A previous study has demonstrated a significant decrease in the TCRζ gene expression level in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); thus, we further investigated the expression of TCRζ-regulating factors, the distribution of the TCRζ 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) splice variants, and the expression level and correlation of the alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF-2), FcεRIγ and ZAP-70 genes. TCRζ 3'-UTR splice variants were identified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 14 healthy individuals, 40 patients with CML and 22 patients with CML in complete remission (CML-CR) by RT-PCR. The expression level of the TCRζ, FcεRIγ, ASF/SF-2 and ZAP-70 genes was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. While the expression of TCRζ gene in the CML group was significantly lower than that in the healthy individual and CML-CR groups, a significantly higher expression of the FceRIγ and ASF/SF-2 genes was found in the CML group. Two types of splicing forms were detected in all of the healthy individual CML-CR cases: wild type (WT) TCRζ 3'-UTR and alternatively splieced (AS) TCRζ 3'-UTR which have been alternatively splieced in the WT TCRζ 3'-UTR . However, 35% of the CML cases contained only the wild type TCRζ 3'-UTR isoform. Based on the TCRζ 3'-UTR isoform expression characteristic, we divided the patients with CML into two subgroups: the WT+AS- CML group, containing patients that express only the wild type TCRζ 3'-UTR, and the WT+AS+ CML group, which contained patients that expressed two TCRζ 3'-UTR isoforms. A significantly different ASF/SF-2 and FcεRIγ gene expression pattern was found between the WT+AS- and WT+AS+CML groups. We concluded that defective TCRζ expression may be characterized in the WT+AS-and WT+AS+CML subgroups by the different gene expression pattern. The overexpression of ASF/SF2, which alternatively splices the TCRζ 3’-UTR, is thought to participate in feedback regulation. The characteristics of TCRζ 3'-UTR alternative splicing may be a novel immunological marker for the evaluation of the CML immune status.
ASF/SF-2gene; TCRζ3′-UTR; TCRζ gene; FcεRIγ gene; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Real-time PCR
Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine derived fungus.
Background and methods
In order to characterize the expression pattern of SALL4, BMI-1 and ABCA3 genes in patients with myeloid leukemia and those who achieved complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of these genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 24 patients with AML, eight patients with AML-CR, 13 patients with CML in the chronic phase (CML-CP), 12 patients with CML in blast crisis (CML-BC), 13 patients with CML-CR and 11 healthy individuals (HI).
Overexpression of the BMI-1 gene was found in the AML, CML-CP and CML-BC groups as compared with HI group, while the BMI-1 expression level was lower in patients who achieved CR. In contrast, significantly increased SALL4 expression was only found in AML group, additionally, SALL4 expression was lower in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups compared with the HI group, while the SALL4 expression level in the CML-BC group was higher and significantly greater than that in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups. Moreover, a positive correlation between the expression of SALL4 and BMI-1 genes was found in samples from most groups. There was no significant difference of ABCA3 expression level in AML and CML-BC group in comparison with HI group. Interestingly, the ABCA3 expression level was significantly decreased in the CML-CP, AML-CR and CML-CR in comparison with the HI group. Moreover, the ABCA3 expression level in all of the CR groups was lower than that in their corresponding groups.
These results describe the altered SALL4, ABCA3 and BMI-1 expression pattern in different phases of myeloid leukemia, which may relate to the development and progression to different diseases. SALL4 expression was strongly correlated with BMI-1 in most of the myeloid leukemia patient groups, providing a potential link between SALL4 and BMI-1 in leukemogenesis.
SALL4 gene; BMI-1 gene; Real-time PCR; AML; CML
A fungal extract (MSX 63619), from the Mycosynthetix library of over 50,000 fungi, displayed promising cytotoxicity against a human tumor cell panel. Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of an o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide, which we termed obionin B (1). The structure of 1 was deduced via spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The IC50 value of 1 was moderate, ranging from 3 to 13 μM, depending on the cell line tested.
