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1.  Mirror Movements Identified in Patients with Moebius Syndrome 
Background
Moebius syndrome is a rare disorder with minimum clinical criteria of congenital facial weakness in association with impairment in abduction of one or both eyes. Mirror movements are not known to be associated with Moebius syndrome.
Case Report
We present three patients who meet minimum criteria for a diagnosis of Moebius syndrome and who also display mirror movements.
Discussion
This case series suggests that Moebius syndrome may be associated with mirror movements. Further investigation to delineate the genetic etiologies of Moebius syndrome is ongoing. Patients with Moebius syndrome and mirror movements may represent a specific subclass of this disorder.
doi:10.7916/D83F4MR8
PMCID: PMC4107286  PMID: 25120946
Mirror movements; Moebius syndrome
2.  Clinical importance of delayed MRI contrast enhancement of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr10.2008.1043.
Accurately distinguishing between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), still the most common secondary CNS mass lesion complications of AIDS, has long represented a diagnostic challenge in those with HIV. A young adult male with AIDS presented with evolving ophthalmoplegias, Parinaud’s syndrome and gait dysfunction. MRI with gadolinium contrast revealed a brainstem lesion failing to enhance on initially obtained post-contrast images yet prominently enhancing on images acquired endmost within the same scanning session. Biopsy ultimately confirmed lesion aetiology as PCNSL. While the definitive diagnosis of PCNSL generally requires brain biopsy, different MRI contrast-enhancement time courses of PCNSL versus toxoplasmosis (PCNSL tends to peak-enhance sooner than toxoplasmosis) can provide differential diagnostic insight. These images underscore the delayed nature of PCNSL contrast enhancement and demonstrate the diagnostic importance of attending to post-gadolinium image acquisition timing to help inform utilisation of MRI for PCNSL identification.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2008.1043
PMCID: PMC3027744  PMID: 21686485
3.  Functional Dissociation of the Frontoinsular and Anterior Cingulate Cortices in Empathy for Pain 
The frontoinsular cortex (FI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are known to be involved in empathy for others’ pain. However, the functional roles of FI and ACC in empathetic responses have not yet been clearly dissociated in previous studies. In this study, participants viewed color photographs depicting human body parts (hands or feet) in painful or non-painful situations and performed either pain judgment (painful/non-painful) or laterality judgment (left/right) of the body parts. We found that activation of FI, rather than ACC, showed significant increase for painful compared to non-painful images, regardless of the task requirement. These findings suggest a clear functional dissociation between FI and ACC in which FI is more domain-specific than ACC in processing of empathy for pain.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4844-09.2010
PMCID: PMC2845539  PMID: 20220007
empathy; fMRI; insula; anterior cingulate cortex; pain; Emotion

Results 1-3 (3)