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BMJ Case Reports (1)
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (1)
Fan, Jin (1)
Goldstein, Martin Adam (1)
Gu, Xiaosi (1)
Guise, Kevin G. (1)
Hof, Patrick R. (1)
Liu, Xun (1)
Naidich, Thomas P (1)
Naidich, Thomas P. (1)
Silverman, Michael Evan (1)
Year of Publication
Clinical importance of delayed MRI contrast enhancement of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS
Goldstein, Martin Adam
Silverman, Michael Evan
BMJ Case Reports
Accurately distinguishing between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), still the most common secondary CNS mass lesion complications of AIDS, has long represented a diagnostic challenge in those with HIV. A young adult male with AIDS presented with evolving ophthalmoplegias, Parinaud’s syndrome and gait dysfunction. MRI with gadolinium contrast revealed a brainstem lesion failing to enhance on initially obtained post-contrast images yet prominently enhancing on images acquired endmost within the same scanning session. Biopsy ultimately confirmed lesion aetiology as PCNSL. While the definitive diagnosis of PCNSL generally requires brain biopsy, different MRI contrast-enhancement time courses of PCNSL versus toxoplasmosis (PCNSL tends to peak-enhance sooner than toxoplasmosis) can provide differential diagnostic insight. These images underscore the delayed nature of PCNSL contrast enhancement and demonstrate the diagnostic importance of attending to post-gadolinium image acquisition timing to help inform utilisation of MRI for PCNSL identification.
Functional Dissociation of the Frontoinsular and Anterior Cingulate Cortices in Empathy for Pain
Guise, Kevin G.
Hof, Patrick R.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
The frontoinsular cortex (FI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are known to be involved in empathy for others’ pain. However, the functional roles of FI and ACC in empathetic responses have not yet been clearly dissociated in previous studies. In this study, participants viewed color photographs depicting human body parts (hands or feet) in painful or non-painful situations and performed either pain judgment (painful/non-painful) or laterality judgment (left/right) of the body parts. We found that activation of FI, rather than ACC, showed significant increase for painful compared to non-painful images, regardless of the task requirement. These findings suggest a clear functional dissociation between FI and ACC in which FI is more domain-specific than ACC in processing of empathy for pain.
empathy; fMRI; insula; anterior cingulate cortex; pain; Emotion
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