Polyketide; Cytotoxicity; Pleosporales; o-Naphthoquinone
In the present study, the effect of a borneol/menthol eutectic mixture (25:75) and microemulsion on the absorption of daidzein in rat intestinal membrane was evaluated. The microemulsion formulation was composed of ethyl oleate (oil), Cremophor RH40 (surfactant), PEG400 (co-surfactant), and water. The borneol/menthol eutectic mixture and its microemulsion were found to enhance the intestinal absorption of daidzein in vitro. A diffusion chamber system with isolated rat intestinal membranes was used. In contrast, verapamil (0.3 mM), a typical P-glycoprotein inhibitor, showed no effect on the absorption of daidzein by this system. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats. After oral administration of daidzein at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the form of either borneol/menthol eutectic mixtures or suspension, the relative bioavailability of borneol/menthol eutectic mixtures and microemulsion was enhanced by about 1.5- and 3.65-fold, respectively, compared with a daidzein suspension. In conclusion, a borneol/menthol eutectic mixture can enhance the absorption of daidzein, although the mechanism of absorption enhancement is still unclear.
absorption enhancer; bioavailability; borneol/menthol eutectic mixture; daidzein; microemulsion
Four cyclic decapeptides, minutissamides A-D (1 - 4), were isolated from the cultured cyanobacterium Anabaena minutissima (UTEX 1613). The planar structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques including HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the α-amino acid residues were assigned using Marfey's method after acid hydrolysis. The absolute configuration of a β-amino acid residue was assigned by a combination of the advanced Marfey's method, J-based configurational analysis and ROE spectroscopic analysis. The structures of minutissamides A-D (1 - 4) were characterized by the presence of three non-standard α-amino acid residues (two α,β-dehydro-α-aminobutyric acids and one N-methylated Asn) and one β-amino acid residue (2-hydroxy-3-amino-4-methyl dodecanoic acid or 2-hydroxy-3-amino-4-methyl hexadecanoic acid). Minutissamides A-D (1 - 4) exhibited antiproliferative activity against the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line with IC50 values of 2.0, 20.0, 11.8 and 22.7 μM, respectively.
Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the Order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use of spectroscopic and spectrometric tools in conjunction with comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1–5) were evaluated against a suite of biological assays, including those for cytotoxicity, inhibition of the 20S proteasome, mitochondria transmembrane potential, and NF-κB.
acremonidin; anthraquinone; cytotoxicity; fungus; moniliphenone; 20S proteasome; xanthone
As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 63935; related to Phoma sp.). The initial extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against the H460 (human non-small cell lung carcinoma) and SF268 (human astrocytoma) cell lines and was selected for further study. Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) 1 (a new natural product) and 3 (a new compound) and the known RALs zeaenol (2), 5E-7-oxozeaenol (4), 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (5) and LL-Z1640-1 (6). Reduction of 5E-7-oxozeaenol (4) with sodium borohydride produced 3, which allowed assignment of the absolute configuration of 3. Other known resorcylic acid lactones (7–12) were purchased and assayed in parallel for cytotoxicity with isolated 1–6 to investigate structure-activity relationships in the series. Moreover, the isolated compounds (1–6) were examined for activity in a suite of biological assays, including antibacterial, mitochondria transmembrane potential, and NF-κB. In the latter assay, compounds 1 and 5 displayed sub-micromolar activities that were on par with the positive control, and as such, these compounds may serve as a lead scaffold for future medicinal chemistry studies.
Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1) is a heat-responsive protein and functions in protein biosynthesis in chloroplast. Knockdown of RPS1 expression in the rps1 mutant nearly eliminates the heat stress-activated expression of HsfA2 and its target genes, leading to a considerable loss of heat tolerance. We further confirm the relationship existed between the downregulation of RPS1 expression and the loss of heat tolerance by generating RNA interference-transgenic lines of RPS1. Consistent with the notion that the inhibited activation of HsfA2 in response to heat stress in the rps1 mutant causes heat-susceptibility, we further demonstrate that overexpression of HsfA2 with a viral promoter leads to constitutive expressions of its target genes in the rps1 mutant, which is sufficient to reestablish lost heat tolerance and recovers heat-susceptible thylakoid stability to wild-type levels. Our findings reveal a heat-responsive retrograde pathway in which chloroplast translation capacity is a critical factor in heat-responsive activation of HsfA2 and its target genes required for cellular homeostasis under heat stress. Thus, RPS1 is an essential yet previously unknown determinant involved in retrograde activation of heat stress responses in higher plants.
