Muraymycin, a potent translocase I (MraY) inhibitor, is produced by Streptomyces sp. NRRL30471. The muraymycin gene cluster (mur) was recently cloned, and bioinformatic analysis of mur34 revealed its encoding product exhibits high homology to a large family of proteins, including KanI and RacI in individual biosynthetic pathway of kanamycin and ribostamycin. However, the precise role of these proteins remains unknown.
Here we report the identification of Mur34 as the novel negative regulator involved in muraymycin biosynthesis. Independent disruption of mur34 on chromosome and cosmid directly resulted in significant improvement of muraymycin production by at least 10 folds, thereof confirming the negative function of Mur34 during muraymycin biosynthesis and realizing the engineered production of muraymycin in heterologous host. Gene expression analysis indicated that the transcription level of the mur genes in mur34 mutant (DM-5) was dramatically enhanced by ca. 30 folds. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Mur34 specifically bound to the promoter region of mur33. Further experiments showed that a 28-bp region downstream of the transcription start point (TSP) was protected by His6Mur34, and the −10 region is essential for the activity of mur33 promoter.
Mur34 plays an unambiguously negative role in muraymycin biosynthesis via binding to the upstream of mur33. More importantly, Mur34 represents a novel family of regulators acting in negative manner to regulate the secondary metabolites biosynthesis in bacteria.
The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases1 and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism, and lifespan2, 3. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human Sirt6 efficiently removes long chain fatty acyl groups, such as myristoyl, from lysine residues. The crystal structure of Sirt6 reveals a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate long chain fatty acyl groups. We demonstrate further that Sirt6 promotes the secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by removing the fatty acyl modification on K19 and K20 of TNFα. Protein lysine fatty acylation has been known to occur in mammalian cells, but the function and regulatory mechanisms of this modification were unknown. Our data suggest that protein lysine fatty acylation is a novel mechanism that regulates protein secretion. The discovery of Sirt6 as an enzyme that controls protein lysine fatty acylation provides new opportunities to investigate the physiological function of the previously ignored protein posttranslational modification.
Temporal lobe seizures have a significant chance to induce impairment of normal brain functions. Even after the termination of ictal discharges, during the post-ictal period, loss of consciousness, decreased responsiveness or other cognitive dysfunctions can persist. Previous studies have found various anatomical and functional abnormalities accompanying temporal lobe seizures, including an abnormal elevation of cortical slow waves. Intracranial electroencephalography studies have shown a prominent increase of lower frequency components during and following seizures that impair (complex partial seizures) but not those that preserve (simple partial seizures) normal consciousness and responsiveness. However, due to the limited spatial coverage of intracranial electroencephalography, the investigation of cortical slow waves cannot be easily extended to the whole brain. In this study, we used scalp electroencephalography to study the spectral features and spatial distribution of post-ictal slow waves with comprehensive spatial coverage. We studied simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures in 28 patients with temporal lobe seizures. We used dense-array electroencephalography and source imaging to reconstruct the post-ictal slow-wave distribution. In the studied cohort, we found that a ‘global’ spectral power shift to lower frequencies accompanied the increased severity of seizures. The delta spectral power relative to higher frequency bands was highest for secondarily generalized seizures, followed by complex partial seizures and lastly simple partial seizures. In addition to this ‘global’ spectral shift, we found a ‘regional’ spatial shift in slow-wave activity. Secondarily generalized seizures and complex partial seizures exhibited increased slow waves distributed to frontal areas with spread to contralateral temporal and parietal regions than in simple partial seizures. These results revealed that a widespread cortical network including temporal and fronto-parietal cortex is involved in abnormal slow-wave activity following temporal lobe seizures. The differential spectral and spatial shifts of post-ictal electroencephalography activity in simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures suggest a possible connection between cortical slow waves and behavioural and cognitive changes in a human epilepsy model.
