Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide powerful resources for application in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods have been developed for large-scale hPSC culture that rely on combined use of multiple growth components, including media containing various growth factors, extracellular matrices, three-dimensional environmental (3D) cues and modes of multicellular association. In this review, we dissect these growth components by comparing cell culture methods and identifying the benefits and pitfalls associated with each one. We further provide criteria, considerations, and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for hPSC expansion, differentiation, and use in future therapeutic applications.
Human embryonic stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; cell culture; expansion; differentiation; regenerative medicine
The ability to generate large numbers of bone- and cartilage-forming cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) would mark a major advance in tissue engineering. A number of protocols exist, but the overall quality and consistency of this type of differentiation are under-reported. In this study, the authors analyzed differentiated iPSCs in vitro and in vivo by stringent criteria, and found that in vitro analysis does not predict in vivo differentiation.
The ability to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into committed skeletal progenitors could allow for an unlimited autologous supply of such cells for therapeutic uses; therefore, we attempted to create novel bone-forming cells from human iPSCs using lines from two distinct tissue sources and methods of differentiation that we previously devised for osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, and as suggested by other publications. The resulting cells were assayed using in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those obtained from in vivo transplantation assays. Our results show that true bone was formed in vivo by derivatives of several iPSC lines, but that the successful cell lines and differentiation methodologies were not predicted by the results of the in vitro assays. In addition, bone was formed equally well from iPSCs originating from skin or bone marrow stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), suggesting that the iPSCs did not retain a “memory” of their previous life. Furthermore, one of the iPSC-derived cell lines formed verifiable cartilage in vivo, which likewise was not predicted by in vitro assays.
Induced pluripotent stem cells; Bone; Osteoblast; Chondrogenesis; Transplantation
Much of the excitement generated by induced pluripotent stem cell technology is concerned with the possibility of disease modeling as well as the potential for personalized cell therapy. However, to pursue this it is important to understand the ‘normal’ pluripotent state including its inherent variability. We have performed various molecular profiling assays for 21 hESC lines and 8 hiPSC lines to generate a comprehensive snapshot of the undifferentiated state of pluripotent stem cells. Analysis of the gene expression data revealed no iPSC-specific gene expression pattern in accordance with previous reports. We further compared cells, differentiated as embryoid bodies in 2 media proposed to initiate differentiation towards separate cell fates, as well as 20 adult tissues. From this analysis we have generated a gene list which defines pluripotency and establishes a baseline for the pluripotent state. Finally, we provide lists of genes enriched under both differentiation conditions which show the proposed bias toward independent cell fates.
Regenerative medicine, relying on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology, opens promising new avenues for therapy of many severe diseases. However, this approach is restricted by limited production of the desired cells due to the refractory properties of hESC growth in vitro. It is further hindered by insufficient control of cellular stress, growth rates, and heterogeneous cellular states under current culture conditions. In this study, we report a novel cell culture method based on a non-colony type monolayer (NCM) growth. Human ESCs under NCM remain pluripotent as determined by teratoma assays and sustain the potential to differentiate into three germ layers. This NCM culture has been shown to homogenize cellular states, precisely control growth rates, significantly increase cell production, and enhance hESC recovery from cryopreservation without compromising chromosomal integrity. This culture system is simple, robust, scalable, and suitable for high-throughput screening and drug discovery.
The expression and function of several multidrug transporters (including ABCB1 and ABCG2) have been studied in human cancer cells and in mouse and human adult stem cells. However, the expression of ABCG2 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) remains unclear. Limited and contradictory results in the literature from two research groups have raised questions regarding its expression and function. In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR, Northern blots, whole genome RNA sequencing, Western blots, and immunofluorescence microscopy to study ABCG2 expression in hESCs. We found that full-length ABCG2 mRNA transcripts are expressed in undifferentiated hESC lines. However, ABCG2 protein was undetectable even under embryoid body differentiation or cytotoxic drug induction. Moreover, surface ABCG2 protein was coexpressed with the differentiation marker SSEA-1 of hESCs, following constant BMP-4 signaling at days 4 and 6. This expression was tightly correlated with the down-regulation of two microRNAs (i.e., hsa-miR-519c and hsa-miR-520h). Transfection of microRNA mimics and inhibitors of these two microRNAs confirmed their direct involvement in the regulation ABCG2 translation. Our findings clarify the controversy regarding the expression of the ABCG2 gene and also provide new insights into translational control of the expression of membrane transporter mRNAs by microRNAs in hESCs.