As a consequence of global warming, increasing temperature is a serious threat to crop production worldwide and may influence the objectives of breeding programs. As a universal cellular response to a shift up in temperature, the heat stress response represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. Given that components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the primary susceptible targets of thermal damage in plants, the chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to a shift up in temperature. However, the mechanism by which chloroplasts regulate the expression of nuclear heat stress–responsive gene expression according to the functional state of chloroplasts under heat stress remains unknown. In this study, we have identified chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1) as a heat-responsive protein through proteomic screening of heat-responsive proteins. We have established a previously unrecognized molecular connection between the downregulation of RPS1 expression in chloroplast and the activation of HsfA2-dependent heat-responsive genes in nucleus, which is required for heat tolerance in higher plants. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms whereby plant cells modulate nuclear gene expression to keep accordance with the current status of chloroplasts in response to heat stress.
The aim of this research was to increase the oral bioavailability of daidzein by the formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with daidzein. Amongst the various traditional and novel techniques of preparing daidzein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, daidzein-loaded phospholipid complexes PLGA nanoparticles and daidzein-loaded cyclodextrin inclusion complexes PLGA nanoparticles were selected. The average drug entrapment efficiency, particle size, and zeta potential of daidzein-loaded phospholipid complexes PLGA nanoparticles and daidzein-loaded cyclodextrin inclusion complexes PLGA nanoparticles were 81.9% ± 5%, 309.2 ± 14.0 nm, −32.14 ± 2.53 mV and 83.2% ± 7.2%, 323.2 ± 4.8 nm, −18.73 ± 1.68 mV, respectively. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles was observed with scanning electron microscopy by stereological method and the physicochemical state of nanoparticles was valued by differential scanning calorimetry. The in vitro drug-release profile of both nanoparticle formulations fitted the Weibull dynamic equation. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of daidzein-loaded phospholipid complexes PLGA nanoparticles and daidzein-loaded cyclodextrin inclusion complexes PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 5.57- and 8.85-fold, respectively, compared to daidzein suspension as control. These results describe an effective strategy for oral delivery of daidzein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a fresh approach to enhancing the bioavailability of drugs with poor lipophilic and poor hydrophilic properties.
daidzein; phospholipid complexes; cyclodextrin inclusion complexes; PLGA; nanoparticles
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare, aggressive and often fatal non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by preferential growth of malignant B-cells within the lumina of small vessels. Rituximab plus anthracy-cline-based chemotherapy is the current standard regimen for IVLBCL, however it has minimal efficacy in relapsed or refractory diseases. Recent clinical trials have shown a significant anti-lymphoma activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the activation status of the mTOR pathway and the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibitors in IVLBCL have not yet been studied. Here we described the clinicopathological features of 3 cases of IVLBCL diagnosed at our institutions, and evaluated the activation status of the mTOR signaling in these tumors. Our results showed that the mTOR complex 2 pathway was selectively upregulated in IVLBCL, as evidenced by a predominant nuclear localization of the activated form of mTOR (p-mTOR at Ser2448) with concomitant overexpression of nuclear p-Akt (Ser473) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the lymphoma cells. These data suggest that overactivation of mTOR pathway may play a role in lymphomagenesis of IVLBCL and mTORC2 inhibitors may be beneficial in treating IVLBCL.
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma; mTOR; Akt; VEGF
Material collected from a parkway in the city of Chicago afforded the isolation of a Nostoc species (UIC 10022A). The extract of this strain displayed significant inhibition of the 20S proteasome as well as antiproliferative activity against HT29, MCF7, NCI-H460, and SF268 cancer cell lines. A standardized dereplication protocol allowed for the rapid identification of three known (11-13) and nine new (1-9) chlorinated cylindrocyclophanes from less than 100 mg of organic extract. Scale-up isolation of 1-9 and 11-13 from a larger extract was guided by LC-UV-MS data. In addition, KBr enrichment of the culture media afforded the isolation of a brominated cylindrocyclophane (10). Biological evaluation of 1-5, 9, and 10-13 revealed a large range of activity against the 20S proteasome and allowed the determination of preliminary structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the cylindrocyclophane pharmacophore.