cortical slowing; temporal lobe seizure; post-ictal state; consciousness; responsiveness
Sirt5, localized in the mitochondria, is a member of sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirt5 was shown to deacetylate and activate carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1. Most recently, Sirt5 was reported to be the predominant protein desuccinylase and demalonylase in the mitochondria because the ablation of Sirt5 enhanced the global succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In order to determine the physiological role of Sirt5 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated a germline Sirt5 deficient (Sirt5−/−) mouse model and performed a thorough metabolic characterization of this mouse line. Although a global protein hypersuccinylation and elevated serum ammonia during fasting were observed in our Sirt5−/− mouse model, Sirt5 deficiency did not lead to any overt metabolic abnormalities under either chow or high fat diet conditions. These observations suggest that Sirt5 is likely to be dispensable for the metabolic homeostasis under the basal conditions.
Mutations in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding domain of the CDKN1C gene were recently identified in patients with IMAGe syndrome. However, loss of PCNA binding and suppression of CDKN1C monoubiquitination by IMAGe-associated mutations hardly explain the reduced-growth phenotype characteristic of IMAGe syndrome. We demonstrate here that IMAGe-associated mutations in the CDKN1C gene dramatically increased the protein stability. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.815T>G (p.Ile272Ser), in the CDKN1C gene in three siblings manifesting clinical symptoms associated with IMAGe syndrome and their mother (unaffected carrier). PCNA binding to CDKN1C was disrupted in the case of p.Ile272Ser, and for two other IMAGe-associated mutations, p.Asp274Asn and p.Phe276Val. Intriguingly, the IMAGe-associated mutant CDKN1C proteins were fairly stable even in the presence of cycloheximide, whereas the wild-type protein was almost completely degraded via the proteasome pathway, as shown by the lack of degradation with addition of a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. These results thus suggested that the reduced-growth phenotype of IMAGe syndrome derives from CDKN1C gain-of-function due to IMAGe-associated mutations driving increased protein stability.
Decidualization is a crucial change required for successful embryo implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy. During this process, endometrial stromal cells differentiate into decidual cells in response to the ovarian steroid hormones of early pregnancy. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are known to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in multiple cell types, including uterine endometrial cells. Aberrant activation of ERK1/2 has recently been implicated in the pathological processes of endometriosis and endometrial cancer. However, the function of ERK1/2 signaling during implantation and decidualization is still unknown. To determine the role and regulation of ERK1/2 signaling during implantation and decidualization, we examine ERK1/2 signaling in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy using immunostaining and qPCR. Interestingly, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 were highest within decidual cells located at the implantation sites. Expression levels of ERK1/2 target genes were also significantly higher at implantation sites, when compared to either inter-implantation sites. To determine if ERK1/2 signaling is also important during human endometrial decidualization, we examined levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in cultured human endometrial stromal cells during in vitro decidualization. Following treatment with a well-established decidualization-inducing steroidogenic cocktail, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 were markedly increased. Treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, significantly decreased the expression of the known decidualization marker genes, IGFBP1 and PRL as well as inhibited the induction of known ERK1/2 target genes; FOS, MSK1, STAT1, and STAT3. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a protein previously shown to be critical for decidualization, was significantly reduced in this model. These results suggest that ERK1/2 signaling is required for successful decidualization in mice as well as human endometrial stromal cells and implicates C/EBPβ as a downstream target of ERK1/2.
Different control strategies exist for use in a brain-computer interface (BCI). Although process control is the prevailing control strategy for most sensorimotor rhythm based BCIs, the goal selection strategy more closely resembles normal motor control and may be more accurate, faster to use, and easier to learn. We describe here a sensorimotor rhythm based goal selection BCI and a pilot study to compare it with process control strategy in terms of accuracy and speed of use. In both trained and naïve subjects studied, goal selection outperformed process control.
