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1.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with Funada-style gastropexy greatly reduces the risk of peristomal infection 
Gastroenterology Report  2015;3(1):69-74.
Background and aims: Peristomal wound infections are common complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The Funada-style gastropexy device has two parallel needles with a wire loop and suture thread, and was developed about 20 years ago in Japan. This kit has allowed us to perform dual gastropexy very easily; PEG with gastropexy has become a very popular technique in Japan. The present study aimed to compare the advantages and disadvantages of PEG with the gastropexy technique with the standard ‘pull' method.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 182 consecutive, non-randomized patients undergoing PEG in our hospital, and a comparative analysis was made between the gastropexy (87 patients) and non-gastropexy (95 patients) groups.
Results: The rates of patients having erythema (11.6% vs. 47.9%; P < 0.001), exudates (2.3% vs. 14.9%; P < 0.01) and infection (0% vs. 6.4%; P = 0.01) in the peristomal area were lower in the gastropexy than in the non-gastropexy group. The rate of minor bleeding from the peristomal area was higher in the gastropexy than in the non-gastropexy group (12.8% vs. 2.1%; P < 0.01), but no patient required a blood transfusion. Mean procedure time was longer in the gastropexy group than in the non-gastropexy group (31 vs. 24 min; P < 0.001). The 30-day mortality rates were 4.7% and 5.3% respectively, and these deaths were not related to the gastrostomy procedure.
Conclusion: PEG with gastropexy markedly reduces peristomal inflammation. Although minor bleeding and a longer procedure time were disadvantages, there were no severe complications. The findings suggested that PEG with Funada-style gastropexy was a safe and feasible method for reducing early complications of PEG.
PMCID: PMC4324871  PMID: 25567471
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; gastropexy; peristomal infection
2.  Derivation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells through a Neural Crest Lineage using Small Molecule Compounds with Defined Media 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e112291.
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are an embryonic migratory cell population with the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types that contribute to the craniofacial skeleton, cornea, peripheral nervous system, and skin pigmentation. This ability suggests the promising role of NCCs as a source for cell-based therapy. Although several methods have been used to induce human NCCs (hNCCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), further modifications are required to improve the robustness, efficacy, and simplicity of these methods. Chemically defined medium (CDM) was used as the basal medium in the induction and maintenance steps. By optimizing the culture conditions, the combination of the GSK3β inhibitor and TGFβ inhibitor with a minimum growth factor (insulin) very efficiently induced hNCCs (70–80%) from hPSCs. The induced hNCCs expressed cranial NCC-related genes and stably proliferated in CDM supplemented with EGF and FGF2 up to at least 10 passages without changes being observed in the major gene expression profiles. Differentiation properties were confirmed for peripheral neurons, glia, melanocytes, and corneal endothelial cells. In addition, cells with differentiation characteristics similar to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were induced from hNCCs using CDM specific for human MSCs. Our simple and robust induction protocol using small molecule compounds with defined media enabled the generation of hNCCs as an intermediate material producing terminally differentiated cells for cell-based innovative medicine.
PMCID: PMC4251837  PMID: 25464501
3.  A case report on efficacy of Abound™ for anti-EGFR antibody-associated skin disorder in metastatic colon cancer 
Panitumumab is a full human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, an agent for metastatic colorectal cancer therapy. One of the most general adverse events of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy is skin disorder. At the present time, although prophylaxis of skin disorder is important for continuation of cancer therapy, there are no effective precautionary treatments.
Case presentation
A 73-year-old male with sigmoid colon cancer and synchronous lung metastasis was treated with panitumumab, an alone anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody as the third-line therapy.
During the nine courses of the therapy, the response was stable disease (SD), but skin disorder gradually appeared obviously (CTCAE version 4.0: Grade 2). After 1 month of administration of Abound™, symptoms of the skin disorder improved (CTCAE version 4.0: Grade 1), thus the antibody therapy could be continued.
