Fourteen patients who developed B cell lymphomas or lymphoproliferative lesions after kidney, liver, heart, or heart-lung transplantation in Pittsburgh during 1981–1983 had active infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of the primary (six patients), reactivated (seven patients), or chronic (one patient) type. In transplant patients without tumors, the incidence of EBV infection was 30% (39 of 128). Only three of these patients had primary infections. Thus the frequency of active infection was significantly higher in patients with tumors, and patients with primary infections were at greater risk of developing tumors. Five of 13 tumors tested contained EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) and nine of 11 contained EBV genomes detected by DNA-DNA hybridization with BamHI K, BamHI W, or EcoRI B cloned probes. All EBNA-positive tumors, except one, were also positive by hybridization. Only one tumor was negative for both EBNA and EBV DNA. These data suggest that EBV plays an etiologic role in the development of these lesions.
Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients with fungal infection but in only 8% (3/36) of patients without fungal infection (P<0.0005). The cause of death, however, was usually multifactorial, and not solely due to the fungal infection. Fungal infections were associated with the following clinical factors: administration of preoperative steroids (P<0.05) and antibiotics (P<0.05), longer transplant operative time (P<0.02), longer posttransplant operative time (P<0.01), duration of antibiotic use after transplant surgery (P<0.001), and the number of steroid boluses administered to control rejection in the first 2 posttransplant months (P<0.01). Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis had fewer fungal infections than patients with other underlying liver diseases (P<0.05). A total of 41% (9/22) of Candida infections resolved, but all Aspergillus infections ended in death.
Thirty randomly selected patients with advanced chronic liver disease, which had been evaluated for possible liver transplantation, were sampled endoscopically at 7 alimentary tract locations to asses the frequency and amount of Candida carriage. Eighty-one percent (127/156) of the samples obtained contained Candida and 53% (82/156) yielded high counts (>300 CFU/ml). The most predominant Candida species isolated at each site was Candida albicans, which accounted for 103 (64%) of the 160 fungal isolates. The other Candida species isolated included C tropicalis 30 (19%), C krusei 16 (10%), and C glabrata 11 (7%).
Although the number of sites at which yeast was present and the quantities of yeast at each site varied widely among the patients studied, 100% of the patients had Candida in at least one site of the gastrointestinal tract. Eighty-six percent (24/28) of the duodenal aspirates contained Candida and 50% (14/28) of the duodenal samples contained greater than 300 CFU/ml. A positive culture from the stomach was a reliable predictor of the presence of Candida in the duodenum (P=0.000l), but a positive culture at no other site readily predicted the presence of Candida at yet another site. Importantly, there was no correlation between the presence or absence of Candida in either oral or rectal swabs and colonization at other anatomic sites within the gastrointestinal tract.
These findings are important in liver transplantation, particularly in those cases in which the bowel has been opened to create a choledochojejunostomy anastomosis. The operative attempts to reduce gastrointestinal fungal carriage using oral antifungal agents may be justified before liver transplantation in an effort to lower the risk of posttransplantation fungal infections, particularly in those patients expected to have a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy biliary reconstruction.
Twenty cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS), defined by the presence of EBV nuclear antigen and/or EBV DNA in tissues, were diagnosed in 1467 transplant recipients in Pittsburgh from 1981–1985. The frequency of occurrence in pediatric transplant recipients was 4% (10/253), while in adults it was 0.8% (10/1214) (P < .0005). The frequency of LPS in adults declined after 1983 coincidental with the introduction of cyclosporine monitoring. However there was no apparent decline of LPS in children. We describe these ten pediatric cases and one additional case of LPS in a child who received her transplant before 1981.
The frequency of EBV infection in 92 pediatric liver recipients was 63%. Of these subjects, 49% were seronegative and 77% of those acquired primary infection. Of 11 cases of pediatric EBV-associated LPS, 10 were in children who had primary infection shortly before or after transplantation. These results reinforce the importance of primary EBV infection in producing LPS, which was previously shown in adults. Children are at greater risk because they are more likely to be seronegative for EBV and to acquire primary infection.
Three clinical types of LPS were recognized in children. The first (5 cases) was a self-limited mononucleosislike syndrome. The second syndrome (4 cases) began similarly, but then progressed over the next two months to widespread lymphoproliferation in internal organs and death. The third type (2 cases) was an extranodal intestinal monoclonal B cell lymphoma, occurring late after primary infection.