human embryonic stem cells; ATP-binding cassette; ABCG2; BMP-4; differentiation
Chronically altered levels of network activity lead to changes in the morphology and functions of neurons. However, little is known of how changes in neuronal activity alter the intracellular signaling pathways mediating neuronal survival. Here we use primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons to show that elevated neuronal activity impairs phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase, Erk1/2 and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by phosphorylation of Serine 727. Chronically stimulated neurons go through apoptosis when they fail to activate another serine/threonine kinase, Akt. Gain and loss of function experiments show that STAT3 plays the key role directly downstream from Erk1/2 as the alternative survival pathway. Elevated neuronal activity resulted in increased expression of a tumor suppressor, p53 and its target gene, Bax. These changes are observed in Kv4.2 knockout mouse hippocampal neurons, which are also sensitive to the blockade of TrkB signaling, confirming that the alteration occurs in vivo. Thus, this study provides new insight to a mechanism by which chronic elevation of activity may cause neurodegeneration.
The nervous system develops through a program that first produces neurons in excess and then eliminates as many as half in a specific period of early post-natal life. Neurotrophins are widely thought to regulate neuronal survival but this role has not been clearly defined in the central nervous system. Here we show that neurotrophins promote survival of young neurons by promoting spontaneous activity. Survival of hippocampal neurons in neonatal rat requires spontaneous activity that depends on the excitatory action of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotrophins facilitate recruitment of cultured neurons into active networks, and it is this activity, combined with integrin receptor signaling, that controls neuronal survival. In vivo, neurotrophins require integrin signaling to control neuron number. These data are the first to link the early excitatory action of GABA to the developmental death period and to assign an essential role for activity in neurotrophin-mediated survival that establishes appropriate networks.
The culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is limited, both technically and with respect to clinical potential, by the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a feeder layer. The concern over xenogeneic contaminants from the mouse feeder cells may restrict transplantation to humans and the variability in MEFs from batch-to-batch and laboratory-to-laboratory may contribute to some of the variability in experimental results. Finally, use of any feeder layer increases the work load and subsequently limits the large-scale culture of human ES cells. Thus, the development of feeder-free cultures will allow more reproducible culture conditions, facilitate scale-up and potentiate the clinical use of cells differentiated from hESC cultures. In this review, we describe various methods tested to culture cells in the absence of MEF feeder layers and other advances in eliminating xenogeneic products from the culture system.
Human embryonic stem cells; MEF; Feeder-free cell culture; Matrigel
Pluripotent stem cells provide a platform to interrogate control elements that function to generate all cell types of the body. Despite their utility for modeling development and disease, the relationship of mouse and human pluripotent stem cell states to one another remains largely undefined. We have shown that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are distinct, pluripotent states isolated from pre- and post-implantation embryos respectively. Human ES cells are different than mouse ES cells and share defining features with EpiSCs, yet are derived from pre-implantation human embryos. Here we show that EpiSCs can be routinely derived from pre-implantation mouse embryos. The pre-implantation-derived EpiSCs exhibit molecular features and functional properties consistent with bona fide EpiSCs. These results provide a simple method for isolating EpiSCs and offer direct insight into the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that regulate the acquisition of distinct pluripotent states.
epiblast stem cells; pluripotency; embryonic stem cells; blastocyst
We explored the effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fibroblast Growth Factor 20 gene (FGF20) associated with risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD) on brain structure and function in a large sample of healthy young-adult human subjects and also in elderly subjects to look at the interaction between genetic variations and age (N = 237, 116 men, 18–87 years). We analyzed high resolution anatomical magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry, a quantitative neuroanatomical technique. We also measured FGF20 mRNA expression in post-mortem human brain tissue to determine the molecular correlates of these SNPs (N = 108, 72 men, 18–74 years). We found that the T allele carriers of rs12720208 in the 3’ UTR had relatively larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.0059), diminished verbal episodic memory (p = 0.048) and showed steeper decreases of hippocampal volume with normal ageing (p = 0.026). In post-mortem brain, T allele carriers had greater expression of hippocampal FGF20 mRNA (p = 0.037), consistent with a previously characterized microRNA mechanism. The C allele matches a predicted miR-433 microRNA binding domain, whereas the T allele disrupts it, resulting in higher FGF20 protein translation. The strong FGF20 genetic effects in hippocampus are presumably mediated by activation of the FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), which is expressed in mammalian brain most abundantly in the hippocampus. These associations, from mRNA expression to brain morphology to cognition and an interaction with ageing, confirm a role of FGF20 in human brain structure and function during development and aging.
FGF20; Genetic; Voxel-Based Morphometry; Neuroimaging; MRI; Hippocampus
New mechanisms that regulate neural stem cell (NSC) expansion will contribute to improved assay systems and the emerging regenerative approach that targets endogenous stem cells. Expanding knowledge on the control of stem cell self renewal will also lead to new approaches for targeting the stem cell population of cancers.
