Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma belongs to a group of lymphoid neoplasia that is diverse in the manner of presentation, response to therapy and progress. The most common region for extranodal lymphoma is the gastrointestinal tract while for oral cavity buccal vestibule, posterior hard palate or gingiva is the common site. The maxilla is affected more commonly than the mandible. The oral picture being the sole manifestation highlights the importance of bearing this entity in the differential diagnosis of swelling in the jaws.
Perivascular mural cells of the choroid have been implicated in physiological functioning as well as in retinal disease pathogenesis. However details regarding their form and function are not well understood. We aim to characterize choroidal mural cells in the adult mouse choroid in terms of their distribution and morphology, and correlate these to their contractile behavior.
Sclerochoroidal flat-mounted explants were prepared from albino transgenic mice in which the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) promoter drives the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). α-SMA-expressing smooth muscle cells and pericytes in the living choroid were thereby rendered fluorescent and imaged with confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging in situ.
Choroidal perivascular mural cells demonstrate significant diversity in terms of their distribution and morphology at different levels of the vasculature. They range from densely-packed circumferentially-oriented cells that provide complete vascular coverage in primary arteries to widely-spaced stellate-shaped cells that are distributed sparsely over terminal arterioles. Mural cells at each level are immunopositive for contractile proteins α-SMA and desmin and demonstrate vasoconstrictory contractile movements in response to endothelin-1 and the calcium ionophore, A23187, and vasodilation in response to the calcium chelator, BAPTA. The prominence of vasoregulatory contractile responses varies with mural cell morphology and density, and is greater in vessels with dense coverage of mural cells with circumferential cellular morphologies. In the choriocapillaris, pericytes demonstrate a sparse, horizontal distribution and are selectively distributed only to the scleral surface of the choriocapillaris.
Diversity and regional specialization of perivascular mural cells may subserve varying requirements for vasoregulation in the choroid. The model of the α-SMA-GFP transgenic albino mouse provides a useful and intact system for the morphological and functional study of choroidal mural cells.
This study employs DFT (density functional theory) to investigate the formation of hydrazine like (N-N) cross-linked structures between DNA base pair diradicals that are likely to result from the interaction of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as ion-beam radiation with DNA. In our calculations, we generated the guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A) and thymine (T) radicals by removing one hydrogen atom from an N-H bond involved in the normal base pairing. The radical species formed are those that naturally result from one electron oxidation of the bases followed by deprotonation. N-N cross-links between G and C or A and T diradicals were studied using the BHandHLYP, B3LYP, M06 and M06-2X density functionals and 6-31G* basis set. From a comparison to several test cases performed with the G3B3 method which gives thermodynamically reliable values, we found that calculations employing the BHandHLYP/6-31G* method predict the best estimates of bonding energies for hydrazine like structures. Our study shows that the N-N cross-link formed between guanine radical and a neutral cytosine is endothermic in nature but can form metastable structures. However, the reactions between two DNA base radicals (diradical) to form several N-N cross-linked structures are found to be highly exothermic in nature. The N-N cross-links formed between various G-C, G-G, and C-C diradicals have binding energies in the range ca. −54 to −68 kcal/mol, −41 to −47 kcal/mol and −67 to −75 kcal/mol, respectively, while A-T, A-A and T-T have binding energies −80 kcal/mol, −60 kcal/mol and −98 kcal/mol, respectively. In all purine-pyrimidine N-N cross-linked structures, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is found to be localized on the purine moiety and LUMO on the pyrimidine moiety.