We performed a retrospective serologic survey of 583 organ donors and 1043 transplant recipients for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Two (0.34%) of the 583 donors and 18 (1.7%) of the 1043 recipients had HIV-1 antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and by Western blot. Two of 5 seropositive recipients tested also had blood cultures positive for HIV-1. Seven (0.7%) of the 1043 transplant recipients had antibodies to HIV-1 before transplantation; 2 of these had hemophilia A, and 5 had previous transfusions. Eleven (1.3%) of 860 recipients followed for 45 days or more seroconverted to HIV-1 a mean of 96 days after transplantation. Likely sources of HIV-1 infection for 3 of these 11 recipients included a seropositive organ donor in 1 patient and high-risk blood donors in 2 patients. A definite source of HIV-1 infection was not found for the other 8 recipients, 3 of whom seroconverted to HIV-1 after institution of blood donor screening for HIV-1 antibodies. Seroconversion to HIV-1 was less common in kidney recipients than in liver, heart, or multiple-organ recipients (P<0.02). Nine (50%) of the 18 HIV-1 seropositive transplant recipients died a mean of 6 months after transplant surgery, and 9 (50%) are still alive a mean of 43 months after transplantation. AIDS-like illnesses occurred in 3 of the dead and 1 of the living patients and included pneumocystis pneumonia (3 cases), miliary tuberculosis (1 case), and recurrent cytomegalovirus infection (1 case). These data suggest that the course of HIV-1 infection is not more severe in transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine than in other hosts and that, despite screening of blood and organ donors, a small number of transplant recipients will become infected with HIV-1.
One hundred twenty-one adult liver transplant recipients were studied for the incidence, risk factors, and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. The overall incidence of infection was 59% for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 35% for herpes simplex virus (HSV), 25% for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 7% for varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Primary CMV infection occurred in 46% and reactivation CMV infection in 67% of the susceptible recipients. Symptomatic and disseminated CMV diseases were more common when patients developed primary infection (P < .01, for both comparisons). The donor organ appeared to be the only important source of CMV infection in seronegative recipients. The use of OKT3 antibodies was associated with disseminated CMV disease in patients with primary infection (P = .04) but not with reactivation infection (P > .10). Although most HSV infections were oral or genital reactivations, three cases of HSV hepatitis occurred – one was a primary infection. Symptomatic reactivations of HSV were observed in 53% of HSV-seropositive recipients who received OKT3, versus 31% of seropositive recipients who did not receive OKT3 (P = .05).
We studied 51 consecutive pediatric patients for the frequency and morbidity of viral infections after liver transplantation. The incidence of primary (67%) and reactivation (48%) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and reactivation (88%) cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was comparable to that seen in adult transplant recipients. However, fewer pediatric than adult transplant recipients experienced primary CMV infection (P < .01). Five (38%) of 13 CMV infections were symptomatic and included hepatitis, pneumonitis, enteritis, and mononucleosis. Two of 14 patients with primary EBV infection subsequently developed, at two months and two years after initial infection, an EBV-associated lymphoproliferative syndrome, and one of 10 patients with reactivated EBV infection developed a possible EBV-associated febrile encephalopathy. Other viruses causing infection in these children included herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rotavirus.
Cytomegalovirus disease is an important cause of morbidity following liver transplantation. To date there has not been an effective prophylaxis for CMV disease after liver transplantation. One hundred forty-three patients were randomized to receive either high dose oral acyclovir (800 mg 4 times a day) alone for 3 months after transplantation (acyclovir group) or intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg twice a day) for 14 days followed by high dose oral acyclovir to complete a 3-month regimen (ganciclovir group). Of 139 patients available for evaluation, 43 of 71 (61%) patients from the acyclovir group developed CMV infection compared with 16 of 68 (24%) from the ganciclovir group (relative risk, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.07–6.56; P<0.00001). Of those randomized, CMV disease was seen in 20 (28%) of the acyclovir group compared with 6 (9%) of the ganciclovir group (relative risk, 5.11; 95% confidence interval, 2.05–12.75; P=0.000l). The median time to onset of CMV infection was 45 days in the acyclovir group compared with 78 days in the ganciclovir group (P=0.004). The median time to onset of CMV disease was 40 days in the acyclovir group compared with 78 days in the ganciclovir patients (P=0.02). With respect to primary CMV infection, there was no difference in the rates in the 2 groups, but tissue invasive disease and recurrent CMV disease were less frequent in the ganciclovir group. It is concluded that a course of 2 weeks of ganciclovir immediately after transplantation followed by high dose oral acyclovir for 10 weeks is superior to a 12-week course of high dose oral acyclovir alone for prevention of both CMV infection and CMV disease after liver transplantation. However, the lack of significant effect in seronegative recipients who received grafts from seropositive donors suggests that other strategies are needed to prevent CMV infection in this high risk population.