Interferon-β (IFN-β) is a critical antiviral cytokine that is capable of modulating the systemic immune response. The transcriptional induction of IFN-β is a highly regulated process, involving the activation of pattern recognition receptors and their downstream signaling pathways. The Akt family of serine/threonine kinases includes three isoforms, of which two are present in macrophages. The specific role for the individual Akt isoforms in pattern recognition and signaling remains unclear. Here we report that the TLR3-mediated expression of IFN-β is blunted in cells lacking Akt1. The expression of IFN-β-inducible genes such as CCL5 and CXCL10 was also reduced in Akt1-deficient cells; the induction of TNF-α and CXCL2, whose expression does not rely on IFN-β, was not reduced in the absence of Akt1. Macrophages from Akt1−/− mice displayed deficient clearance of Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) along with reduced IFN-β expression. Our results demonstrate that Akt1 signals through β-catenin by phosphorylation on serine 552, a site that differs from the GSK3-β phosphorylation site. Stimulation of a chemically activated version of Akt1, in the absence of other TLR3-dependent signaling, was sufficient for accumulation and phosphorylation of β-catenin at serine 552. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Akt1 isoform is required for β-catenin-mediated promotion of IFN-β transcription downstream of TLR3 activation.
IFN-β; Akt kinase; β-catenin; innate immunity; chemically induced kinase; TLR3
A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.
No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period.
Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months) with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed.
Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29%) of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV) (54.05%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (51.08%), human bocavirus (BoCA) (33.78%), human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3) (15.41%), and adenovirus (ADV) (12.97%). Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV) but was only detected in 20 (5.41%) of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05). Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05).
Piconaviruses (EV/RV) and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.
This study aimed to explore the protective effect of hydrogen as an antioxidant on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Forty-eight SD rats were equally randomized into four groups: SHAM group, MCT group, MCT+Oral-H2 group and MCT+Inj-H2 group. The results showed that the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricle weight and right ventricular hypertrophy index in MCT group were significant higher than those in SHAM group; pulmonary inflammatory response, atrial natriuretic factor, 3-nitrityrosine and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were also increased significantly in MCT group. These indexes were decreased significantly in both MCT+Oral-H2 group and MCT+Inj-H2 group, which indicate Oral-H2 and Inj-H2 have similar effects of preventing the development of PH and mitigating RV hypertrophy. The protective effect of hydrogen is associated with its antioxidative ability and action of reducing pulmonary inflammatory response. While Oral-H2 is more convenient than Inj-H2, Oral-H2 may be ideal for clinical use in future.
Antioxidant; Hydrogen water; Pulmonary hypertension
Nuclear receptors (NRs) and their coregulators play fundamental roles in initiating and directing gene expression influencing mammalian reproduction, development and metabolism. SRA stem Loop Interacting RNA-binding Protein (SLIRP) is a Steroid receptor RNA Activator (SRA) RNA-binding protein that is a potent repressor of NR activity. SLIRP is present in complexes associated with NR target genes in the nucleus; however, it is also abundant in mitochondria where it affects mitochondrial mRNA transcription and energy turnover. In further characterisation studies, we observed SLIRP protein in the testis where its localization pattern changes from mitochondrial in diploid cells to peri-acrosomal and the tail in mature sperm. To investigate the in vivo effects of SLIRP, we generated a SLIRP knockout (KO) mouse. This animal is viable, but sub-fertile. Specifically, when homozygous KO males are crossed with wild type (WT) females the resultant average litter size is reduced by approximately one third compared with those produced by WT males and females. Further, SLIRP KO mice produced significantly fewer progressively motile sperm than WT animals. Electron microscopy identified disruption of the mid-piece/annulus junction in homozygous KO sperm and altered mitochondrial morphology. In sum, our data implicates SLIRP in regulating male fertility, wherein its loss results in asthenozoospermia associated with compromised sperm structure and mitochondrial morphology.
