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1.  Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection 
The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections varies in the literature, a problem complicated by the lack of routine screening procedures; however, limited data suggest that hVISA has been associated with persistent bloodstream infections (BSI) and vancomycin failure, yet these studies have been confounded by design issues. We conducted this study to compare the characteristics of patients with BSI caused by hVISA with those with vancomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treated with vancomycin. This retrospective, multicenter matched (1:1) cohort study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hVISA and VSSA. Patients with hVISA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) BSI from 2004 to 2012 were matched to VSSA-MRSA BSI patients. The primary outcome was failure of vancomycin treatment, defined as a composite of persistent bacteremia (≥7 days), persistent signs and symptoms, change of MRSA antibiotic, recurrent BSI, or MRSA-related mortality. We identified 122 matched cases. The overall vancomycin failure rate was 57% (82% hVISA versus 33% VSSA; P < 0.001). The individual components of failure in hVISA versus VSSA were persistent bacteremia, 59% versus 21% (P < 0.001); change in MRSA therapy, 54% versus 25% (P = 0.001); MRSA-related mortality, 21% versus 10% (P = 0.081); and recurrence of BSI, 26% versus 2% (P < 0.001). Using logistic regression analysis and adjusting for covariates, hVISA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 28.7) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.6) were still independently associated with vancomycin failure. Relative to VSSA BSI, patients with hVISA were more likely to experience failure of vancomycin treatment, including persistent bacteremia and recurrence. Our results indicate that hVISA was responsible for considerable morbidity.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00380-13
PMCID: PMC3754327  PMID: 23796929
2.  Comparative Activities of Telavancin Combined with Nafcillin, Imipenem, and Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus 
Beta-lactams enhance the killing activity of vancomycin. Due to structural and mechanistic similarities between vancomycin and telavancin, we investigated the activity of telavancin combined with nafcillin and imipenem compared to the known synergistic combination of telavancin and gentamicin. Thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 10 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 10 heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), were tested for synergy by time-kill methodology. Six strains (2 each of MSSA, MRSA, and hVISA) were further evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated regimens of 10 mg/kg of body weight of telavancin once daily alone and combined with 2 g nafcillin every 4 h, 500 mg imipenem every 6 h, or 5 mg/kg gentamicin once daily over 72 h. In the synergy test, 67% of strains displayed synergy with the combination of telavancin and gentamicin, 70% with telavancin and nafcillin, and 63% with telavancin and imipenem. In the PK/PD model, the activities of all three combinations against MRSA and hVISA were superior to all individual drugs alone (P ≤ 0.002) and were similar to each other (P ≥ 0.187). The activities of all three combinations against MSSA were generally similar to each other except for one strain where the combination of telavancin and imipenem was superior to all other regimens (P ≤ 0.011). The activity of the combination of telavancin and beta-lactam agents was similar to that of telavancin and gentamicin against S. aureus, including resistant strains. Because beta-lactam combinations are less likely to be nephrotoxic than telavancin plus gentamicin, these beta-lactam combinations may have clinical utility.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02127-12
PMCID: PMC3716141  PMID: 23545527
3.  An Introductory Review Module For an Anti-Infectives Therapeutics Course 
Objective. To determine whether an introductory review module using a hybrid-learning approach helped students learn infectious disease management in an anti-infectives therapeutics course.
Design. An introductory module consisting of an online pharmacology review, pre-class assignment, 2 classroom lectures, and 1 case-based lecture was developed and implemented.
Assessment. Among the 110 students who completed pre- and post-tests on the material covered, average scores increased from 71% to 83% (p<0.0001). Performance on knowledge-based question improved for 8 out of 10 questions (p<0.05) and student confidence increased from the first lecture to completion of the module (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Of the 129 students who completed an evaluation of the introductory module, 98% strongly agreed or agreed that the content was essential for course success.