We report that Abound™ was apparently effective in the treatment for anti-EGFR antibody-associated skin disorder. In the future, Abound™ could be expected as an agent for skin disorder as one of the side effects of colorectal cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC3922949  PMID: 24517087
Abound; Anti-EGFR antibody; Skin disorder; Colon cancer
4.  Cultivation of Corneal Endothelial Cells on a Pericellular Matrix Prepared from Human Decidua-Derived Mesenchymal Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88169.
The barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium are essential for the maintenance of corneal transparency. Although corneal transplantation is the only current therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, the potential of tissue-engineering techniques to provide highly efficient and less invasive therapy in comparison to corneal transplantation has been highly anticipated. However, culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) is technically difficult, and there is no established culture protocol. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (PCM-DM) as an animal-free substrate for HCEC culture for future clinical applications. PCM-DM enhanced the adhesion of monkey CECs (MCECs) via integrin, promoted cell proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis. The HCECs cultured on the PCM-DM showed a hexagonal morphology and a staining profile characteristic of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 at the plasma membrane in vivo, whereas the control HCECs showed a fibroblastic phenotype. The cell density of the cultured HCECs on the PCM-DM was significantly higher than that of the control cells. These results indicate that PCM-DM provides a feasible xeno-free matrix substrate and that it offers a viable in vitro expansion protocol for HCECs while maintaining cellular functions for use as a subsequent clinical intervention for tissue-engineered based therapy of corneal endothelial dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3914933  PMID: 24505413
5.  Corneal Endothelial Expansion Promoted by Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69009.
Healthy corneal endothelium is essential for maintaining corneal clarity, as the damage of corneal endothelial cells and loss of cell count causes severe visual impairment. Corneal transplantation is currently the only therapy for severe corneal disorders. The greatly limited proliferative ability of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), even in vitro, has challenged researchers to establish efficient techniques for the cultivating HCECs, a pivotal issue for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate conditioned medium (CM) obtained from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (MSC-CM) for use as a consistent expansion protocol of HCECs. When HCECs were maintained in the presence of MSC-CM, cell morphology assumed a hexagonal shape similar to corneal endothelial cells in vivo, as opposed to the irregular cell shape observed in control cultures in the absence of MSC-CM. They also maintained the functional protein phenotypes; ZO-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase were localized at the intercellular adherent junctions and pump proteins of corneal endothelium were accordingly expressed. In comparison to the proliferative potential observed in the control cultures, HCECs maintained in MSC-CM were found to have more than twice as many Ki67-positive cells and a greatly increased incorporation of BrdU into DNA. MSC-CM further facilitated the cell migration of HCECs. Lastly, the mechanism of cell proliferation mediated by MSC-CM was investigated, and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 was observed in HCECs after exposure to MSC-CM. The inhibitor to PI 3-kinase maintained the level of p27Kip1 for up to 24 hours and greatly blocked the expression of cyclin D1 and D3 during the early G1 phase, leading to the reduction of cell density. These findings indicate that MSC-CM not only stimulates the proliferation of HCECs by regulating the G1 proteins of the cell cycle but also maintains the characteristic differentiated phenotypes necessary for the endothelial functions.
PMCID: PMC3720876  PMID: 23894393
6.  Laparoscopic technique and safety experience with barbed suture closure for pelvic cavity after abdominoperineal resection 
Between April 2005 and December 2012, we performed laparoscopic colorectal resection with regional lymph node dissection on 273 cases of colorectal cancer patients. However, Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery requires a high degree of skill. Any surgeon who is going to embark on these difficult resections should have at a minimum laparoscopic suturing skills in order to be able to close the peritoneal defect.
In laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, the intracorporeal suture technique required to close the pelvic cavity is very difficult. Barbed sutures have recently been proposed to facilitate laparoscopic suturing. Two patients with rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) with intracorporeal closure of the pelvic cavity from September to October 2012 were enrolled in this study.
