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1.  Truncated SSX Protein Suppresses Synovial Sarcoma Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting the Localization of SS18-SSX Fusion Protein 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77564.
Synovial sarcoma is a relatively rare high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that often develops in the limbs of young people and induces the lung and the lymph node metastasis resulting in poor prognosis. In patients with synovial sarcoma, specific chromosomal translocation of t(X; 18) (p11.2;q11.2) is observed, and SS18-SSX fusion protein expressed by this translocation is reported to be associated with pathogenesis. However, role of the fusion protein in the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma has not yet been completely clarified. In this study, we focused on the localization patterns of SS18-SSX fusion protein. We constructed expression plasmids coding for the full length SS18-SSX, the truncated SS18 moiety (tSS18) and the truncated SSX moiety (tSSX) of SS18-SSX, tagged with fluorescent proteins. These plasmids were transfected in synovial sarcoma SYO-1 cells and we observed the expression of these proteins using a fluorescence microscope. The SS18-SSX fusion protein showed a characteristic speckle pattern in the nucleus. However, when SS18-SSX was co-expressed with tSSX, localization of SS18-SSX changed from speckle patterns to the diffused pattern similar to the localization pattern of tSSX and SSX. Furthermore, cell proliferation and colony formation of synovial sarcoma SYO-1 and YaFuSS cells were suppressed by exogenous tSSX expression. Our results suggest that the characteristic speckle localization pattern of SS18-SSX is strongly involved in the tumorigenesis through the SSX moiety of the SS18-SSX fusion protein. These findings could be applied to further understand the pathogenic mechanisms, and towards the development of molecular targeting approach for synovial sarcoma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077564
PMCID: PMC3793959  PMID: 24130893
2.  Spinal nerve injury causes upregulation of ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors in rat dorsal root ganglia 
Journal of Pain Research  2013;6:87-94.
It is generally known that peripheral nerve injury causes changes in expression of some growth factors in the dorsal root ganglion. Altered expression of ErbB receptors, a well-known growth factor in somatic cells, reportedly follows peripheral nerve injury in the spinal dorsal horn; however, it remains unknown whether the expression of these receptors is altered in the dorsal root ganglion after nerve injury. Therefore, this study examined the gene expression profiles of ErbB receptors in bilateral lumbar (L)4/L5 dorsal root ganglia, using L5-selective spinal nerve ligation in model rats as a peripheral nerve injury model. The expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 was observed in the dorsal root ganglia of the mature rat, despite ErbB1 and ErbB4 showing only subtle expression. We also demonstrated that peripheral nerve injury induced significant increases in ErbB2 and ErbB3 in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion as compared with uninjured nerve. Expression changes in ErbB receptors appear to play important roles in nerve injury and subsequent nerve regeneration.
doi:10.2147/JPR.S40967
PMCID: PMC3569052  PMID: 23403761
DRG; spinal nerve ligation; SNL
3.  Novel Direct Targets of miR-19a Identified in Breast Cancer Cells by a Quantitative Proteomic Approach 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44095.
The miR-17–92 cluster encodes 7 miRNAs inside a single polycistronic transcript, and is known as a group of oncogenic miRNAs that contribute to tumorigenesis in several cancers. However, their direct targets remain unclear, and it has been suggested that a single miRNA is capable of reducing the production of hundreds of proteins. The majority of reports on the identification of miRNA targets are based on computational approaches or the detection of altered mRNA levels, despite the fact that most miRNAs are thought to regulate their targets primarily by translational inhibition in higher organisms. In this study, we examined the target profiles of miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-92-1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a quantitative proteomic strategy to identify their direct targets. A total of 123 proteins were significantly increased after the endogenous miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-92-1 were knocked down, and were identified as potential targets by two-dimensional electrophoresis and a mass spectrometric analysis. Among the upregulated proteins, four (PPP2R2A, ARHGAP1, IMPDH1 and NPEPL1) were shown to have miR-19a or miR-20a binding sites on their mRNAs. The luciferase activity of the plasmids with each binding site was observed to decrease, and an increased luciferase activity was observed in the presence of the specific anti-miRNA-LNA. A Western blot analysis showed the expression levels of IMPDH1 and NPEPL1 to increase after treatment with anti-miR-19a, while the expression levels of PPP2R2A and ARHGAP1 did not change. The expression levels of IMPDH1 and NPEPL1 did not significantly change by anti-miR-19a-LNA at the mRNA level. These results suggest that the IMPDH1 and NPEPL1 genes are direct targets of miR-19a in breast cancer, while the exogenous expression of these genes is not associated with the growth suppression of MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, our proteomic approaches were shown to be valuable for identifying direct miRNA targets.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044095
PMCID: PMC3431339  PMID: 22952885
5.  Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia 
Cancers  2011;3(1):568-581.