Conclusion. The addition of an introductory module using a hybrid-learning approach to review and solidify concepts of medical microbiology and pharmacology provided the foundation necessary for success in an infectious diseases module.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767135
PMCID: PMC3448473  PMID: 23049107
hybrid learning; blended learning; infectious disease; therapeutics
4.  Synergy between Vancomycin and Nafcillin against Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e42103.
Introduction
Continued pressure from glycopeptide use has led to non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus including heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Infections with hVISA are associated with poor patient outcomes, thus incentivizing novel treatments. Evidence suggests that vancomycin and anti-staphylococcal penicillin susceptibility are inversely related which indicates that the use of this combination may be particularly useful against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, such as hVISA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for synergy between vancomycin and nafcillin against hVISA.
Methods
Twenty-five hVISA strains were evaluated for vancomycin and nafcillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth microdilution in duplicate. Potential for synergy was assessed by time-kill at 1/2x MIC in triplicate. Five strains were chosen, representing the range nafcillin MIC’s available in the cohort –4, 16, 64, 128, and 256 µg/mL, and were run in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model in duplicate over 72 hours to evaluate the potential of the combination with simulated human pharmacokinetics. In addition, 4 fully glycopeptide susceptible strains of S. aureus including 2 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and 2 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) were run in the PK/PD model for comparison.
Results
In the time-kill, 92% of strains (23 of 25) displayed synergy with the combination of vancomycin and nafcillin. In the PK/PD model, all five strains of hVISA showed an improvement in overall activity (P≤0.004) and organism burden at 72 hours (P≤0.001) with the combination compared to either drug alone. The combination was also successful against both MRSA and MSSA in overall activity (P≤0.009) and organism burden at 72 hours (P≤0.016), though the magnitude of the effect was diminished against MSSA.
Conclusions
The combination of vancomycin and nafcillin significantly improved antibacterial activity against hVISA, MRSA, and MSSA compared to either drug alone.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042103
PMCID: PMC3404091  PMID: 22848719
5.  Activity of Telavancin against Staphylococcus aureus Strains with Various Vancomycin Susceptibilities in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations ▿  
We investigated the activity of telavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide, alone and combined with gentamicin or rifampin (rifampicin) against strains of Staphylococcus aureus with various vancomycin susceptibilities. Strains tested included methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) 494, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) 1199, heteroresistant glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (hGISA) 1629, which was confirmed by a population analysis profile, and glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) NJ 992. Regimens of 10 mg/kg telavancin daily and 1 g vancomycin every 12 h were investigated alone and combined with 5 mg/kg gentamicin daily or 300 mg rifampin every 8 h in an in vitro model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Telavancin demonstrated significantly greater killing than did vancomycin (P < 0.01) for all isolates except MRSA 494 (P = 0.07). Telavancin absolute reductions, in log10 CFU/g, at 96 h were 2.8 ± 0.5 for MRSA 494, 2.8 ± 0.3 for MSSA 1199, 4.2 ± 0.2 for hGISA 1629, and 4.1 ± 0.3 for GISA NJ 992. Combinations of telavancin with gentamicin significantly enhanced killing compared to telavancin alone against all isolates (P < 0.001) except MRSA 494 (P = 0.176). This enhancement was most evident against hGISA 1629, where killing to the level of detection (2 log10 CFU/g) was achieved at 48 h (P < 0.001). The addition of rifampin to telavancin resulted in significant (P < 0.001) enhancement of killing against only MSSA 1199. No changes in telavancin susceptibilities were observed. These results suggest that telavancin may have therapeutic potential, especially against strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Combination therapy, particularly with gentamicin, may improve bacterial killing against certain strains.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01544-08
PMCID: PMC2704675  PMID: 19414568
6.  Improvements to services at the European Nucleotide Archive 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D39-D45.
