Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata.
Bullacta exarata; structure; polysaccharide; mannoglucan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease with characteristics of chronic, progressive inflammatory joint synovial damage, which mainly encroaches upon the synovium of the joint. The use of traditional medicine to treat RA slows the development of RA to a certain extent; however, it often has numerous side-effects. Therefore, the focus of RA research is the identification of a new, safe and effective medicine. The aim of the present study was to use an ultra performance liquid chromatography and photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) method to detect the paeoniflorin component in a Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction and in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction. In addition, the effects of paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats were investigated. The results indicate that a UPLC-PDA method for determining the presence of paeoniflorin in the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction was successfully established. The method was fast, simple, sensitive, precise and valid. Paeoniflorin was shown to be a bioactive component of the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction that was absorbed into rat plasma. Paeoniflorin significantly improved the disease resistant ability of RA rats and reduced the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, thereby inhibiting inflammation and bone erosion in the rats with CIA. The observations are likely to lay the foundation for further study of the mechanism of paeoniflorin in the treatment of RA.
ultra performance liquid chromatography; Radix Paeoniae Alba; paeoniflorin; collagen-induced arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; bizhongxiao decoction
Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.
In wound healing and development, large epithelial sheets migrate collectively, in defined directions, and maintain tight cell–cell adhesion. This type of movement ensures an essential function of epithelia, a barrier, which is lost when cells lose connection and move in isolation. Unless wounded, epithelial sheets in cultures normally do not have overall directional migration. Cell migration is mostly studied when cells are in isolation and in the absence of mature cell–cell adhesion; the mechanisms of the migration of epithelial sheets are less well understood. We used small electric fields (EFs) as a directional cue to instigate and guide migration of epithelial sheets. Significantly, cells in monolayer migrated far more efficiently and directionally than cells in isolation or smaller cell clusters. We demonstrated for the first time the group size-dependent directional migratory response in several types of epithelial cells. Gap junctions made a minimal contribution to the directional collective migration. Breaking down calcium-dependent cell–cell adhesion significantly reduced directional sheet migration. Furthermore, E-cadherin blocking antibodies abolished migration of cell sheets. Traction force analysis revealed an important role of forces that cells in the leading rows exert on the substratum. With EF, the traction forces of the leading edge cells coordinated in directional re-orientation. Our study thus identifies a novel mechanism—E-cadherin dependence and coordinated traction forces of leading cells in collective directional migration of large epithelial sheets.
Collective cell migration; Electric fields; Galvanotaxis/electrotaxis; E-cadherin; Cell–cell adhesion; Traction force
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is highly dependent on interactions with the marrow microenvironment, of which osteogenic cells play a crucial role. While evidence is accumulating for an important role of intrinsic miR-17 in regulating HSCs and HPCs, whether miR-17 signaling pathways are also necessary in the cell-extrinsic control of hematopoiesis hereto remains poorly understood.
Using the immortalized clone with the characteristics of osteoblasts, FBMOB-hTERT, in vitro expansion, long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient disease (NOD/SCID) mice repopulating cell (SRC) assay revealed that the ectopic expression of miR-17 partly promoted the ability of FBMOB-hTERT to support human cord blood (CB) CD34+ cell expansion and maintain their multipotency. It also seemed that osteoblastic miR-17 was prone to cause a specific expansion of the erythroid lineage. Conversely, deficient expression of miR-17 partly inhibited the hematopoietic supporting ability of FBMOB-hTERT. We further identified that HIF-1α is responsible for, at least in part, the promoted hematopoietic supporting ability of FBMOB-hTERT caused by miR-17. HIF-1α expression is markedly enhanced in miR-17 overexpressed FBMOB-hTERT upon interaction with CB CD34+ cells compared to other niche associated factors. More interestingly, the specific erythroid lineage expansion of CB CD34+ cells caused by osteoblastic miR-17 was abrogated by HIF-1α knock down.
Our data demonstrated that CB CD34+ cell expansion can be partly promoted by osteoblastic miR-17, and in particular, ectopic miR-17 can cause a specific expansion of the erythroid lineage through augmenting HIF-1α in osteoblasts.
Oxygen conversion process between O2 and H2O by means of electrochemistry or photochemistry has lately received a great deal of attention. Cobalt-phosphate (Co-Pi) catalyst is a new type of cost-effective artificial oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) with amorphous features during photosynthesis. However, can such Co-Pi OEC also act as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst in electrochemical processes? The question remains unanswered. Here for the first time we demonstrate that Co-Pi OEC does be rather active for the ORR. Particularly, Co-Pi OEC anchoring on reduced graphite oxide (rGO) nanosheet is shown to possess dramatically improved electrocatalytic activities. Differing from the generally accepted role of rGO as an “electron reservoir”, we suggest that rGO serves as “peroxide cleaner” in enhancing the electrocatalytic behaviors. The present study may bridge the gap between photochemistry and electrochemistry towards oxygen conversion.
Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress).
In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits.
Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens.
Chicken; GWAS; Meat quality traits; Abdominal fat; Candidate genes
Temperature fluctuations significantly impact neurologic injuries in intensive care units. As benefits of therapeutic hypothermia continue to unfold, many of these discoveries are generated by studies in animal models undergoing experimental procedures under the influence of anesthetics. We studied the effect of induced hypothermia on neural electrophysiological signals of an uninjured brain in a rodent model while under isoflurane. Fourteen rats were divided into two groups (n=7 each), based on electrode placement, at either frontal-occipital (FO) or primary somatosensory (SS) cortical locations. Neural signals were recorded during normothermia (T = 36.5–37.5°C), mild hypothermia (T = 32–34°C) and hyperthermia (T = 38.5–39.5°C). Burst-suppression ratio (BSR) was used to evaluate EEGs, and amplitude-latency analysis was used to assess SSEPs. Hypothermia was characterized by an increased BSR (Mean+STD) of 0.58±0.06 in hypothermia versus 0.16±0.13 in normothermia, p<0.001 in FO; and 0.30±0.13 in hypothermia versus 0.04±0.04 in normothermia, p=0.006 in SS. There was potentiation of SSEP (2.89 ±1.24 times normothermic baseline in hypothermia, p=0.02) and prolonged peak latency (N10: 10.8±0.4 msec in hypothermia versus 9.1±0.3 msec in normothermia; P15: 16.2±0.8 msec in hypothermia versus 13.7±0.6 msec in normothermia; p<0.001), whereas hyperthermia was primarily marked by shorter peak latencies (N10: 8.6±0.2msec, P15: 12.6±0.4 msec; p<0.001). In the absence of brain injury in a rodent model, hypothermia induces significant increase to the SSEP amplitude while increasing SSEP latency. Hypothermia also suppressed EEGs at different regions of the brain by different degrees. The changes to SSEP and EEG are both reversible with subsequent rewarming.
somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs); EEG; burst suppression; hypothermia; anesthesia
Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou) as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing) as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require comprehensive laws implemented fully and supported by penalties and a combination of strong public health education.
tobacco control; smoke-free regulations; secondhand smoke
Left ventricular hypertrophy is a maladaptive response to pressure overload and an important risk factor for heart failure. Intermedin (IMD), a multi-functional peptide, plays important roles in cardiovascular protection. In this study, we revealed an autophagy-dependent mechanism involved in IMD’s protection against cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte death in heart hypertrophy. We observed that transverse aortic contraction (TAC) induction, Ang II or ISO exposure induced remarkable increase in the expression of endogenous IMD and its receptor components, CRLR, RAMP1 and RAMP3, in mouse hearts and H9c2 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, the heart size, heart weight/body weight ratios, cardiomyocyte size and apoptosis, interstitial collagen, hypertrophic markers including ANP and BNP expression were also significantly increased, which were effectively suppressed by IMD supplementation. In addition, IMD induced capillary angiogenesis and improved functions in hypertrophic hearts. We further observed that IMD induced strong autophagy in hypertrophic hearts and cultured cells, which was paralleling with the decrease in cardiomyocyte size and apoptosis. Furthermore, an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, was used to block the IMD-augmented autophagy level, and then the protection of IMD on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis was almost abrogated. We also observed that IMD supplementation stirred intracellular cAMP production, and augmented the ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by Ang II/ISO exposure in H9c2 cells. In addition, we inhibited PI3K, PKA and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways by using wortamannin, H89 and PD98059, respectively, in H9c2 cells co-incubating with both IMD and Ang II or ISO, and observed that these inhibitors effectively reduced IMD-augmented autophagy level, but only H89 and PD98059 pre-incubation abrogated the anti-apoptotic action of IMD. These results indicate that the endogenous IMD and its receptor complexes are induced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes and proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy, and the autophagy stirred by IMD supplementation is involved in its protection against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis through the activation of both cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathways.