Twelve patients developed herpes simplex (HSV) hepatitis a median of 18 days after solid organ transplantation. This is earlier than cytomegalovirus hepatitis, which usually occurs 30–40 days after transplantation. Eight recipients (67%) died, and in seven, the diagnosis was made at autopsy or <48 h before death. Clinical manifestations associated with mortality were hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), metabolic acidosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bacteremia. Laboratory abnormalities at diagnosis associated with mortality were high creatinine, low platelet counts, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, and a high percentage of band forms on the blood smear. Disseminated HSV disease was noted in four of six patients who had an autopsy and included involvement of lungs in three and the gastrointestinal tract in three. Five recipients developed DIC and all died. Pathologically, HSV hepatitis has two forms, focal and diffuse. All three patients with diffuse liver pathology died. However, three of seven with focal liver pathology survived with antiviral therapy, which suggests that early diagnosis and treatment may be lifesaving. None of these patients had received prophylactic acyclovir. It is possible that acyclovir prophylaxis may be able to prevent this disease.
Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC) are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy.
A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei.
There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %). There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU), and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC.
Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC.
Four Escherichia coli isolates harboring CTX-M-14, with a single Ala231→Val substitution compared to CTX-M-9, had three different ribotypes. Cefotaxime resistance was plasmid encoded and conjugatively transferable. Three isolates had the same plasmid restriction enzyme digestion profile, suggesting clonal spread of a resistant plasmid. A high kcat/Km value for cefotaxime (20.3 μM−1 s−1) but low values for ceftazidime and aztreonam (<0.02 μM−1 s−1) were observed in hydrolysis assays, indicating resistance to cefotaxime (MIC ⩾ 64 μg/ml) but susceptibility to ceftazidime (MIC ⩽ 2 μg/ml).
We determined the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in 19 adult patients. We found that malignancy was the most frequent underlying disease. The overall mortality rate was 58%. All 14 available isolates were identified as genomic species 2 (A. baumannii) by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and were found to be genetically distinct by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) with VanB phenotype-vanA genotype incongruence were found in all 39 VRE isolated from chicken carcasses and four human VRE isolates in Taiwan. Three identical mutations in the vanS gene were found in the VanB phenotype-vanA genotype VRE sequenced. This finding indicates possible transmission of glycopeptide resistance among different hosts.
A survey of 1,203 Escherichia coli isolates from 44 hospitals in Taiwan revealed that 136 (11.3%) isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones and that another 261 (21.7%) isolates had reduced susceptibility. Resistance was more common in isolates responsible for hospital-acquired (mostly in intensive care units) infections (17.5%) than in other adult inpatient (11.4%; P = 0.08) and outpatient isolates (11.9%; P > 0.1). Similarly, reduced susceptibility was more common in isolates responsible for hospital-acquired infections (30.9%) than in other adult inpatient (21.0%; P = 0.04) and outpatient (21.4%; P = 0.06) isolates. Isolates from pediatric patients were less likely to be resistant (1.3 versus 12.0%; P < 0.01) but were nearly as likely to have reduced susceptibility (17.7 versus 21.9%; P > 0.1) as nonpediatric isolates. There was an inverse relationship in the proportion of isolates that were resistant versus the proportion that had reduced susceptibility among isolates from individual hospitals (R = 0.031; P < 0.05). In an analysis of isolates from two hospitals, all 9 resistant strains possessed double point mutations in gyrA and all 19 strains with reduced susceptibility strains had single point mutations; no mutations were found among fully susceptible strains. Risk factors for resistance included underlying cancer (odds ratio [OR], 83; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 7.3 to 2,241; P < 0.001), exposure to a quinolone (OR, undefined; P = 0.02), and exposure to a nonquinolone antibiotic (OR, 20; CI95, 2.2 to 482; P < 0.001); underlying cancer was the only independent risk factor (OR, 83; CI95, 8.6 to 807; P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between any of these factors and reduced susceptibility. Whereas acute and chronic quinolone use in cancer patients is a major selective pressure for resistance, other undetermined but distinct selective pressures appear to be more responsible for reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in E. coli.