Here we show that Cholera toxin regulates two recently characterized NSC markers, the Tie2 receptor and the transcription factor Hes3, and promotes the expansion of NSCs in culture. Cholera toxin increases immunoreactivity for the Tie2 receptor and rapidly induces the nuclear localization of Hes3. This is followed by powerful cultured NSC expansion and induction of proliferation both in the presence and absence of mitogen.
Our data suggest a new cell biological mechanism that regulates the self renewal and differentiation properties of stem cells, providing a new logic to manipulate NSCs in the context of regenerative disease and cancer.
The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS) is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC) found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools , , , , , .
Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4) and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2). These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.
We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.
There are many reports of defined culture systems for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder cell support, but no previous study has undertaken a multi-laboratory comparison of these diverse methodologies. In this study, five separate laboratories, each with experience in human embryonic stem cell culture, used a panel of ten embryonic stem cell lines (including WA09 as an index cell line common to all laboratories) to assess eight cell culture methods, with propagation in the presence of Knockout Serum Replacer, FGF-2, and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cell layers serving as a positive control. The cultures were assessed for up to ten passages for attachment, death, and differentiated morphology by phase contrast microscopy, for growth by serial cell counts, and for maintenance of stem cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. Of the eight culture systems, only the control and those based on two commercial media, mTeSR1 and STEMPRO, supported maintenance of most cell lines for ten passages. Cultures grown in the remaining media failed before this point due to lack of attachment, cell death, or overt cell differentiation. Possible explanations for relative success of the commercial formulations in this study, and the lack of success with other formulations from academic groups compared to previously published results, include: the complex combination of growth factors present in the commercial preparations; improved development, manufacture, and quality control in the commercial products; differences in epigenetic adaptation to culture in vitro between different ES cell lines grown in different laboratories.
Human embryonic stem cell; Cell culture; Defined cell culture media; Comparative study
Pluripotent stem cell lines can be derived from blastocyst embryos, which yield embryonic stem cell lines (ES cells), as well as the post-implantation epiblast, which gives rise to epiblast stem cell lines (EpiSCs). Remarkably, ES cells and EpiSCs display profound differences in the combination of growth factors that maintain their pluripotent state. Molecular and functional differences between these two stem cell types demonstrate that the tissue of origin and/or the growth factor milieu may be important determinants of the stem cell identity. We explored how developmental stage of the tissue of origin and culture growth factor conditions affect the stem cell pluripotent state. Our findings reveal that novel stem cell lines can be generated from blastocyst embryos with unique functional and molecular properties. We demonstrate that the culture growth factor environment and cell-cell interaction play a critical role in defining several unique and stable stem cell ground states.
Brain imaging genetic research involves a multitude of methods and spans many traditional levels of analysis. Given the vast permutations among several million common genetic variants with thousands of brain tissue voxels and a wide array of cognitive tasks that activate specific brain systems, we are prompted to develop specific hypotheses that synthesize converging evidence and state clear predictions about the anatomical sources, magnitude and direction (increases vs. decreases) of allele- and task-specific brain activity associations. To begin to develop a framework for shaping our imaging genetic hypotheses, we focus on previous results and the wider imaging genetic literature. Particular emphasis is placed on converging evidence that links system-level and biochemical studies with models of synaptic function. In shaping our own imaging genetic hypotheses on the development of Attention Networks, we review relevant literature on core models of synaptic physiology and development in the anterior cingulate cortex.
The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and lineage specification from embryonic stem (ES) cells are largely unclear. Differentiation pathways may be determined by the targeted activation of lineage specific genes or by selective silencing of genome regions during differentiation. Here we show that the ES cell genome is transcriptionally globally hyperactive and undergoes global silencing as cells differentiate. Normally silent repeat regions are active in ES cells and tissue-specific genes are sporadically expressed at low levels. Whole genome tiling arrays demonstrate widespread transcription in both coding and non-coding regions in pluripotent ES cells whereas the transcriptional landscape becomes more discrete as differentiation proceeds. The transcriptional hyperactivity in ES cells is accompanied by disproportionate expression of chromatin-remodeling genes and the general transcription machinery, but not histone modifying activities. Interference with several chromatin remodeling activities in ES cells affects their proliferation and differentiation behavior. We propose that global transcriptional activity is a hallmark of pluripotent ES cells that contributes to their plasticity and that lineage specification is strongly driven by reduction of the actively transcribed portion of the genome.