Stress is a risk factor for several cardiovascular pathologies. PPARα holds a fundamental role in control of lipid homeostasis by directly regulating genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation. Importantly, PPARα agonists are effective in raising HDL-cholesterol and lowering triglycerides, properties that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the role of stress and adrenergic receptor (AR)-related pathways in PPARα and HNF4α regulation and signaling in mice following repeated restraint stress or treatment with AR-antagonists administered prior to stress to block AR-linked pathways. Repeated restraint stress up-regulated Pparα and its target genes in the liver, including Acox, Acot1, Acot4, Cyp4a10, Cyp4a14 and Lipin2, an effect that was highly correlated with Hnf4α. In vitro studies using primary hepatocyte cultures treated with epinephrine or AR-agonists confirmed that hepatic AR/cAMP/PKA/CREB- and JNK-linked pathways are involved in PPARα and HNF4α regulation. Notably, restraint stress, independent of PPARα, suppressed plasma triglyceride levels. This stress-induced effect could be attributed in part to hormone sensitive lipase activation in the white adipose tissue, which was not prevented by the increased levels of perilipin. Overall, this study identifies a mechanistic basis for the modification of lipid homeostasis following stress and potentially indicates novel roles for PPARα and HNF4α in stress-induced lipid metabolism.
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), an extract of fetal porcine enamel, and TGF-β can both suppress adipogenic differentiation. However, there have been no studies that functionally link the role of EMD and TGF-β in vitro. Herein, we examined whether TGF-β signaling contributes to EMD-induced suppression of adipogenic differentiation. Adipogenesis was studied with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the presence of SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-βRI kinase activity. SB431542 reversed the inhibitory effect of EMD on adipogenic differentiation, based on Oil Red O staining and mRNA expression of lipid regulated genes. SB431542 also reduced EMD-stimulated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), an autocrine inhibitor of adipogenic differentiation. Moreover, short interfering (si)RNAs for CTGF partially reversed the EMD-induced suppression of lipid regulated genes. We conclude that the TGF-βRI - CTGF axis is involved in the anti-adipogenic effects of EMD in vitro.
Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF have been shown to play an important role during angiogenesis, but there are no data about their roles and association in missed abortion. In this study, we investigated the association of Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling in missed abortion.
Women with missed abortion (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 26) were included in the study. Real-time Reverse Transcription-PCR Analyses (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA levels of Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling molecules. The protein level for Dll4 was measured by immunohistochemistry.
Compared with induced abortion, the expression of VEGF was statistically reduced while the level of VEGFR1 and Notch1 was significantly up-regulated in missed abortion. Though other molecules (VEGFR2 and Dll4) were marginally higher in missed abortion, no statistical difference was observed. The expression of HIF-1a was significantly up-regulated, and close negatively correlated with VEGF in missed abortion. Both in induced abortion and missed abortion, Dll4 was positively correlated with Notch1.
The early pregnancy is in a hypoxic environment, this may encourage the angiogenesis, but severe hypoxic may inhibit the angiogenesis. Aberrant Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling may have a role in missed abortion.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a positive-stranded RNA virus which is capable of inhibiting innate immunity. Among virus-encoded proteins, the 3C protein compromises the type I interferon (IFN-I) response mediated by retinoid acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) or Toll-like receptor 3 that activates interferon regulatory 3 (IRF3) and IRF7. In the present study, we report that enterovirus 71 downregulates IRF7 through the 3C protein, which inhibits the function of IRF7. When expressed in mammalian cells, the 3C protein mediates cleavage of IRF7 rather than that of IRF3. This process is insensitive to inhibitors of caspase, proteasome, lysosome, and autophagy. H40D substitution in the 3C active site abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding motif has no effect. Furthermore, 3C-mediated cleavage occurs at the Q189-S190 junction within the constitutive activation domain of IRF7, resulting in two cleaved IRF7 fragments that are incapable of activating IFN expression. Ectopic expression of wild-type IRF7 limits EV71 replication. On the other hand, expression of the amino-terminal domain of IRF7 enhances EV71 infection, which correlates with its ability to interact with and inhibit IRF3. These results suggest that control of IRF7 by the 3C protein may represent a viral mechanism to escape cellular responses.