A total of 113 blood culture isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 10 hospitals in northern Taiwan were studied for SHV and TEM β-lactamase production. blaSHV was amplified from all isolates by PCR. TEM-type resistance, was found in 32 of the isolates and was of the TEM-1 type in all isolates. SHV-1, -2, -5, -11, and -12 and two novel enzymes were identified. These novel enzymes were designated SHV-25 and SHV-26 and had pIs of 7.5 and 7.6, respectively. Amino acid differences in comparison to the amino acid sequence of blaSHV-1 were found at positions T18A (ThrACC→AlaGCC), L35Q (LeuCTA→GluCAA), and M129V (MetATG→ValGTG) for SHV-25 and at position A187T (AlaGCC→ThrACC) for SHV-26. The results of substrate profiles and MIC determinations showed that the novel enzymes did not hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins, rendering the isolates susceptible to these agents. Inhibition profiles revealed that the 50% inhibitory concentration for SHV-26 was higher than those for SHV-1 and SHV-25, resulting in an intermediate resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Forty-nine ribotypes were identified, suggesting that major clonal spread had not occurred in any of the hospitals. According to the amino acid sequence, SHV β-lactamases in Taiwan may basically be derived through stepwise mutation from SHV-1 or SHV-11 and further subdivided by four routes. The stepwise mutations initiated from SHV-1 or SHV-11 to SHV-2, SHV-5, and SHV-12 comprise the evolutionary change responsible for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Taiwan. The stepwise mutations that lead to a non-ESBL (SHV-25) and the β-lactamase (SHV-26) with reduced susceptibility to clavulanic acid are possibly derived from SHV-11 and SHV-1, respectively. The results suggest a stepwise evolution of SHV β-lactamases in Taiwan.
Thirteen patients who had 16 episodes of bacteremia were observed between 1993 and 1997 in a pediatric oncology ward with a high background isolation rate of cefotaxime- or aztreonam-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Four blood isolates were Escherichia coli and 12 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, and these isolates harbored extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). All episodes of bacteremia were nosocomial, all except one of the episodes occurred in neutropenic patients, and all patients were treated with piperacillin or ceftazidime with amikacin and cefazolin prior to the onset of bacteremia. Nine of 13 patients were receiving extended-spectrum β-lactam treatment when the bacteremias caused by ESBL producers occurred. Molecular studies revealed that four K. pneumoniae SHV-2-producing isolates from 1994 were of the same clone. Other ESBL producers, including six that carried both TEM-1 and SHV-5, five that carried SHV-5, and one that carried SHV-2 alone, were unrelated. In conclusion, SHV-5 was present in 11 of the 16 isolates and coexisted with TEM-1 in 6 isolates. Acquisition of resistance genes probably occurred under antibiotic selection pressure. This study highlights the importance of routine checks for and detection of ESBL producers. Effective therapy against ESBL producers should be considered early for children who have malignancies and neutropenia and who are septic, despite treatment with a regimen that includes an extended-spectrum β-lactam, in a clinical setting of an increased incidence of ESBL-producing bacteria.
Nineteen renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin A and prednisone, eight kidney recipients receiving azathioprine and prednisone, and 12 healthy volunteers were immunized with 0.5 ml of trivalent influenza vaccine containing A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2), A/Brazil/11/78 (H1N1), and B/Singapore/222/79. Nine patients (47%) in the cyclosporin A group and five (63%) in the azathioprine group showed fourfold rises in titer to at least one virus strain compared with 12 (100%) in the control group.
A group of 124 children undergoing open-heart surgery was followed prospectively in order to estimate the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection due to transfused blood.
Ninety-three patients (75%) had complement fixation (CF) titers of < 1:4 against CMV on admission. Of this seronegative subgroup, nine patients (9.7%) subsequently became infected with CMV. All nine showed seroconversion, and six were viruric 12-14 weeks after surgery. Comparative seroepidemiological studies of the hospital population showed that in the age ranges studied (3-16 yr), the infections seen in the study group represented a significant excess over expectation. This infection rate was consistent with a model of transmission by blood transfusion with a risk of 2.7% per unit but not proven.