To listen to the brain activities as a piece of music, we proposed the scale-free brainwave music (SFBM) technology, which translated scalp EEGs into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In the present study, the methodology was extended for deriving a quartet from multi-channel EEGs with artistic beat and tonality filtering. EEG data from multiple electrodes were first translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively. Then, these sequences were processed by a beat filter which adjusted the duration of notes in terms of the characteristic frequency. And the sequences were further filtered from atonal to tonal according to a key defined by the analysis of the original music pieces. Resting EEGs with eyes closed and open of 40 subjects were utilized for music generation. The results revealed that the scale-free exponents of the music before and after filtering were different: the filtered music showed larger variety between the eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions, and the pitch scale exponents of the filtered music were closer to 1 and thus it was more approximate to the classical music. Furthermore, the tempo of the filtered music with eyes closed was significantly slower than that with eyes open. With the original materials obtained from multi-channel EEGs, and a little creative filtering following the composition process of a potential artist, the resulted brainwave quartet opened a new window to look into the brain in an audible musical way. In fact, as the artistic beat and tonal filters were derived from the brainwaves, the filtered music maintained the essential properties of the brain activities in a more musical style. It might harmonically distinguish the different states of the brain activities, and therefore it provided a method to analyze EEGs from a relaxed audio perspective.
Bacterial products such as toxins can interfere with a variety of cellular processes, leading to severe human diseases. Clostridium difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB are the primary contributing factors to the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD). While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been shown that these toxins can alter chemotactic responses of neutrophils and intestinal epithelial cells leading to innate immune responses and tissue damages. The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. We investigated here the direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays and microfluidic devices. It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD.
C. difficile toxin A and B; human T lymphocyte; cell migration; chemotaxis; microfluidic device
Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E−6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.
Previous studies provide an ambiguous picture of creatine kinase (CK) expression and activities in malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum CK level in breast cancer patients.
Patients and Methods
823 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer were consecutively recruited as cases, and 823 age-match patients with benign breast disease were selected as controls. Serum CK was analyzed by commercially available standardized methods.
Serum CK level was significantly associated with breast cancer (P = 0.005) and subtypes of breast cancer, including breast cancer with diameter>2 cm (P = 0.031) and stage IIIbreast cancer (P = 0.025). The mean serum CK level in patients with>2 cm tumor was significantly lower than that in≤2 cm (P = 0.0475), and the mean serum CK level of stage III breast cancer patients was significantly lower than that of stage I and II breast cancer patients (P = 0.0246). Furthermore, a significant difference (P = 0.004) was observed between serum CK level and ERBB2+breast cancer not other molecular subtypes.
Serum CK levels in cases was significantly lower compared with controls. Notably, our results indicated for the first time that there was a negative correlation between serum CK levels and breast cancer stage. Serum CK level, which may reflect the status of host immunity, may be an important factor in determining breast cancer development and progression.
Although the treatment technology of sulfamethoxazole has been investigated widely, there are various issues such as the high cost, inefficiency, and secondary pollution which restricted its application. Bioflocculant, as a novel method, is proposed to improve the removal efficiency of PPCPs, which has an advantage over other methods. Bioflocculant MFX, composed by high polymer polysaccharide and protein, is the metabolism product generated and secreted by Klebsiella sp. In this paper, MFX is added to 1 mg/L sulfanilamide aqueous solution substrate, and the removal ratio is evaluated. According to literatures review, for MFX absorption of sulfanilamide, flocculant dosage, coagulant-aid dosage, pH, reaction time, and temperature are considered as influence parameters. The result shows that the optimum condition is 5 mg/L bioflocculant MFX, 0.5 mg/L coagulant aid, initial pH 5, and 1 h reaction time, and the removal efficiency could reach 67.82%. In this condition, MFX could remove 53.27% sulfamethoxazole in domestic wastewater, and the process obeys Freundlich equation. R2 value equals 0.9641. It is inferred that hydrophobic partitioning is an important factor in determining the adsorption capacity of MFX for sulfamethoxazole solutes in water; meanwhile, some chemical reaction probably occurs.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has historically been considered to be a toxic gas, an environmental and occupational hazard. However, with the discovery of its presence and enzymatic production through precursors of L-cysteine and homocysteine in mammalian tissues, H2S has recently received much interest as a physiological signaling molecule. H2S is a gaseous messenger molecule that has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in mammals, including vascular relaxation, angiogenesis, and the function of ion channels, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and heart injury. H2S is an endogenous neuromodulator and present studies show that physiological concentrations of H2S enhance NMDA receptor-mediated responses and aid in the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Moreover, in the field of neuronal protection, physiological concentrations of H2S in mitochondria have many favorable effects on cytoprotection.