N-N cross-link; High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation; diradicals of DNA bases; guanine; cytosine; thymine; adenine; radicals; DFT study of diradicals; DNA cross-link
The reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH•) with DNA accounts for about half of radiation-induced DNA damage in living systems. Previous literature reports point out that the reaction of OH• with DNA proceeds mainly through the addition of OH• to the C=C bond of the DNA bases. However, recently it has been reported that the principal reaction of OH• with dGuo (deoxyguanosine) is the direct hydrogen atom abstraction from its exocyclic amine group rather than addition of OH• to the C=C bond. In the present work, these two reaction pathways of OH• attack on guanine (G) in the presence of water molecules (aqueous environment) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G* and 6-31++G** basis sets. The calculations show that the initial addition of the OH• at C4=C5 double bond of guanine is barrier free and the adduct radical (G-OH•) has only a small activation barrier of ca. 1 – 6 kcal/mol leading to the formation of a metastable ion-pair intermediate (G•+---OH−). The formation of ion-pair is a result of the highly oxidizing nature of the OH• in aqueous media. The resulting ion-pair (G•+---OH−) deprotonates to form H2O and neutral G radicals favoring G(N1-H)• with an activation barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol. The overall process from the G(C4)-OH• (adduct) to G(N1-H)• and water is found to be exothermic in nature by more than 13 kcal/mol. (G-OH•), (G•+---OH−), and G(N1-H)• were further characterized by the CAM-B3LYP calculations of their UV-visible spectra and good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. Our calculations for the direct hydrogen abstraction pathway from N1 and N2 sites of guanine by the OH• show that this is also a competitive route to produce G(N2-H)•, G(N1-H)• and H2O.
OH radical; ion-pair formation; radical cation; G•+; neutral radical; guanine; oxidation; excited states of DNA radical; DFT; B3LYP; OH-radical adduct
The aim of the present study was to develop asymmetric membrane (AM) tablets for controlled delivery of highly water-soluble antihistaminic drug triprolidine hydrochloride. The solubility of triprolidine hydrochloride was modulated through the incorporation of coated sodium chloride crystals encapsulated with asymmetric membrane coating polymer, cellulose acetate butyrate. Formulation of AM tablets was based on a 23 factorial design to study the effect of formulation variables, namely, polymer concentration, level of pore former, and amount of osmogen on the in vitro release. Core tablets prepared by wet granulation and coated with asymmetric membrane by a dip coating method were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done with the Design Expert Software 8.0.2 (USA), and the polynomial equation generated by Pareto charts was used for validation of the experimental design. The interaction chart and response surface plots deduced the simultaneous effect of independent variables on in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release was inversely proportional and directly related to the level(s) of polymer and pore former in the membrane, respectively. The level of osmogen not only increased the osmotic pressure but also controlled the drug release due to a common ion effect. The drug release of the optimized formulation (F6) followed zero-order kinetics, which would be capable of reducing the administration, and was stable over 3 months. SEM photographs revealed asymmetry in membrane structure.
asymmetric membrane; coated sodium chloride; cellulose acetate butyrate; solubility modulation; 23 factorial design
HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 has been extensively studied for neurotoxic effects that have been attributed to the increased expression of various proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS. Recently we have shown that methamphetamine (MA) also increases expression of proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. However, combined effect of gp120 and MA is not known. The present study was undertaken to determine cumulative effect and the mechanism(s)/pathways involved in the functional interaction between gp120 and MA in SVGA astrocytes. Our results clearly suggest that gp120 and MA affect IL-6 but not IL-8 in a synergistic manner and this synergy was mediated by PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. Inhibition of either of these pathways could abrogate the increased expression of IL-6 due to MA or gp120 alone, as well as the increased expression of IL-6 when the astrocytes were treated with both gp120 and MA. These results were confirmed by both, using chemical inhibitors/siRNA as well as western blotting. This study therefore provides novel information regarding the interaction between MA and gp120 in terms of the expression of IL-6 and the mechanisms underlying potential synergy between MA and gp120 in astrocytes.
Topical corticosteroids used in various dermatological diseases are available in different potencies and different formulations. The reservoir effect of different potency corticosteroids in the stratum corneum will help the clinicians to choose an appropriate topical steroid to maximize their efficacy and safety as therapeutic agents.
This study was designed to compare the duration of reservoir of different potency topical corticosteroids experimentally in rabbits using histamine-induced wheal suppression test.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out in albino rabbits (as their skin is similar to humans) using four different concentrations of topical steroids, namely mometasone furoate ointment (0.1%), fluticasone propionate ointment (0.005%), betamethasone valerate cream (0.1%), and hydrocortisone butyrate cream (0.1%). These were applied on the back of rabbit on one side and the vehicle was applied on the other. One hour later, histamine-induced wheal suppression test was performed on both sides and wheal area was measured at 10 min for 7 days. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by post hoc test.