Phytophthora sojae causes soybean root and stem rot, resulting in an annual loss of 1-2 billion US dollars in soybean production worldwide. A proteomic technique was used to determine the effects on soybean hypocotyls of infection with P. sojae.
In the present study, 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified in soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The expression levels of 26 proteins were significantly affected at various time points in the tolerant soybean line, Yudou25, (12 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated). In contrast, in the sensitive soybean line, NG6255, only 20 proteins were significantly affected (11 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated). Among these proteins, 26% were related to energy regulation, 15% to protein destination and storage, 11% to defense against disease, 11% to metabolism, 9% to protein synthesis, 4% to secondary metabolism, and 24% were of unknown function.
Our study provides important information on the use of proteomic methods for studying protein regulation during plant-oomycete interactions.
The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations.
Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate.
A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension.
Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel.
microemulsion gel; cubic gel; transdermal delivery; paeonol
The effect of eugenol on colchicine transport across an isolated rat intestinal membrane was studied using an in vitro diffusion chamber system. We found that eugenol increased the absorptive transport of the drug efficiently. The effect of eugenol on intestinal absorption of colchicine in an oral administrative nanoemulsion formulation was also demonstrated in vivo. The colchicine nanoemulsion was prepared with isopropyl myristate, eugenol, Tween80, ethanol and water, and eugenol was used as an oil phase in the formulation; an average particle size of this nanoemulsion was 41.2 ± 7.2 nm. The permeation of colchicine in the nanoemulsion across the intestinal membrane was significantly different from that of the control group (0.2 mM colchicine). Finally, co-administration of eugenol in colchicine nanoemulsion to enhance the colchicine bioavailability was investigated by an oral administration method. After oral administration of colchicine (8 mg/kg) in the form of either the nanoemulsion or in free colchicine solution, the relative bioavailability of nanoemulsion and eugenol–nanoemulsion were enhanced by about 1.6- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared with free colchicine solution. The procedure indicated that the intestinal absorption of colchicine was enhanced significantly by eugenol in the tested nanoemulsion. All the results suggested that eugenol is an efficient component in an oral administrative formulation for improving the intestinal absorption of colchicine.
intestinal absorption; nanoemulsion; absorption enhancement; eugenol
Downregulation of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma11B (BCL11B) gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell line Molt-4. To further characterize the molecular mechanism, a global gene expression profile of BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells was established. The expression profiles of several genes were further validated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells and primary T-ALL cells.
142 genes were found to be upregulated and 109 genes downregulated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells by microarray analysis. Among apoptosis-related genes, three pro-apoptotic genes, TNFSF10, BIK, BNIP3, were upregulated and one anti-apoptotic gene, BCL2L1 was downregulated. Moreover, the expression of SPP1 and CREBBP genes involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) pathway was down 16-fold. Expression levels of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, SPP1, and CREBBP were also examined by real-time PCR. A similar expression pattern of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 was identified. However, CREBBP was not downregulated in the BLC11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells.
BCL11B-siRNA treatment altered expression profiles of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 in both Molt-4 T cell line and primary T-ALL cells.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT) are a rare, recently recognized distinct group of mesenchymal tumors that develop exclusively in patients with immunosuppression. It is believed that tumorigenesis is, at least in part, through the activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway. We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a multifocal hepatic EBV-SMT in a 34-year-old acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and investigate the activation status of the mTOR signal pathway in this tumor. In addition, we provide a review of the literature on the clinicopathologic findings of hepatic EBV-SMT in adult AIDS patients, and discuss their biologies and possible therapeutic strategies.