We present our initial experience of two consecutive cases of intracorporeal closure of the pelvic cavity by totally laparoscopic APR. After clinical follow-up, the two patients have no complaints and have shown no signs of recurrence.
We hypothesized that barbed sutures could potentially improve the efficiency of intracorporeal closure of the pelvic cavity after laparoscopic APR. Further, we expect that use of the V-Loc™ will reduce intra-operative stress on the endoscopic surgeon.
PMCID: PMC3685598  PMID: 23705750
7.  Oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy: a single-center safety and feasibility study 
Surgical Endoscopy  2013;27(6):1973-1979.
Indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for early stomach cancer have spread worldwide and evaluation of short-term outcomes has been favorable. The present study aimed to evaluate both technical feasibility and safety of LG and short-and long-term outcomes after LG.
The study group comprised 231 patients who underwent LG during the period from August 2001 through December 2011 at Gifu University School of Medicine.
Concomitant resection of other organs was performed in 16 (6.9 %) of the 231 patients, and conversion to open surgery was performed in 5 (2.2 %) patients. The final clinical stage of the patients, according to the Union for International Cancer Control classification, was stage IA in 183 (79.0 %), stage IB in 26 (11.3 %), stage IIA in 9 (2.6 %), stage IIB in 6 (2.6 %), stage IIIA in 5 (2.2 %), and stage IIIB in 2 (0.9 %) patients. Average values of total blood loss and operation time were 133.7 ± 129.0 ml and 328.1 ± 70.1 min, respectively. Postoperative complications were detected in 29 patients (12.6 %), and one patient died. According to the Clavien–Dindo classification of surgical complications, the rate of severe complications of grade ≥3a was 6.1 % and that of grade ≥3b was 1.3 %. There were no significant differences in complications in relation to clinicopathological or operative procedures. Cancer recurrence was detected in 2 (0.9 %) patients. In the patient with peritoneal dissemination, tumor size and macroscopic type were critical. Five-year overall survival rates were 99.3 % for stage IA, 95.2 % for stage IB, and 50.0 % for stage IIB patients. One recurrence each was detected for stages IA and IIB cancers.
The present study showed LG to have a safe postoperative course and to benefit oncologic outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3661079  PMID: 23468326
Laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Lymph node dissection
8.  Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling Enables Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Expansion In Vitro for Use in Regenerative Medicine 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e58000.
Corneal endothelial dysfunctions occurring in patients with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, corneal endotheliitis, and surgically induced corneal endothelial damage cause blindness due to the loss of endothelial function that maintains corneal transparency. Transplantation of cultivated corneal endothelial cells (CECs) has been researched to repair endothelial dysfunction in animal models, though the in vitro expansion of human CECs (HCECs) is a pivotal practical issue. In this study we established an optimum condition for the cultivation of HCECs. When exposed to culture conditions, both primate and human CECs showed two distinct phenotypes: contact-inhibited polygonal monolayer and fibroblastic phenotypes. The use of SB431542, a selective inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) receptor, counteracted the fibroblastic phenotypes to the normal contact-inhibited monolayer, and these polygonal cells maintained endothelial physiological functions. Expression of ZO-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase maintained their subcellular localization at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, expression of type I collagen and fibronectin was greatly reduced. This present study may prove to be the substantial protocol to provide the efficient in vitro expansion of HCECs with an inhibitor to the TGF-β receptor, and may ultimately provide clinicians with a new therapeutic modality in regenerative medicine for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunctions.
