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1.  New and continuing developments at PROSITE 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(D1):D344-D347.
PROSITE (http://prosite.expasy.org/) consists of documentation entries describing protein domains, families and functional sites, as well as associated patterns and profiles to identify them. It is complemented by ProRule a collection of rules, which increases the discriminatory power of these profiles and patterns by providing additional information about functionally and/or structurally critical amino acids. PROSITE signatures, together with ProRule, are used for the annotation of domains and features of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries. Here, we describe recent developments that allow users to perform whole-proteome annotation as well as a number of filtering options that can be combined to perform powerful targeted searches for biological discovery. The latest version of PROSITE (release 20.85, of 30 August 2012) contains 1308 patterns, 1039 profiles and 1041 ProRules.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1067
PMCID: PMC3531220  PMID: 23161676
3.  Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase 
Biochemical Journal  2012;443(Pt 1):279-286.
Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure–function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis–Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase.
doi:10.1042/BJ20111509
PMCID: PMC3304488  PMID: 22220568
alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase; fatty acid hydroxylase motif; phenylalanine hydroxylase; tetrahydrobiopterin; transmembrane domain; CHO, Chinese-hamster ovary; GFP, green fluorescent protein
4.  InterPro in 2011: new developments in the family and domain prediction database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(D1):D306-D312.
InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a database that integrates diverse information about protein families, domains and functional sites, and makes it freely available to the public via Web-based interfaces and services. Central to the database are diagnostic models, known as signatures, against which protein sequences can be searched to determine their potential function. InterPro has utility in the large-scale analysis of whole genomes and meta-genomes, as well as in characterizing individual protein sequences. Herein we give an overview of new developments in the database and its associated software since 2009, including updates to database content, curation processes and Web and programmatic interfaces.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr948
PMCID: PMC3245097  PMID: 22096229
5.  PROSITE, a protein domain database for functional characterization and annotation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D161-D166.
PROSITE consists of documentation entries describing protein domains, families and functional sites, as well as associated patterns and profiles to identify them. It is complemented by ProRule, a collection of rules based on profiles and patterns, which increases the discriminatory power of these profiles and patterns by providing additional information about functionally and/or structurally critical amino acids. PROSITE is largely used for the annotation of domain features of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries. Among the 983 (DNA-binding) domains, repeats and zinc fingers present in Swiss-Prot (release 57.8 of 22 September 2009), 696 (∼70%) are annotated with PROSITE descriptors using information from ProRule. In order to allow better functional characterization of domains, PROSITE developments focus on subfamily specific profiles and a new profile building method giving more weight to functionally important residues. Here, we describe AMSA, an annotated multiple sequence alignment format used to build a new generation of generalized profiles, the migration of ScanProsite to Vital-IT, a cluster of 633 CPUs, and the adoption of the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) to facilitate PROSITE data integration and interchange with other sources. The latest version of PROSITE (release 20.54, of 22 September 2009) contains 1308 patterns, 863 profiles and 869 ProRules. PROSITE is accessible at: http://www.expasy.org/prosite/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp885
PMCID: PMC2808866  PMID: 19858104
6.  PeroxiBase: a database with new tools for peroxidase family classification 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;37(Database issue):D261-D266.
Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.x), which are encoded by small or large multigenic families, are involved in several important physiological and developmental processes. They use various peroxides as electron acceptors to catalyse a number of oxidative reactions and are present in almost all living organisms. We have created a peroxidase database (http://peroxibase.isb-sib.ch) that contains all identified peroxidase-encoding sequences (about 6000 sequences in 940 organisms). They are distributed between 11 superfamilies and about 60 subfamilies. All the sequences have been individually annotated and checked. PeroxiBase can be consulted using six major interlink sections ‘Classes’, ‘Organisms’, ‘Cellular localisations’, ‘Inducers’, ‘Repressors’ and ‘Tissue types’. General documentation on peroxidases and PeroxiBase is accessible in the ‘Documents’ section containing ‘Introduction’, ‘Class description’, ‘Publications’ and ‘Links’. In addition to the database, we have developed a tool to classify peroxidases based on the PROSITE profile methodology. To improve their specificity and to prevent overlaps between closely related subfamilies the profiles were built using a new strategy based on the silencing of residues. This new profile construction method and its discriminatory capacity have been tested and validated using the different peroxidase families and subfamilies present in the database. The peroxidase classification tool called PeroxiScan is accessible at the following address: http://peroxibase.isb-sib.ch/peroxiscan.php.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn680
PMCID: PMC2686439  PMID: 18948296
7.  InterPro: the integrative protein signature database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;37(Database issue):D211-D215.