Smooth muscle tumor; HIV infection; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; adult; Epstein-Barr virus; liver
Organometallic pyridocarbazole scaffolds are investigated as protein kinase inhibitors. Whereas our previous designs employed solely a maleimide pharmacophore for achieving the two crucial canonical hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the ATP binding site, we have now extended our investigations to include the related lactam metallo-pyridocarbazoles. The synthetic access of the two regioisomeric lactam pyridocarbazoles is described and the distinct biological properties of the two lactam scaffolds are revealed by employing a ruthenium half sandwich complex as a model system, resulting in organometallic lead structures for the inhibition of the protein kinases TrkA and CLK2. These new lactam metallo-pyridocarbazoles expand our existing molecular toolbox and assist towards the generation of metal complex scaffolds as lead structures for the design of selective inhibitors for numerous kinases of the human kinome.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is predominantly cytoplasmic and highly responsive to rapamycin, whereas mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) is both cytoplasmic and nuclear, and relatively resistant to rapamycin. mTORC1 and mTORC2 phosphorylatively regulate their respective downstream effectors p70S6K/4EBP1, and Akt. The resulting activated mTOR pathways stimulate protein synthesis, cellular proliferation, and cell survival. Moreover, phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated as one of the upstream activators of mTOR signaling. In this study, we investigated the activation status as well as the subcellular distribution of mTOR, and its upstream regulators and downstream effectors in endometrial carcinomas (ECa) and non-neoplastic endometrial control tissue. Our data show that the mTORC2 activity is selectively elevated in endometrial cancers as evidenced by a predominant nuclear localization of the activated form of mTOR (p-mTOR at Ser2448) in malignant epithelium, accompanied by overexpression of nuclear p-Akt (Ser473), as well as overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoform, the latter a resultant of target gene activation by mTORC2 signaling via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2alpha. In addition, expression of PLD1, one of the two major isoforms of PLD in human, is increased in tumor epithelium. In summary, we demonstrate that the PLD1/PA-mTORC2 signal pathway is overactivated in endometrial carcinomas. This suggests that the rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2 pathway plays a major role in endometrial tumorigenesis and that therapies designed to target the phospholipase D pathway and components of the mTORC2 pathway should be efficacious against ECa.
morphoproteomics; phospholipase D1; mTORC2; endometrial carcinoma
In a human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell line (Molt-4), siRNA-mediated suppression of BCL11B expression was shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, functions which may be related to genes involved in apoptosis (such as TNFSF10 and BCL2L1) and TGF-β pathways (such as SPP1and CREBBP).
The expression levels of the above mentioned genes and their correlation with the BCL11B gene were analyzed in patients with T-ALL using the TaqMan and SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction technique.
Expression levels of BCL11B, BCL2L1, and CREBBP mRNA in T-ALL patients were significantly higher than those from healthy controls (P <0.05). In T-ALL patients, the BCL11B expression level was negatively correlated with the BCL2L1 expression level (rs = -0.700; P <0.05), and positively correlated with the SPP1 expression level (rs = 0.683; P <0.05). In healthy controls, the BCL11B expression level did not correlate with the TNFSF10, BCL2L1, SPP1, or CREBBP expression levels.
Over-expression of BCL11B might play a role in anti-apoptosis in T-ALL cells through up-regulation of its downstream genes BCL2L1 and CREBBP.
We tested the hypothesis that the proliferative estrogen effect on the endometrium is enhanced in obese versus lean animals.
Using Zucker fa/fa obese rats and lean control, we examined endometrial cell proliferation and the expression patterns of certain estrogen-regulated pro-proliferative and anti-proliferative genes after short-term treatment with estradiol.
No significant morphological/histological difference were seen between the obese rats and the lean rats. Estrogen-induced pro-proliferative genes cyclin A and c-Myc mRNA expression were significantly higher in the endometrium of obese rats compared with that of the lean control. Expression of the anti-proliferative gene p27Kip1 was suppressed by estrogen treatment in both obese and lean rats, however, the decrease was more pronounced in obese rats. Estrogen more strongly induced the anti-proliferative genes RALDH2 and sFRP4 in lean rats, but had little or no effect in obese rats.
Enhancement of estrogen-induced endometrial pro-proliferative gene expression and suppression of anti-proliferative gene expression was seen in the endometrium of obese versus lean animals.