Maximum wheal suppression was seen on day 1 (P<0.001) in all four groups, both at test and at control sites. Interday comparison of mean wheal size by topical steroids showed that the reservoir of mometasone furoate ointment (0.1%) persisted till day 4 in the stratum corneum of the skin. In case of fluticasone propionate ointment (0.005%) and betamethasone valerate cream (0.1%), the reservoir persisted till day 2 and for hydrocortisone butyrate cream (0.1%), the reservoir was present only on day 1.
It is concluded that the duration of reservoir depends on the potency of topical steroids. Higher the potency more is the duration of reservoir in stratum corneum and vice versa.
Potency; reservoir; topical corticosteroids; wheal suppression
Background & objectives:
The presence of efficient malaria vectors namely Anopeles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. annularis (Diptera: Culicidae), rapid industrialization causing large influx of population and poor health infrastructure are some of the factors that make malaria an important public health problem in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand State, India. A geographical information system (GIS) based retrospective study using spatial statistical tools was initiated in 328 subcentres of 14 primary health centres (PHCs) of the district using malaria epidemiological data of three years (2007-2009) to identify spatial distribution pattern of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) occurrence, delineation of hot spots and to map directional distribution trend of Pf spread to help formulate evidence-based policy and to prioritize control during 2011.
Spatial statistics tools like Global Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* and Standard Deviational Ellipse were used in GIS domain for analysis.
Spatial distribution pattern of Pv occurrence was found random while Pf distribution was significantly clustered. During 2007-2009, the number of subcentres under Pf hot spot category exhibited downward trend while high Pf risk subcentres exhibited upward trend. One consistent Pf hot spot consisting of five subcentres was identified in Silli PHC. During 2009, one Pf hot spot consisting of 20 subcentres and 18 subcentres under high Pf risk category were identified in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs. A shifting trend in Pf spread was noticed from north-west to western direction from 2008 onwards.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The study recommended priority control in 20 Pf hot spot and 18 high Pf risk reporting subcentres including five consistent Pf hot spot subcentres in Angara, Silli, Burmu and Kanke PHCs during 2011 to address grave malaria situation in the district in a cost-effective manner.
Cold spots; high risk; hot spots; spatial statistics; Standard Deviational Ellipse
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disability characterized by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) located at the Xq28 region. The severity is modified in part by X chromosomal inactivation resulting in wide clinical variability. We hypothesized that the ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL) is correlated with the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the striata of women with RTT. The density of the vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the living human brain can be estimated by single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of (−)-5-[123I]iodobenzovesamicol ([123I]IBVM).
Twenty-four (24) hours following the intravenous injection of approximately 333 MBq (9 mCi) [123I]IBVM, four women with RTT and nine healthy adult volunteer control participants underwent SPECT brain scans for sixty (60) minutes. The Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Binding Site Index (VATBSI) (Kuhl et al., 1994), a measurement of the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters, was estimated in the striatum and the reference structure, the cerebellum.
The women with RTT were assessed for certain activities of daily living (ADL). Although striatal VATSBI was not significantly lower in RTT (5.2 ± 0.9) than in healthy adults (5.7 ± 1.6), RTT striatal VATSBI and ADL scores were linearly associated (ADL = 0.89*VATSBI + 4.5; R2=0.93; p<0.01), suggesting a correlation between the ability to perform ADL and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the striata of women with RTT. [123I]IBVM is a promising tool to characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT and other neurodevelopmental disabilities.
5-iodobenzovesamicol; (−) isomer; 123I-labeled; tomography; emission-computed; single-photon
HIV associated neurological disorders (HAND) is a common neurological complication in patients infected with HIV. The proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines produced by astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory processes in the brain and viral envelope gp120 has been implicated in this process. In view of increased levels of CCL5 observed in the CSF of HIV-1 infected patients, we studied the effects of gp120 on CCL5 expression in astrocytes and the possible mechanisms responsible for those effects. Transfection of the SVGA astrocyte cell line with a plasmid encoding gp120 resulted in a time-dependent increase in expression levels of CCL5 in terms of mRNA and protein by 24.6 ± 2.67 fold and 35.2 ± 6.1 fold, respectively. The fluorescent images showed localization of CCL5 in the processes of the astrocytes. The gp120-specific siRNA abrogated the gp120-mediated increase in CCL5 expression. We also explored a possible mechanism for the effects of gp120 on CCL5 expression. Using a specific inhibitor for the NF-κB pathway, we demonstrated that levels of gp120 induction of CCL5 expression can be abrogated by 44.6 ± 4.2 % at the level of mRNA and 51.8 ± 5.0 % at the protein level. This was further confirmed by knocking down NF-κB through the use of siRNA.
