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1.  Variability of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in elderly Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease 
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized worldwide as a public health problem, and its prevalence increases as the population ages. However, the applicability of formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on serum creatinine (SC) levels in elderly Chinese patients with CKD is limited.
Materials and methods
Based on values obtained with the technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging method, 319 elderly Chinese patients with CKD were enrolled in this study. Serum creatinine was determined by the enzymatic method. The GFR was estimated using the Cockroft–Gault (CG) equation, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, the Jelliffe-1973 equation, and the Hull equation.
Results
The median of difference ranged from −0.3–4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2. The interquartile range (IQR) of differences ranged from 13.9–17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accuracy with a deviation less than 15% ranged from 27.6%–32.9%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 30% ranged from 53.6%–57.7%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 50% ranged from 74.9%–81.5%. None of the equations had accuracy up to the 70% level with a deviation less than 30% from the standard glomerular filtration rate (sGFR). Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean difference ranged from −3.0–2.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, the agreement limits of all the equations, except the CG equation, exceeded the prior acceptable tolerances defined as 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. When the overall performance and accuracy were compared in different stages of CKD, GFR estimated using the CG equation showed promising results.
Conclusions
Our study indicated that none of these equations were suitable for estimating GFR in the elderly Chinese population investigated. At present, based on overall performance, as well as performance in different CKD stages, the CG equation may be the most accurate for estimating GFR in elderly Chinese patients with CKD.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S36152
PMCID: PMC3474145  PMID: 23091374
elderly; equation; glomerular filtration rate; serum creatinine; Chinese
2.  Venous diethylene glycol poisoning in patients with preexisting severe liver disease in China 
AIM: To analyze the clinical presentation of venous diethylene glycol (DEG) poisoning in patients with preexisting severe liver disease and factors that correlate with DEG poisoning.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed to analyze the epidemiology, clinical presentation, hepatorenal functions, hemodynamics and pathological characteristics of 64 patients with severe liver disease who received intravenous armillarisin-A, the solvent of which was DEG. Comparative analyses of correlating factors and causes for poisoning were based on the presence or absence of poisoning.
RESULTS: Of the 64 patients who received armillarisin-A, 15 were found to have DEG poisoning. Twelve poisoned patients died. After a mean of 5 d, the poisoned patients displayed acute renal failure. Metabolic acidosis occurred in 13 cases. BUN, Cr, and CO2 values were significantly elevated and exacerbation of digestive tract symptoms and/or symptom was noted in 11 cases. Neurological system impairment was observed in 10 cases after 2 wk. Compared to the 49 non-poisoned patients, the poisoned patients exhibited significantly lower RBC and Hb values and higher WBC count. Renal biopsy from the poisoned patients revealed acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Significant differences in preexisting severe hepatitis, ascites, renal disease, and diuretic therapy were found between groups. Prior to diethylene glycol injections, the mean values for neutral granular cells, BUN, Cr, calcium and phosphorous ions differed significantly between groups.
CONCLUSION: Venous diethylene glycol poisoning is characterized by oliguric acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis, digestive symptoms, nervous system impairment, and a high probability of anemia and WBC proliferation. Mortality is high. Correlative factors include preexisting severe liver disease, renal disease, and infection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3236
PMCID: PMC2712859  PMID: 18506932
Diethylene glycol; Poisoning; Liver disease; Clinical feature
3.  The ambulatory arterial stiffness index and target-organ damage in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:257.
Background
The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) can be used to predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. However, data on AASI in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not available.
Methods
This cross-sectional study enrolled 583 CKD patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between AASI and renal function and parameters of cardiovascular injury.
Results
Patients with a higher AASI had a higher systolic blood pressure, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a higher serum cystatin C, a higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Univariate analyses showed that AASI was positively correlated with serum cystatin C (r=0.296, P < 0.001), serum creatinine (r=0.182, P < 0.001), and LVMI (r = 0.205, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the eGFR (r = –0.200, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum cystatin C, eGFR, serum creatinine and LVMI were independently correlated with AASI.
Conclusions
These data suggest that AASI was closely correlated with renal function and parameters of cardiovascular injury in Chinese CKD patients. Good quality, long-term, large longitudinal trials to validate the role of AASI in clinical practice for Chinese CKD patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-257
PMCID: PMC3840650  PMID: 24245955
Ambulatory arterial stiffness index; Chronic kidney disease; Renal function; Left ventricular mass index
4.  Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by a radial basis function neural network in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:181.
Background
Accurate and precise estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are essential for clinical assessments, and many methods of estimation are available. We developed a radial basis function (RBF) network and assessed the performance of this method in the estimation of the GFRs of 207 patients with type-2 diabetes and CKD.
Methods
Standard GFR (sGFR) was determined by 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging and GFR was also estimated by the 6-variable MDRD equation and the 4-variable MDRD equation.
Results
Bland-Altman analysis indicated that estimates from the RBF network were more precise than those from the other two methods for some groups of patients. However, the median difference of RBF network estimates from sGFR was greater than those from the other two estimates, indicating greater bias. For patients with stage I/II CKD, the median absolute difference of the RBF network estimate from sGFR was significantly lower, and the P50 of the RBF network estimate (n = 56, 87.5%) was significantly higher than that of the MDRD-4 estimate (n = 49, 76.6%) (p < 0.0167), indicating that the RBF network estimate provided greater accuracy for these patients.
Conclusions
In patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, estimation of GFR by our RBF network provided better precision and accuracy for some groups of patients than the estimation by the traditional MDRD equations. However, the RBF network estimates of GFR tended to have greater bias and higher than those indicated by sGFR determined by 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-181
PMCID: PMC3766235  PMID: 23988079
Type 2 diabetes; Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Artificial neural network
5.  Culture-negative subacute bacterial endocarditis masquerades as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis) involving both the kidney and lung 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:174.
Background
Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) occasionally exhibits positive cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) of the anti-proteinase-3 (PR-3) type. Clinically, it mimics ANCA-associated vasculitis, such as Wegener's disease with glomerulonephritis. Lung abscesses are the most common manifestation of lung involvement. We herein report a case of culture-negative SBE strongly c-ANCA/PR3-positive accompanied by pulmonary involvement and glomerulonephritis. In this case, we took biopsies of both the lung and kidney, although renal biopsy is usually preferred over lung biopsy. The lung biopsy showed severe alveolar capillaritis, suggesting vasculitis consistent with polyangiitis. The renal biopsy revealed glomerulonephritis with a membranoproliferative pattern. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case.
Case presentation
A 68-year-old Chinese male patient presented to our hospital with a fever, cough, chest pain, and recurrent peripheral edema. He had a past medical history significant for treated schistosomiasis 20 years previously. Physical examination revealed palpable purpura, mild hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, and a holosystolic cardiac murmur (Levine 2/6). Echocardiography showed tricuspid valve vegetations with moderate to severe regurgitation. Serum c-ANCA/PR3 and cryoglobulin were strongly positive. Renal biopsy results indicated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with several crescents. Chest CT revealed multiple intraparenchymal and subpleural nodules, and lung biopsy showed polyangiitis. The patient’s ANCA titers, glomerulonephritis, and pulmonary injury all resolved after antibiotic therapy.
Conclusion
SBE may present with positive c-ANCA/PR3, multiple pulmonary nodules, pulmonary polyangiitis, and glomerulonephritis clinically mimicking granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis).
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-174
PMCID: PMC3574827  PMID: 23268737
Subacute bacterial endocarditis; PR3/c-ANCA; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis); Glomerulonephritis

Results 1-5 (5)