Obesity; estrogen; endometrial; proliferation
Calbindin-D28k has been reported to be a facilitator of calcium diffusion and to protect against apoptotic cell death. Most recently we found that the presence of calbindin-D28k results in reduced calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels and enhanced sensitivity of the channels to calcium dependent inactivation. Co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull down assays indicate that calbindin-D28k interacts with the C-terminus of the L-type calcium channel alpha1c subunit (Cav1.2). This is the first report of the binding of calbindin to a calcium channel and provides new insight concerning mechanisms by which calbindin acts to modulate intracellular calcium. Besides calbindin, another major target of 1,25(OH)2D3 is 24(OH)ase, which is involved in the catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3. We reported that C/EBPβ is a major transcriptional activator of 24(OH)ase that cooperates with CBP/p300 in regulating VDR mediated 24(OH)ase transcription. Recently we found, in addition to p160 coactivators, that SWI/SNF complexes (that facilitate transcription by remodeling chromatin using the energy of ATP hydrolysis) are also involved in VDR mediated 24(OH)ase transcription and functionally cooperate with C/EBPβ in regulating 24(OH)ase. These findings define novel mechanisms that may be of fundamental importance in understanding how 1,25(OH)2D3 mediates its multiple biological effects.
calbindin-D28k; L type calcium channels; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase; CCAAT enhancer binding protein; SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is centrally involved in growth, survival and metabolism. In cancer, mTOR is frequently hyperactivated and is a clinically validated target for therapy and drug development. Biologically, mTOR acts as the catalytic subunit of two functionally distinct complexes, called mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) which is predominantly cytoplasmic in subcellular localization and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) which is both cytoplasmic and nuclear. mTORC1 is sensitive to the selective inhibitor rapamycin. By contrast, mTORC2 is relatively resistant to rapamycin. Moreover, its putative downstream effector, Akt phosphorylated on serine 473 represents a signal transduction pathway for tumor survival. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated as an activator of mTOR signaling, including the direct phosphorylative activation of p70S6K atthreonine 389. The latter promotes cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the activation status and subcellular localization of mTOR and the relative expression of PLD1, as well as their downstream effectors in a spectrum of uterine smooth muscle tumors using normal myometria as controls. The results show significant activation with overexpression of phosphorylated mTORC2 complex in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) as evidenced by nuclear localization of p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in ULMS>STUMP>uterine leiomyoma and normal myometria (p<0.05) and with overexpression of PLD1(p<0.05). Cor-relatively, there are overexpressions of nuclear p-Akt (Ser 473) and nuclear p-p70S6K (Thr 389) in ULMS and STUMP (p<0.05). The activation with overexpression of components of the mTORC2-PLD1 pathway in ULMS and to a lesser degree in STUMP provides insight into their tumorigenic mechanisms. Thus the development of therapies designed to target mTORC2 and PLD1 activity may be beneficial in treating ULMS.
Morphoproteomics; mTORC2; phospholipase D1; uterine leiomyosarcoma; STUMP
Patients with classic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a disorder characterized by extensive extraskeletal endochondral bone formation, share a recurrent mutation (R206H) within the glycine/serine-rich domain of ACVR1/ALK2, a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor. Through a series of in vitro assays using several mammalian cell lines and chick limb bud micromass cultures, we determined that mutant R206H ACVR1 activated BMP signaling in the absence of BMP ligand and mediated BMP-independent chondrogenesis that was enhanced by BMP. We further investigated the interaction of mutant R206H ACVR1 with FKBP1A, a glycine/serine domain–binding protein that prevents leaky BMP type I receptor activation in the absence of ligand. The mutant protein exhibited reduced binding to FKBP1A in COS-7 simian kidney cell line assays, suggesting that increased BMP pathway activity in COS-7 cells with R206H ACVR1 is due, at least in part, to decreased binding of this inhibitory factor. Consistent with these findings, in vivo analyses of zebrafish embryos showed BMP-independent hyperactivation of BMP signaling in response to the R206H mutant, resulting in increased embryonic ventralization. These data support the conclusion that the mutant R206H ACVR1 receptor in FOP patients is an activating mutation that induces BMP signaling in a BMP-independent and BMP-responsive manner to promote chondrogenesis, consistent with the ectopic endochondral bone formation in these patients.