Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) disorders are a heterogenous group of overlapping conditions involving the bladder, bowel, and other pelvic visceral structures. CPP is a poorly understood, often debilitating condition affecting both men and women. The development of pelvic organ cross-sensitization, and often ensuing CPP, following acute or chronic pelvic visceral irritation or stimulation is facilitated by anatomic apposition, coordinated physiologic and reflexive pathways (cross-talk), and convergent sensory input of the pelvic viscera, their associated striated sphincters, muscular components of the pelvic floor, pelvic abdominal wall, and perineum and corresponding cutaneous components, which together facilitate daily coordinated conscious pelvic physiologic activity. Correspondingly, the causes of CPP are numerous and may include gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neural, or psychologic origins, as well as combinations thereof. Although efficacious therapeutic options are limited for those afflicted (the US estimate for women alone is 9.2 million ), further research and multi-disciplinary approaches will no doubt improve patient quality of life and decrease direct and indirect annual costs to society, which currently is estimated to exceed ≈$3 billion . CPP not only encompasses pain syndromes of the pelvic cavity, such as interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but also includes those of the pelvic floor, including vulvodynia, orchialgia, urethral syndrome, and chronic prostatitis (male CPP syndrome) . Since the distal colon and urinary bladder are two pelvic organs whose functions are an integral part of daily, conscious, physiologic pelvic activity, it is not surprising that IBS and IC/PBS, analogous disorders of pelvic visceral pain and urgency, are probably the most common CPP disorders in the general population [1–4].