Gait analysis is widely used in detecting human walking disorders. Current gait analysis methods like video- or optical-based systems are expensive and cause invasion of human privacy. This article presents a self-developed low-cost body inertial-sensing network, which contains a base station, three wearable inertial measurement nodes, and the affiliated wireless communication protocol, for practical gait discrimination between hemiplegia patients and asymptomatic subjects. Every sensing node contains one three-axis accelerometer, one three-axis magnetometer, and one three-axis gyroscope. Seven hemiplegia patients (all were abnormal on the right side) and 7 asymptomatic subjects were examined. The three measurement nodes were attached on the thigh, the shank, and the dorsum of the foot, respectively (all on the right side of the body). A new method, which does not need to obtain accurate positions of the sensors, was used to calculate angles of knee flexion/extension and foot in the gait cycle. The angle amplitudes of initial contact, toe off, and knee flexion/extension were extracted. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the three angle amplitudes examined (−0.52±0.98° versus 6.94±2.63°, 28.33±11.66° versus 47.34±7.90°, and 26.85±8.6° versus 50.91±6.60°, respectively). It was concluded that the body inertial-sensing network
platform provided a practical approach for wearable biomotion acquisition and was effective for discriminating gait symptoms between hemiplegia and asymptomatic subjects.
gait analysis; body sensor network; hemiplegia
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides alternatives. Bizhongxiao decoction (BZX) is a TCM complex, which has been used clinically for many years to treat RA. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF-1 levels in rats with RA, and to elucidate its mechanism of action.
Ninety healthy normal female SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal (control), model, BZX decoction, and the three dismantled formulae (I: heat-clearing and detoxication, II: dissipating dampness, and III: blood circulation promotion). Apart from the normal (control) group, the rats in each group were injected subcutaneously with bovine type II collagen and complete Freund adjuvant to establish a collagen-induced arthritis model, so that inhibition of foot swelling in the rats by BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae could be observed. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF in synovial joints at various time points.
Twenty-one days after the model was established, the levels of TNF and IL-1 were significantly higher in the model group, BZX decoction group and dismantled formula groups I, II and III than in the normal controls (P < 0.05). The levels of these cytokines were significantly higher in the model group than the BZX decoction or the three dismantled formula groups (P <0.01). At longer times, the TNF and IL-1 levels in model group rose gradually; those in the BZX decoction and dismantled formula groups were gradually reduced. The cytokine levels in the BZX decoction group were lower than in the three dismantled formula groups and continued to decline.
BZX decoction and the three dismantled formulae examined down-regulated the inflammatory factors IL-1 and TNF in collagen-induced arthritis rat models, but BZX exerted the strongest effect.
Bizhongxiao decoction; Rheumatoid arthritis; Interleukin-1; Tumor necrosis factor
In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain.
To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008.
Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights.
Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB.
The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups.
MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU.
MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity.
For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity.
We report an incarcerated internal hernia in a huge irreducible parastomal hernia-"hernia within hernia." A 70-year-old obese woman with diabetes who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection 20 years ago was admitted to our hospital with 20 years history of a huge irreducible bulge, 25 cm in diameter. An internal hernia due to an adhesive band extending from the sac wall to proximal colon was found in the parastomal hernia sac during an emergency laparotomy. We cut off the distal colon and relocated the colostomy stoma. The patient was discharged uneventfully 2 weeks after the surgery and was readmitted to have a further laparoscopic hernia repair 8 months later. Unfortunately, an unrecognized enterotomy occurred during the secondary surgery that led to an additional laparotomy during which the mesh was not contaminated by the bowel contents and was kept in place. At 22-month follow-up, there were no evidences of recurrence.
Ventral hernia; Incarceration; Intestinal obstruction; Herniorrhaphy
The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C had lower amount biogenic amines (Layú A: 112.2~579.5; Layú B: 144~593.8 mg/kg DW) than those at 20 °C (Layú A: 112.2~974.8; Layú B: 144~773.4 mg/kg DW), indicating that low temperature storage was a safer procedure.
Layú; Dry-cured; Free amino acids; Biogenic amines; Sucrose
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have been established as an electrophysiological tool for the prognostication of neurological outcome in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The early and late responses in SSEPs reflect the sequential activation of neural structures along the somatosensory pathway. This study reports that the SSEP can be separated into early (short-latency, SL) and late (long-latency, LL) responses using Independent Component Analysis (ICA), based on the assumption that these components are generated from different neural sources. Moreover, this source separation into the SL and LL components allows analysis of electrophysiological response to brain injury, even when the SSEPs are severely distorted and SL and LL components get mixed. With the help of ICA decomposition and corrected peak estimation, the latency of LL-SSEP is shown to be predictive of long-term neurological outcome. Further, it is shown that the recovery processes of SL- and LL-SSEPs follow different dynamics, with the SL-SSEP restored earlier than LL-SSEP. We predict that the SL- and LL-SSEPs reflect the timing of the progression of evoked response through the thalamocortical pathway and as such respond differently depending upon injury and recovery of the thalamic and cortical regions, respectively.
Somatosensory Evoked Potential; short/long-latency; brain ischemia; Independent Component Analysis; thalamocortical
The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.