The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) is Europe’s primary nucleotide sequence archival resource, safeguarding open nucleotide data access, engaging in worldwide collaborative data exchange and integrating with the scientific publication process. ENA has made significant contributions to the collaborative nucleotide archival arena as an active proponent of extending the traditional collaboration to cover capillary and next-generation sequencing information. We have continued to co-develop data and metadata representation formats with our collaborators for both data exchange and public data dissemination. In addition to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank feature table format, we share metadata formats for capillary and next-generation sequencing traces and are using and contributing to the NCBI SRA Toolkit for the long-term storage of the next-generation sequence traces. During the course of 2009, ENA has significantly improved sequence submission, search and access functionalities provided at EMBL–EBI. In this article, we briefly describe the content and scope of our archive and introduce major improvements to our services.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp998
PMCID: PMC2808951  PMID: 19906712
7.  Impact of Inoculum Size and Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) on Vancomycin Activity and Emergence of VISA in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model ▿  
The activity of vancomycin against heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and non-hVISA isolates, using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, was reduced in the presence of a high inoculum amount (108 CFU/ml). A high bacterial load of >105 CFU/ml persisted for all strains with doses up to 5 g every 12 h against high inoculum amounts. No change in the vancomycin MIC was detected in any isolate at a moderate inoculum amount (106 CFU/ml), and bactericidal activity occurred only against the non-hVISA isolate (time to 99% kill, 7.5 h; P = 0.001).
doi:10.1128/AAC.01009-08
PMCID: PMC2630635  PMID: 19015334
8.  Evaluation of Daptomycin Pharmacodynamics and Resistance at Various Dosage Regimens against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Reduced Susceptibilities to Daptomycin in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations▿  
The need to investigate novel dosing regimens and combinations is essential in combating poor treatment outcomes for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. We evaluated the impact of simulated standard- and high-dose daptomycin in combination with gentamicin or rifampin against daptomycin-susceptible and nonsusceptible matched strains of S. aureus. These strains were collected from the daptomycin bacteremia and endocarditis clinical trial and consisted of three susceptible strains (MIC, 0.25 mg/liter) and four nonsusceptible isolates (MICs, 2 to 4 mg/liter). Daptomycin regimens of 6 and 10 mg/kg of body weight daily alone and in combination with gentamicin at 5 mg/kg daily or rifampin at 300 mg every 8 h were evaluated using an in vitro model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Rapid bactericidal activity, identified by time to 99.9% kill, was displayed in all regimens with the daptomycin-susceptible strains. Concentration-dependent activity was noted by more-rapid killing with the 10-mg/kg/day dose. The addition of gentamicin improved activity in the majority of susceptible isolates. Daptomycin 6-mg/kg/day monotherapy displayed bactericidal activity for only one of the nonsusceptible isolates and for only two isolates with increased doses of 10 mg/kg/day. Combination regimens demonstrated improvement with some but not all nonsusceptible isolates. Three isolates developed a reduction in daptomycin susceptibility with 6-mg/kg/day monotherapy, but this was suppressed with both combination therapy and high-dose daptomycin. These results suggest that high-dose daptomycin therapy and combination therapy may be reasonable treatment options for susceptible isolates; however, more investigations are needed to confirm the variability of these regimens with nonsusceptible isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00102-08
PMCID: PMC2533470  PMID: 18591272
9.  Activities of Ceftobiprole, Linezolid, Vancomycin, and Daptomycin against Community-Associated and Hospital-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
We evaluated the activity of ceftobiprole against 100 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and 100 hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. Eight isolates were evaluated by time-kill studies for kill rate and potential for synergy with tobramycin. Ceftobiprole MIC50 and MIC90 values were 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively, against CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. In time-kill analysis, ceftobiprole was bactericidal at all concentrations tested.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00257-08
PMCID: PMC2493094  PMID: 18519721
10.  Activities of Clindamycin, Daptomycin, Doxycycline, Linezolid, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, and Vancomycin against Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Murine Thigh Infection and In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Models▿  
Controversy exists about the most effective treatment options for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and about the ability of these strains to develop inducible resistance to clindamycin during therapy. Using both in vitro pharmacodynamic and murine thigh infection models, we evaluated and compared several antimicrobial compounds against CA-MRSA. Strains with inducible macrolide lincosamide-streptogramin type B (iMLSB) resistance and strains in which resistance was noninducible were evaluated. Two levels of inocula (105 and 107) were evaluated for clindamycin activity in the in vivo model. In both models, the antimicrobial evaluation was performed in triplicate, and bacterial quantification occurred over 72 h, with drug doses that were designed to simulate the free drug area-under-the-concentration-time curve values (fAUCs) obtained from human samples. When the activity of clindamycin against the iMLSB strains was evaluated, constitutive resistance was noted at 24 h (MIC of >256), and failure was noted at an inoculum of ≥106 in the in vivo models. However, at a low inoculum (105) in the murine thigh-infection model, clindamycin demonstrated modest activity, reducing the CFU/thigh count for clindamycin resistance-inducible strains at 72 h (0.45 to 1.3 logs). Overall, administration of daptomycin followed by vancomycin demonstrated the most significant kill against all strains in both models. Against the clindamycin noninducible strain, clindamycin and doxycycline demonstrated significant kill. Doxycycline, linezolid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazide (not run in the murine model) demonstrated bacteriostatic activity against clindamycin resistance-inducible isolates. This study demonstrates that clindamycin's activity against the iMLSB strains tested is partially impacted by inoculum size. At present, there are several alternatives that appear promising for treating clindamycin resistance-inducible strains of CA-MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01046-07
PMCID: PMC2415789  PMID: 18411321
11.  Petabyte-scale innovations at the European Nucleotide Archive 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;37(Database issue):D19-D25.