PMCID: PMC3581499  PMID: 23451286
9.  Determining Timing of Hepatectomy for Colorectal Cancer with Distant Metastasis According to Imaging-Based Tumor Shrinkage Ratio 
Background: The optimal timing of surgical resection of liver metastasis remains controversial, and guidelines regarding the upper limits of operative indications have not yet been defined. Surgical indication for metastasis from colorectal cancer (CLM) based on results of preoperative chemotherapy and RNF8 was investigated. Methods: Differences in CLM size on CT were evaluated as shrinkage rate/day by dividing tumor shrinkage rates by the interval in days between CT. Levels of RNF8 of resected colorectal cancer and CLM frozen specimen were detected. Results: When the cut line for shrinkage rate at 12 weeks was set at 0.35%, disease-free survival was significantly better in patients with a shrinkage rate >0.35% vs. ≤0.35% (p=0.003). RNF8 expression was significantly higher in Tis (p=0.001). In liver metastasis, RNF8 expression level was significantly lower in patients with partial response to FOLFOX than with stable disease, (p=0.017). Conclusions: A strategy of FOLFOX administration for 12 weeks to patients with low RNF8 expression and hepatectomy planned after 4 weeks rest may be accepted as the best therapeutic option for treating CLM.
PMCID: PMC3739023  PMID: 23935401
RNF8; tumor shrinkage rate; colorectal cancer; liver metastasis; chemotherapy; surgical resection
10.  Effects of Carperitide on Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury with a Minimum Volume of Contrast in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 
Nephron Extra  2012;2(1):303-310.
Although contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a major complication associated with angiography, the prophylaxis is not well established. Use of a low dose of carperitide for preventing CIAKI remains controversial. We examined the protective effect of carperitide on CIAKI after coronary angiography with a small contrast volume in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with coronary artery disease.
We randomly assigned 112 consecutive patients to a carperitide or a control group. The contrast volume was kept under 150 ml. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIAKI defined by a serum creatinine of ≥25% or a serum creatinine of ≥0.5 mg/dl from baseline within 48 h. The secondary endpoint was a change in renal function at 1 week after the procedure. Results: The baseline characteristics and contrast volumes (carperitide group: 67.4 ± 38.2 ml vs. control group: 64.8 ± 20.5 ml, p = 0.661) were comparable in the two groups. The incidence of CIAKI was similar in the two groups (carperitide group: 8.5% vs. control group: 5.7%, p = 0.564). A multivariate analysis revealed that a hypotension ≥20 mm Hg was a significant predictor of developing CIAKI in the carperitide group (p = 0.015). The incidence of CIAKI in the carperitide group without hypotension was rare, but not significantly different (carperitide group: 2.4% vs. control group: 5.7%, p = 0.432). Conclusions: This study indicated that the use of a small contrast volume suppressed the incidence of CIAKI and that carperitide had no prophylactic effect against CIAKI. Our results also revealed the impact of hypotension on the development of CIAKI in the carperitide group.
PMCID: PMC3551384  PMID: 23341832
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury; Carperitide; Chronic kidney disease; Contrast medium volume
11.  Decreased FANCJ caused by 5FU contributes to the increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin in gastric cancer cells 
Gastric Cancer  2012;16(3):345-354.
Oxaliplatin is effective against many types of cancer, and the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin is synergistically effective against gastric cancer, as well as colon cancer. The FANCJ protein is one of the Fanconi anemia (FA) gene products, and its interaction with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 is required for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. FANCJ also functions in interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) repair by linking to mismatch repair protein complex MLH1-PMS2 (MutLα). While oxaliplatin causes ICLs, 5FU is considered to cause DSBs. Therefore, we investigated the importance of FANCJ in the synergistic effects of oxaliplatin and 5FU in MKN45 gastric cancer cells and the derived 5FU-resistant cell line, MKN45/F2R.
MKN1, TMK1, MKN45, and MKN45/F2R (5FU-resistant) gastric cancer cells were treated with 5FU and/or oxaliplatin. The signaling pathway was evaluated by a western blotting analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Drug resistance was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-tetrazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
In MKN45 cells, the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin had synergistic effects. DSBs appeared when the cells were treated with 5FU. FANCJ was down-regulated, and BRCA1 was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MKN45 cells showed increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin when FANCJ was knocked down by short interfering (si) RNA. However, these findings were not observed in MKN45/F2R 5FU-resistant cells.