The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or ‘signatures’ representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total ∼58 000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein–protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/).
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn785
PMCID: PMC2686546  PMID: 18940856
8.  The 20 years of PROSITE 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D245-D249.
PROSITE consists of documentation entries describing protein domains, families and functional sites, as well as associated patterns and profiles to identify them. It is complemented by ProRule, a collection of rules based on profiles and patterns, which increases the discriminatory power of profiles and patterns by providing additional information about functionally and/or structurally critical amino acids. In this article, we describe the implementation of a new method to assign a status to pattern matches, the new PROSITE web page and a new approach to improve the specificity and sensitivity of PROSITE methods. The latest version of PROSITE (release 20.19 of 11 September 2007) contains 1319 patterns, 745 profiles and 764 ProRules. Over the past 2 years, about 200 domains have been added, and now 53% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 54.2 of 11 September 2007) have a PROSITE match. PROSITE is available on the web at: http://www.expasy.org/prosite/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm977
PMCID: PMC2238851  PMID: 18003654
9.  New developments in the InterPro database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(Database issue):D224-D228.
InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (), and for download by anonymous FTP (). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at .
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl841
PMCID: PMC1899100  PMID: 17202162
10.  ScanProsite: detection of PROSITE signature matches and ProRule-associated functional and structural residues in proteins 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(Web Server issue):W362-W365.
ScanProsite——is a new and improved version of the web-based tool for detecting PROSITE signature matches in protein sequences. For a number of PROSITE profiles, the tool now makes use of ProRules—context-dependent annotation templates—to detect functional and structural intra-domain residues. The detection of those features enhances the power of function prediction based on profiles. Both user-defined sequences and sequences from the UniProt Knowledgebase can be matched against custom patterns, or against PROSITE signatures. To improve response times, matches of sequences from UniProtKB against PROSITE signatures are now retrieved from a pre-computed match database. Several output modes are available including simple text views and a rich mode providing an interactive match and feature viewer with a graphical representation of results.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl124
PMCID: PMC1538847  PMID: 16845026
11.  The PROSITE database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;34(Database issue):D227-D230.
The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at .
doi:10.1093/nar/gkj063
PMCID: PMC1347426  PMID: 16381852
12.  Recent improvements to the PROSITE database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(Database issue):D134-D137.
The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE web page has been redesigned and several tools have been implemented to help the user discover new conserved regions in their own proteins and to visualize domain arrangements. We also introduced the facility to search PDB with a PROSITE entry or a user’s pattern and visualize matched positions on 3D structures. The latest version of PROSITE (release 18.17 of November 30, 2003) contains 1676 entries. The database is accessible at http://www.expasy.org/prosite/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh044
PMCID: PMC308778  PMID: 14681377
13.  The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(1):315-318.
InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
PMCID: PMC165493  PMID: 12520011
14.  The PROSITE database, its status in 2002 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(1):235-238.
PROSITE [Bairoch and Bucher (1994) Nucleic Acids Res., 22, 3583–3589; Hofmann et al. (1999) Nucleic Acids Res., 27, 215–219] is a method of identifying the functions of uncharacterized proteins translated from genomic or cDNA sequences. The PROSITE database (http://www.expasy.org/prosite/) consists of biologically significant patterns and profiles designed in such a way that with appropriate computational tools it can rapidly and reliably help to determine to which known family of proteins (if any) a new sequence belongs, or which known domain(s) it contains.
PMCID: PMC99105  PMID: 11752303

Results 1-14 (14)