Dramatic increases in the throughput of nucleotide sequencing machines, and the promise of ever greater performance, have thrust bioinformatics into the era of petabyte-scale data sets. Sequence repositories, which provide the feed for these data sets into the worldwide computational infrastructure, are challenged by the impact of these data volumes. The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl), comprising the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database and the Ensembl Trace Archive, has identified challenges in the storage, movement, analysis, interpretation and visualization of petabyte-scale data sets. We present here our new repository for next generation sequence data, a brief summary of contents of the ENA and provide details of major developments to submission pipelines, high-throughput rule-based validation infrastructure and data integration approaches.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn765
PMCID: PMC2686451  PMID: 18978013
12.  Daptomycin Activity against Staphylococcus aureus following Vancomycin Exposure in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations▿  
Recently, the emergence of reduced susceptibility to daptomycin has been linked to the reduced vancomycin susceptibility that occurs after vancomycin exposure in Staphylococcus aureus in vivo and in vitro. This study evaluated this propensity in clinical isolates of S. aureus using an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 8 days. Five clinical isolates (four methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates and one methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolate), all of which were reported to have become nonsusceptible to daptomycin, were evaluated. The following regimens were evaluated: vancomycin 1 g every 12 h for 4 days followed by daptomycin 6 mg/kg of body weight daily for 4 days and daptomycin 6 mg/kg daily for 8 days. If nonsusceptibility was detected, the following regimens were evaluated: no treatment for 4 days followed by daptomycin 6 mg/kg daily for 4 days, vancomycin 1 g every 12 h for 4 days followed by daptomycin 10 mg/kg daily for 4 days, and daptomycin 10 mg/kg daily for 8 days. The emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility (12- to 16-fold MIC increase) was detected only with the MSSA isolate with daptomycin 6 mg/kg daily for 4 days after vancomycin exposure. However, the bactericidal activity of daptomycin was maintained and the MIC increases of these isolates, which had no mprF or yycG mutations, were unstable to serial passage on antibiotic-free agar. Subsequent regimens did not demonstrate nonsusceptibility to daptomycin. These findings suggest that reduced daptomycin susceptibility can be a strain-specific and unstable event. Further evaluation of the susceptibility relationship between daptomycin and vancomycin is necessary to understand the factors involved and their clinical significance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00869-07
PMCID: PMC2258488  PMID: 17999971
13.  Priorities for nucleotide trace, sequence and annotation data capture at the Ensembl Trace Archive and the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D5-D12.
The Ensembl Trace Archive (http://trace.ensembl.org/) and the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/), known together as the European Nucleotide Archive, continue to see growth in data volume and diversity. Selected major developments of 2007 are presented briefly, along with data submission and retrieval information. In the face of increasing requirements for nucleotide trace, sequence and annotation data archiving, data capture priority decisions have been taken at the European Nucleotide Archive. Priorities are discussed in terms of how reliably information can be captured, the long-term benefits of its capture and the ease with which it can be captured.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm1018
PMCID: PMC2238915  PMID: 18039715

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