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1.  Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells 
Disease Models & Mechanisms  2014;7(3):351-362.
Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.
doi:10.1242/dmm.014050
PMCID: PMC3944495  PMID: 24487409
NCU-G1; Lysosome; Fibrosis
2.  Immediate hypothermia reduces cardiac troponin I following hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn pigs 
Pediatric research  2011;70(4):352-356.
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinically defined neurological condition following lack of oxygen and often associated with cardiac dysfunction in term infants. Therapeutic hypothermia after birth is neuroprotective in infants with HIE. However, it is not known whether hypothermia (HT) is also cardioprotective. Four newborn pigs were used in the pilot study and a further 18 newborn pigs (randomly assigned to 72h-normothermia (NT) or 24h-HT followed by 48h-NT) were subjected to global HIE insults. Serum cTnI was measured prior to and post the HIE insult. Blood pressure, inotropic support, blood gases and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout. Cardiac pathology was assessed from histological sections. Cooling reduced serum cTnI levels significantly in HT pigs by 6h (NT, 1.36±0.67; HT 0.34±0.23 ng/ml, p=0.0009). After rewarming, from 24 to 30h post insult, HR and cTnI increased in the HT group; from HR[24h]=117±22 to HR[30h]=218±32 beats/minute (p=0.0002) and from cTnI[24h]=0.23±0.12 to cTnI[30h]=0.65±0.53ng/ml, (p=0.05). There were fewer ischemic lesions on cardiac examination (37%) in the HT group compared to the NT group (70%). Hypothermia (24h) pigs did not have the post-insult cTnI increase seen in NT treated pigs. There was a trend that HT improved cardiac pathology in this 3-day survival model.
doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822941ee
PMCID: PMC3173864  PMID: 21691250
3.  Resuscitation of Newborn Piglets. Short-Term Influence of FiO2 on Matrix Metalloproteinases, Caspase-3 and BDNF 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e14261.
Background
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of mortality and cerebral morbidity, and using oxygen during newborn resuscitation may further harm the brain. The aim was to examine how supplementary oxygen used for newborn resuscitation would influence early brain tissue injury, cell death and repair processes and the regulation of genes related to apoptosis, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
Methods and Findings
Anesthetized newborn piglets were subjected to global hypoxia and then randomly assigned to resuscitation with 21%, 40% or 100% O2 for 30 min and followed for 9 h. An additional group received 100% O2 for 30 min without preceding hypoxia. The left hemisphere was used for histopathology and immunohistochemistry and the right hemisphere was used for in situ zymography in the corpus striatum; gene expression and the activity of various relevant biofactors were measured in the frontal cortex. There was an increase in the net matrix metalloproteinase gelatinolytic activity in the corpus striatum from piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen vs. 21%. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining revealed no significant changes. Nine hours after oxygen-assisted resuscitation, caspase-3 expression and activity was increased by 30–40% in the 100% O2 group (n = 9/10) vs. the 21% O2 group (n = 10; p<0.04), whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activity was decreased by 65% p<0.03.
Conclusions
The use of 100% oxygen for resuscitation resulted in increased potentially harmful proteolytic activities and attenuated BDNF activity when compared with 21%. Although there were no significant changes in short term cell loss, hyperoxia seems to cause an early imbalance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic mechanisms that might compromise the final pathological outcome.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014261
PMCID: PMC3000320  PMID: 21151608

Results 1-3 (3)