A novel handheld probe based on a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror for three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is described. The miniaturized probe consists of a MEMS mirror for delivering an excitation light beam to multiple preselected points at the tissue surface and an optical fiber array for collecting the fluorescent emission light from the tissue. Several phantom experiments based on indocyanine green, an FDA approved near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, were conducted to assess the imaging ability of this device. Tumor-bearing mice with systematically injected tumor-targeted NIR fluorescent probes were scanned to further demonstrate the ability of this MEMS-based FMT for imaging small animals.
To investigate the usage of a high-density EEG recording system and source imaging technique for localizing seizure activity in patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy.
High-density, 76-channel scalp EEG signals were recorded in ten patients with partial epilepsy. The patients underwent routine clinical pre-surgical evaluation and all had resective surgery with seizure free outcome. After applying a FINE (first principle vectors) spatial-temporal source localization and DTF (directed transfer function) connectivity analysis approach, ictal sources were imaged. Effects of number of scalp EEG electrodes on the seizure localization were also assessed using 76, 64, 48, 32, and 21 electrodes, respectively.
Surgical resections were used to assess the source imaging results. Results from the 76-channel EEG in the ten patients showed high correlation with the surgically resected brain regions. The localization of seizure onset zone from 76-channel EEG showed improved source detection accuracy compared to other EEG configurations with fewer electrodes.
FINE together with DTF was able to localize seizure onset zones of partial epilepsy patients. High-density EEG recording can help achieve improved seizure source imaging.
The present results suggest the promise of high-density EEG and electrical source imaging for noninvasively localizing seizure onset zones.
High-density EEG; Ictal activities; EEG source imaging; FINE; Epilepsy; directed transfer function
Contradictory results have been reported regarding the association between leptin level and breast cancer. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate this issue.
Published literature from PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database was retrieved. This study was performed based on different cases and control groups. The combined effect () with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model analysis.
Overall, the mean serum leptin level of case groups was significantly higher than that of control groups. A) For 9 studies comparing breast cancer cases and healthy controls the combined effect was 0.58 with 95% CI (0.48, 0.68). B) For 4 studies comparing premenopausal breast cancer cases and healthy controls the was 0.32 (0.12, 0.52). C) For 5 studies comparing postmenopausal cases and healthy controls the was 0.65 (0.46, 0.84). D) For 4 studies comparing breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.38 (0.17, 0.59). E) For 2 studies comparing premenopausal breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.33 (-0.25, 0.91). F) For 6 studies comparing postmenopausal breast cancer cases and breast benign controls the was 0.39 (0.19, 0.60). G) For 4 studies comparing lymph node metastasis positive cases and negative controls the was 0.72 (0.45, 1.00). H) For 3 studies comparing breast benign cases and healthy controls the was 0.71 (0.41, 1.01).
This meta-analysis suggests that leptin level plays a role in breast cancer and has potential for development as a diagnostic tool.
The functions of actin family members during development are poorly understood. To investigate the role of beta-actin in mammalian development, a beta-actin knockout mouse model was used. Homozygous beta-actin knockout mice are lethal at embryonic day (E)10.5. At E10.25 beta-actin knockout embryos are growth retarded and display a pale yolk sac and embryo proper that is suggestive of altered erythropoiesis. Here we report that lack of beta-actin resulted in a block of primitive and definitive hematopoietic development. Reduced levels of Gata2, were associated to this phenotype. Consistently, ChIP analysis revealed multiple binding sites for beta-actin in the Gata2 promoter. Gata2 mRNA levels were almost completely rescued by expression of an erythroid lineage restricted ROSA26-promotor based GATA2 transgene. As a result, erythroid differentiation was restored and the knockout embryos showed significant improvement in yolk sac and embryo vascularization. These results provide new molecular insights for a novel function of beta-actin in erythropoiesis by modulating the expression levels of Gata2 in vivo.
