Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents as a progressive disease spanning precancerous, preinvasive, locally invasive, and metastatic lesions. Identification of biological pathways reflective of these progressive stages, and aberrantly expressed genes associated with these pathways, would conceivably enhance therapeutic approaches to this devastating disease.
Through the construction and analysis of SAGE libraries, we have determined transcriptome profiles for preinvasive carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, and compared these with expression profiles generated from both bronchial epithelium, and precancerous metaplastic and dysplastic lesions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Expression of genes associated with epidermal development, and loss of expression of genes associated with mucociliary biology, are predominant features of CIS, largely shared with precancerous lesions. Additionally, expression of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism/detoxification is a notable feature of CIS, and is largely maintained in invasive cancer. Genes related to tissue fibrosis and acute phase immune response are characteristic of the invasive SCC phenotype. Moreover, the data presented here suggests that tissue remodeling/fibrosis is initiated at the early stages of CIS. Additionally, this study indicates that alteration in copy-number status represents a plausible mechanism for differential gene expression in CIS and invasive SCC.
This study is the first report of large-scale expression profiling of CIS of the lung. Unbiased expression profiling of these preinvasive and invasive lesions provides a platform for further investigations into the molecular genetic events relevant to early stages of squamous NSCLC development. Additionally, up-regulated genes detected at extreme differences between CIS and invasive cancer may have potential to serve as biomarkers for early detection.