These results strongly suggest that the decrease in FANCJ caused by 5FU treatment leads to an increase in sensitivity to oxaliplatin, thus indicating that the FANCJ protein plays an important role in the synergism of the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin.
PMCID: PMC3713262  PMID: 22968820
Fluorouracil; Oxaliplatin; BACH1 protein
12.  A selective inhibitor of the Rho kinase pathway, Y-27632, and its influence on wound healing in the corneal stroma 
Molecular Vision  2012;18:1727-1739.
Our study examined the effect of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, on corneal wound healing and potential stromal scarring after superficial keratectomy.
Rabbit keratocytes were induced into myofibroblasts by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) either with or without Y-27632. Then α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the contractility of the seeded collagen gels was measured. Y-27632 eye drops (or vehicle only) were administered to eyes after a superficial keratectomy, and the tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry for α-SMA, collagen types I, II, and III, and keratan sulfate. Electron microscopy was conducted with and without histochemical contrasting of sulfated proteoglycans.
Spindle-like cells in culture constituted 99.5±1.1% with TGFβ1 stimulation, but 3.5±1.0% after TGFβ1 and Y-27632 treatment (p<0.01, n=6). α-SMA was seen in 4% of TGFβ1-treated cells, but in only 0.3% of cells with Y-27632 added (p<0.01, n=6), which was confirmed by western blotting. Y-27632 also inhibited the TGFβ1-induced contraction of seeded collagen gels. After superficial keratectomies, collagen type I and keratan sulfate were unchanged by Y-27632 application. Collagen type II was not detected in Y-27632 or vehicle-only corneas. With Y-27632 treatment, α-SMA expression increased and the collagen type III signal became in the weaker subepithelial area. Interestingly, bundles of aligned and uniformly spaced collagen fibrils were more prevalent in keratocytes in Y-27632-treated corneas, which is reminiscent of fibripositor-like structures that have been proposed as a mechanism of matrix deposition in embryonic connective tissues.
Y-27632 inhibits keratocyte-to-myofibroblast transition, and its topical application after a superficial lamellar keratectomy elicits an altered wound healing response, with evidence of an embryonic-type deposition of collagen fibrils.
PMCID: PMC3398489  PMID: 22815626
13.  PIK3CA Mutations and Copy Number Gains in Human Lung Cancers 
Cancer research  2008;68(17):6913-6921.
We investigated the frequency and function of mutations and increased copy number of the PIK3CA gene in lung cancers. PIK3CA mutations are one of the most common gene changes present in human cancers. We analyzed the mutational status of exons 9 and 20 and gene copy number of PIK3CA using 86 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 43 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, 3 extrapulmonary small cell cancer (ExPuSC) cell lines, and 691 resected NSCLC tumors and studied the relationship between PIK3CA alterations and mutational status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway genes (EGFR, KRAS, HER2, and BRAF). We also determined PIK3CA expression and activity and correlated the findings with effects on cell growth. We identified mutations in 4.7% of NSCLC cell lines and 1.6% of tumors of all major histologic types. Mutations in cell lines of small cell origin were limited to two ExPuSC cell lines. PIK3CA copy number gains were more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (33.1%) than in adenocarcinoma (6.2%) or SCLC lines (4.7%). Mutational status of PIK3CA was not mutually exclusive to EGFR or KRAS. PIK3CA alterations were associated with increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and phosphorylated Akt expression. RNA interference–mediated knockdown of PIK3CA inhibited colony formation of cell lines with PIK3CA mutations or gains but was not effective in PIK3CA wild-type cells. PIK3CA mutations or gains are present in a subset of lung cancers and are of functional importance.
PMCID: PMC2874836  PMID: 18757405
14.  Cytoglobin, the Newest Member of the Globin Family, Functions as a Tumor Suppressor Gene 
Cancer research  2008;68(18):7448-7456.