Thirty-one patients had CF antibody to CMV on admission. CMV was isolated from 14% of urines of seropositive children both before and after surgery, but only two patients showed CF antibody rises to CMV. Thus the frequency of CMV infection associated with open-heart surgery and transfusion could not be calculated in the seropositive subgroup.
CMV infection was not related to the primary diagnosis or to Down's syndrome.
During a 7-day period, a variety of bacteria, including opportunistic ones, were recovered from 23 rolls of adhesive tape being used in a 16-bed intensive care unit. All rolls of tape were sterile when received from the manufacturer. Mixed flora was recovered from a total of 15 rolls, whereas eight rolls yielded pure cultures. Organisms recovered included Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and various species of Enterobacteriaceae. Although no illness or infection arising directly from contaminated adhesive tape has been documented, we feel that a potential source of infection has been identified. Most important is the fact that such tape may contaminate the hands of personnel who handle it. Also, the adhesive tape may directly contaminate a patient since it is widely used to secure artificial airways and various drainage tubes which results in the tape coming into close contact with the mucous membranes lining the patient's respiratory and urogenital tracts.
Because combined administration of intramuscular and intravenous interferon has been partially successful in the incubationary treatment of rabies, the effect of direct interferon administration into the cerebrospinal fluid space was tested. After injecting 1,800 U of interferon into the cisterna magna or the lateral ventricle, periodic samples, obtained by cisternal taps, showed that 1 to 5% remained after 24 h, as opposed to the known clearance of interferon from the bloodstream to this level within minutes. The distributions of interferon and 131I-labeled albumin were similar as demonstrated by kinetics of clearance monitored over 24 h. Beginning with and after experimental infection of rabbits, daily intraventricular injections of one million units of interferon were given for as long as 3 weeks. Interferon was prepared from cell culture fluids after pressure dialysis and chromatography on Sephadex G-100. This intensive treatment did not prevent encephalitis, but prolonged the length of the incubation period by one- to two-thirds. The outcome after intraventricular administration was not as favorable as when one million units equally divided between intramuscular and intravenous injections were given at the time of challenge. Interferon administered in the subarachnoid space in this fashion is apparently inadequate to protect the rabbit against rabies. Its role as an adjunct measure, or other methods of administration in the nervous system, remains to be examined.
Interferons induced in the rabbit by Newcastle disease virus or by endotoxin have been further characterized as to their physicochemical stability and molecular size by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. Endotoxin-induced interferon obtained from serum was more labile than virus-induced interferon. Both endotoxin and virus induced interferons obtained from serum contained two peaks: a minor high molecular weight (>100,000) peak and a major lower molecular weight peak. The molecular weight of the major peak induced by endotoxin was 54,000, and that induced by Newcastle disease virus was 46,000. The gel filtration pattern of interferon recovered from the urine of animals inoculated with virus reflected faithfully the pattern found in serum except that there was proportionately less of the high molecular weight peak. However, the urine interferon from endotoxin-inoculated animals contained only one broad peak with a molecular weight of 35,000. This was not the peak fraction present in the serum of such animals. It is postulated that this may represent the basic unit of endotoxin-induced interferon, and that the serum components are either polymers or conjugates of this basic unit.
Postic, Bosko (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.), Catherine DeAngelis, Mary K. Breinig, and Monto Ho. Effect of temperature on the induction of interferons by endotoxin and virus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1277–1281. 1966.—The effect of ambient and body temperature on interferon formation in rabbits injected intravenously with virus differed from that seen after injection of endotoxin. Newcastle disease virus-induced interferon (VII) was elevated by increasing ambient temperature to 35 C, whereas cooling of the rabbit at 4 C resulted in low VII levels. Neither of these conditions affected the titers of endotoxin-induced interferon (EII). However, a significant enhancement of EII levels was found in sera of shorn rabbits, in which the body temperature was lower than in unshorn animals by 1.0 to 1.5 F and the pyrogenic response to endotoxin was less by about 2 F. This enhancement of EII by relatively low body temperatures was also in striking contrast to the reported enhancing effect of high body temperature of the rabbit on the lethal action of endotoxin. It is suggested that the temperature optimum for formation of EII is lower than for formation of VII.