Coordinated bone growth is controlled by numerous mechanisms which are only partially understood because of the involvement of many hormones and local regulators. The C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), encoded by NPPC gene located on chromosome 2q37.1, is a molecule that regulates endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous growth plate and influences longitudinal bone growth. Two independent studies have described three patients with a Marfan-like phenotype presenting a de novo balanced translocation involving the same chromosomal region 2q37.1 and overexpression of NPPC. We report on two partially overlapping interstitial 2q37 deletions identified by array CGH. The two patients showed opposite phenotypes characterized by short stature and skeletal overgrowth, respectively. The patient with short stature presented a 2q37 deletion causing the loss of one copy of the NPPC gene and the truncation of the DIS3L2 gene with normal CNP plasma concentration. The deletion identified in the patient with a Marfan-like phenotype interrupted the DIS3L2 gene without involving the NPPC gene. In addition, a strongly elevated CNP plasma concentration was found in this patient. A possible role of NPPC as causative of the two opposite phenotypes is discussed in this study.
The formation of primordial follicles involves the interaction between the oocytes and surrounding somatic cells, which differentiate into granulosa cells. Estradiol-17ß (E) promotes primordial follicle formation in vivo and in vitro; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The expression of an ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) is downregulated in 8-day old hamster ovaries concurrent with the increase in serum estradiol levels and the formation of primordial follicles. The objectives of the present study were to determine the spatio-temporal expression and putative E regulation of EBP1 in ovarian cells during perinatal development with respect to primordial follicle formation. Hamster EBP1 nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were more than 93% and 98% similar, respectively, to those of mouse and human, and contained nucleolar localization signal, RNA-binding domain and several phosphorylation sites. EBP1 protein was present in somatic cells and oocytes from E15, and declined in oocytes by P1 and in somatic cells by P5. Thereafter, EBP1 expression increased through P7 with a transient decline on P8 primarily in interstitial cells. EBP1 mRNA levels mirrored protein expression pattern. E treatment on P1 and P4 upregulated EBP1 expression by P8 whereas E treatment on P4 downregulated it by 72 h suggesting a compensatory upregulation due to E pretreatment. Treatment with an FSH-antiserum, which suppressed primordial follicle formation, prevented the decline in EBP1 levels, and the effect was reversed by E treatment. Therefore, the results provide the first evidence that EBP1 may play an important role in mediating the effect of E in the differentiation of somatic cells into granulosa cells during primordial follicle formation.
The contribution of complement to the development of autoimmune diabetes has been proposed recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which act as regulators in autoimmunity, play a role in resistance to diabetes in absence of complement C3. Indeed, MDSC number was increased significantly in STZ-treated C3−/− mice. These cells highly expressed arginase I and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Importantly, depletion of MDSC led to the occurrence of overt diabetes in C3−/− mice after STZ. Furthermore, C3−/− MDSC actively suppressed diabetogenic T cell proliferation and prevented/delayed the development of diabetes in arginase and/or iNOS-dependent manner. Both Tregs and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are crucial for MDSC induction in STZ-treated C3−/− mice as depletion of Tregs or blocking TGF-β bioactivity dramatically decreased MDSC number. These findings indicate that MDSC are implicated in resistance to STZ-induced diabetes in the absence of complement C3, which may be helpful for understanding of mechanisms underlying preventive effects of complement deficiency on autoimmune diseases.
In the last few years, several new protein post-translational modifications that use intermediates in metabolism have been discovered. These include various acyl lysine modifications (formylation, propionylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, malonylation, succinylation, myristoylation) and cysteine succination. Here, we review the discovery and the current understanding of these modifications. Several of these modifications are regulated by the deacylases, sirtuins, which use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an important metabolic small molecule. Interestingly, several of these modifications in turn regulate the activity of metabolic enzymes. These new modifications reveal interesting connections between metabolism and protein post-translational modifications and raise many questions for future investigations.