Cytoglobin (CYGB) is a recently discovered vertebrate globin distantly related to myoglobin with unknown function. CYGB is assigned to chromosomal region 17q25, which is frequently lost in multiple malignancies. Previous studies failed to detect evidence for mutations in the CYGB gene. Recent studies provided preliminary evidence for increased methylation of the gene in lung cancer. Our study was aimed at investigating the role of CYGB as a tumor suppressor gene. By nested methylation-specific DNA sequencing analysis of lung and breast cancer cell lines and bronchial and mammary epithelial cell lines, we identified that methylation of a 110-bp CpG-rich segment of the CYGB promoter was correlated with gene silencing. We specifically targeted this sequence and developed a quantitative methylation-specific PCR assay, suitable for high-throughput analysis. We showed that the tumor specificity of CYGB methylation in discriminating patients with and without lung cancer, using biopsies and sputum samples. We further showed the tumor specificity of this assay with multiple other epithelial and hematologic malignancies. To show tumor suppressor activity of CYGB, we performed the following: (a) RNA interference–mediated knockdown of CYGB gene on colony formation in a CYGB expression–positive lung cancer cell line, resulting in increased colony formation; (b) enforced gene expression in CYGB expression–negative lung and breast cancer cell lines, reducing colony formation; and (c) identification of potential proximate targets down-stream of the CYGB genes. Our data constitute the first direct functional evidence for CYGB, the newest member of the globin family, as a tumor suppressor gene.
PMCID: PMC2849650  PMID: 18794132
15.  Oncogene Mutations, Copy Number Gains and Mutant Allele Specific Imbalance (MASI) Frequently Occur Together in Tumor Cells 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(10):e7464.
Activating mutations in one allele of an oncogene (heterozygous mutations) are widely believed to be sufficient for tumorigenesis. However, mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI) has been observed in tumors and cell lines harboring mutations of oncogenes.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We determined 1) mutational status, 2) copy number gains (CNGs) and 3) relative ratio between mutant and wild type alleles of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and EGFR genes by direct sequencing and quantitative PCR assay in over 400 human tumors, cell lines, and xenografts of lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Examination of a public database indicated that homozygous mutations of five oncogenes were frequent (20%) in 833 cell lines of 12 tumor types. Our data indicated two major forms of MASI: 1) MASI with CNG, either complete or partial; and 2) MASI without CNG (uniparental disomy; UPD), due to complete loss of wild type allele. MASI was a frequent event in mutant EGFR (75%) and was due mainly to CNGs, while MASI, also frequent in mutant KRAS (58%), was mainly due to UPD. Mutant: wild type allelic ratios at the genomic level were precisely maintained after transcription. KRAS mutations or CNGs were significantly associated with increased ras GTPase activity, as measured by ELISA, and the two molecular changes were synergistic. Of 237 lung adenocarcinoma tumors, the small number with both KRAS mutation and CNG were associated with shortened survival.
MASI is frequently present in mutant EGFR and KRAS tumor cells, and is associated with increased mutant allele transcription and gene activity. The frequent finding of mutations, CNGs and MASI occurring together in tumor cells indicates that these three genetic alterations, acting together, may have a greater role in the development or maintenance of the malignant phenotype than any individual alteration.
PMCID: PMC2757721  PMID: 19826477
16.  Therapeutic strategies for synchronous and multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer 
Oncology Reviews  2012;6(1):e9.
Metastasis in the liver is one of the most critical factors in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. The incidence of synchronous liver metastasis has been found to be approximately 20–25%, but the optimal timing of surgical resection remains controversial. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has also been found to be beneficial not only for initially unresectable but also resectable synchronous metastases and traditional surgical strategies of hepatic resection with past chemotherapeutic regimens have been used less and less over the past several years. This review will discuss treatments in association with the recently developed chemotherapeutic regimens.
PMCID: PMC4419631  PMID: 25992211
colorectal cancer; surgical indication; synchronous and multiple liver metastasis; chemotherapy; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

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