Although cancers have been thought to be predominantly driven by acquired genetic changes, it is becoming clear that microenvironment-mediated epigenetic alterations play important roles. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenomenon in human cancers as well as malignant lymphoma/leukemia. Tumor suppressor genes become frequent targets of aberrant hypermethylation in the course of gene-silencing due to the increased and deregulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The purpose of this article is to review the current status of knowledge about the contribution of cumulative epigenetic abnormalities of the host genes after microbial and virus infection to the crisis and progression of malignant lymphoma/leukemia. In addition, the relevance of this knowledge to malignant lymphoma/leukemia assessment, prevention and early detection will be discussed.
doi:10.3390/cancers3010568
PMCID: PMC3756377  PMID: 24212629
epigenetics; methylation; lymphoma; leukemia; progression; HTLV-I; H Pylori
6.  MET gene amplification or EGFR mutation activate MET in lung cancers untreated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors 
We analyzed MET protein and copy number in NSCLC with or without EGFR mutations untreated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). MET copy number was examined in 28 NSCLC and 4 human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBEC) and 100 primary tumors using quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Total and phospho-MET protein expression was determined in 24 NSCLC and 2 HBEC cell lines using Western blot. EGFR mutations were examined for exon 19 deletions, T790M, and L858R. Knockdown of EGFR with siRNA was performed to examine the relation between EGFR and MET activation. High-level MET amplification was observed in 3 of 28 NSCLC cell lines and in 2 of 100 primary lung tumors that had not been treated with EGFR-TKIs. MET protein was highly expressed and phosphorylated in all the 3 cell lines with high MET amplification. In contrast, 6 NSCLC cell lines showed phospho-MET among 21 NSCLC cell lines without MET amplification (p = 0.042). Furthermore, those 6 cell lines harboring phospho-MET expression without MET amplification were all EGFR mutant (p = 0.0039). siRNA-mediated knockdown of EGFR abolished phospho-MET expression in examined 3 EGFR mutant cell lines of which MET gene copy number was not amplified. By contrast, phospho-MET expression in 2 cell lines with amplified MET gene was not down-regulated by knockdown of EGFR. Our results indicated that MET amplification was present in untreated NSCLC and EGFR mutation or MET amplification activated MET protein in NSCLC.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24150
PMCID: PMC2767331  PMID: 19117057
MET; amplification; EGFR; gefitinib; lung cancer
7.  Anti-tumor effect of bisphosphonate (YM529) on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:8.
Background
YM529 is a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) classified as a third-generation BP that shows a 100-fold greater potency against bone resorption than pamidronate, a second-generation BP. This agent is, therefore expected to be extremely useful clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Recently, YM529 as well as other third-generation BPs have also been shown to exert anti-tumor effects against various types of cancer cells both in vitro or/and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods
Direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157) were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50) values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method). We examined where YM529 given effect to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis.
Results
We found that there was direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 μM and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819).
Conclusion
Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed direct anti-tumor effect on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-8
PMCID: PMC1781945  PMID: 17222343

Results 1-7 (7)