temporal cortex (p=0.06) but not cerebellum. These results suggest a modest role for KIBRA as a cognition and AD risk gene, and also highlight the multifactorial complexity of its genetic associations.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.11.004
PMCID: PMC3065956  PMID: 21185624
Alzheimer's disease; Association studies in genetics; Case control studies

Results 1-4 (4)