Parkinson disease affects more than 1% of the population over 60 y old. The dominant models for Parkinson disease are based on the use of chemical toxins to kill dopamine neurons, but do not address the risk factors that normally increase with age. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of survival and longevity. The forkhead transcription factor, foxa2, is specifically expressed in adult dopamine neurons and their precursors in the medial floor plate. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments show this gene, foxa2, is required to generate dopamine neurons during fetal development and from embryonic stem cells. Mice carrying only one copy of the foxa2 gene show abnormalities in motor behavior in old age and an associated progressive loss of dopamine neurons. Manipulating forkhead function may regulate both the birth of dopamine neurons and their spontaneous death, two major goals of regenerative medicine.
The restoration of dopamine neurons is a major focus of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The gradual loss of these neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons in the midbrain convey important sensory and motor functions to the forebrain. We show that the transcription factor FOXA2 plays a central role in the birth and death of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. By defining their precursors in the ventral midbrain, we show that dopamine neurons are derived from organizer cells in the floor plate (the ventral cells of the neural tube, the embryonic foundation of the central nervous system). We also show that FOXA2 specifies the floor plate and induces the birth of dopamine neurons. Mice with only a single copy of the foxa2 gene acquire motor deficits and a late-onset degeneration of dopamine neurons. This spontaneous cell death preferentially affects neurons associated with Parkinson disease. This work provides new strategies to generate neurons in the laboratory and to block their death in old age.
The connection between development and neurodegeneration is emphasized via a new mouse knockout of a transcription factor that is critical for dopamine neuron specification, which produces a late-onset, asymmetric degenerative condition in a manner very similar to human Parkinson disease.
The identification of regulatory elements from different cell types is necessary for understanding the mechanisms controlling cell type–specific and housekeeping gene expression. Mapping DNaseI hypersensitive (HS) sites is an accurate method for identifying the location of functional regulatory elements. We used a high throughput method called DNase-chip to identify 3,904 DNaseI HS sites from six cell types across 1% of the human genome. A significant number (22%) of DNaseI HS sites from each cell type are ubiquitously present among all cell types studied. Surprisingly, nearly all of these ubiquitous DNaseI HS sites correspond to either promoters or insulator elements: 86% of them are located near annotated transcription start sites and 10% are bound by CTCF, a protein with known enhancer-blocking insulator activity. We also identified a large number of DNaseI HS sites that are cell type specific (only present in one cell type); these regions are enriched for enhancer elements and correlate with cell type–specific gene expression as well as cell type–specific histone modifications. Finally, we found that approximately 8% of the genome overlaps a DNaseI HS site in at least one the six cell lines studied, indicating that a significant percentage of the genome is potentially functional.
There are many different types of gene regulatory elements that control gene expression. Identifying the location of these regulatory elements in the genome, as well as understanding how exactly they control gene expression in different cell types, has been a major challenge. Here, we use a relatively new strategy to identify all gene regulatory elements within a select 1% of the human genome from six diverse human cell types. We find that only 22% of gene regulatory elements are shared among all cell types studied. Among these, 86% are located near annotated transcription start sites and 10% are bound by CTCF, a protein with known enhancer-blocking insulator activity. The gene regulatory elements that are found to be cell type specific are highly correlated with cell type–specific gene expression as well as cell type–specific chromatin modifications. This indicates that we have made a significant step toward understanding why some genes are expressed in all different cell types within the human body, and why others are only expressed in certain cell types.
Nucleostemin (NS) was identified as a stem cell– and cancer cell–enriched nucleolar protein that controls the proliferation of these cells. Here, we report the mechanism that regulates its dynamic shuttling between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. The nucleolar residence of nucleostemin involves a transient and a long-term binding by the basic and GTP-binding domains, and a dissociation mechanism mediated by the COOH-terminal region. This cycle is propelled by the GTP binding state of nucleostemin. We propose that a rapid nucleostemin cycle is designed to translate extra- and intra-cellular signals into the amount of nucleostemin in the nucleolus in a bidirectional and fast manner.
The ability of stem cells to generate distinct fates is critical for the generation of cellular diversity during development. Central nervous system (CNS) stem cells respond to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 by differentiating into a wide variety of dorsal CNS and neural crest cell types. We show that distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of two of these cell types, smooth muscle and glia. Smooth muscle differentiation requires BMP-mediated Smad1/5/8 activation and predominates where local cell density is low. In contrast, glial differentiation predominates at high local densities in response to BMP4 and is specifically blocked by a dominant-negative mutant Stat3. Upon BMP4 treatment, the serine-threonine kinase FKBP12/rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), associates with Stat3 and facilitates STAT activation. Inhibition of FRAP prevents STAT activation and glial differentiation. Thus, glial differentiation by BMP4 occurs by a novel pathway mediated by FRAP and STAT proteins. These results suggest that a single ligand can regulate cell fate by activating distinct cytoplasmic signals.
bone morphogenetic protein; stem cell; SMAD; STAT; mammalian FRAP