The introduction of different interocclusal recording materials has put clinicians in dilemma that which material should be used in routine clinical practice for precise recording and transferring of accurate existing occlusal records for articulation of patient’s diagnostic or working casts in the fabrication of good satisfactory prosthesis. In the era of developing world of dentistry the different materials are introduced for interocclusal record with different brand names because of this; the utility of the material is confusing for successful delivery of prosthesis with lack of in vitro or in vivo studies which will predict the property of the material with utility recommendations.
Purpose of the study
The aim of this multicenter research is to evaluate the time dependent linear dimensional stability of three types of interocclusal recording materials; which gives very clear idea to clinicians in regard to its usage in routine practice and recommendations for usage of the different materials. Also to find out ideal time for articulation of three types of interocclusal recording materials with accuracy.
Materials and method
Commercially available and ADA approved Polyether bite registration paste (Ramitec), Poly vinyl siloxane bite registration paste (Jetbite) and Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) bite registration paste (Super bite) were used in the study.
A stainless steel die was made according to modified American dental Associations (ADA) specification no. 19. Each one of the tested materials were manipulated according to manufacturers’ instructions. The materials separated from die, 3-mins after their respective setting time, resulted in disks of standard diameter. Two parallel lines and three perpendicular lines reproduced on the surface. The distance between two parallel lines was measured at different time intervals i.e. 1 hour, 24, 48 and 72 hours by using travelling microscope (magnus) and compared with standard die measurements made according to ADA specification no.19 to find out the dimensional stability of these interocclusal recording materials. Total 120 samples were made for observation and results were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test for comparison among groups at the 0.05 level of significance. After statistical analysis of the data, results were obtained and analyzed for interpretation.
The results shows significant difference between the dimensional stability of all three material at different intervals with p-value <0.05. Comparatively the polyether bite registration material showed less distortion with good dimensional stability compared to Poly vinyl siloxane bite (Jetbite), Zinc oxide eugenol(ZOE) bite (Super bite) at 1 hour, 24, 48, and 72 hours.
The dimensional stability decreased with increase in time and is influenced by both material factor and time factor. Polyether was found to be more dimensionally stable interocclusal recording material, which was followed by Silicone and Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE). The dimensional stability of Polyether was good. Zinc oxide eugenol is dimensionally more unstable when compared with polyether and polyvinyl siloxane. We recommend that the polyether interocclusal records must be articulated within 48 hours and Polyvinylsiloxane interocclusal records must be articulated within 24 hours and the ZOE should be articulated within 1 hour to get a correct restoration to have very minimum distortion and maximum satisfaction without failure of prosthesis.
Polyether bite; Poly vinyl siloxane bite; Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) bite; Dimensional stability; Interocclusal records
The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/μ1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research.
Introduction and Rationale
The detection of bioavailable phenol is a very important issue in environmental and human hazard assessment. Despite modest developments recently, there is a stern need for development of novel biosensors with high sensitivity for priority phenol pollutants. DmpR (Dimethyl phenol regulatory protein), an NtrC-like regulatory protein for the phenol degradation of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600, represents an attractive biosensor regimen. Thus, we sought to design a novel biosensor by modifying the phenol detection capacity of DmpR by using mutagenic PCR.
Binding sites of ‘A’ domain of DmpR were predicted by LIGSITE, and molecular docking was performed by using GOLD to identify the regions where phenol may interact with DmpR. Total five point mutations, one single at position 42 (Phe-to-Leu), two double at 140 (Asp-to-Glu) and 143 (Gln-to-Leu), and two double at L113M (Leu-to- Met) and D116A (Asp-to- Ala) were created in DmpR by site-directed mutagenesis to construct the reporter plasmids pRLuc42R, pRLuc140p143R, and pRLuc113p116R, respectively. Luciferase assays were performed to measure the activity of luc gene in the presence of phenol and its derivatives, while RT-PCR was used to check the expression of luc gene in the presence of phenol.
Only pRLuc42R and pRLuc113p116R showed positive responses to phenolic effectors. The lowest detectable concentration of phenol was 0.5 µM (0.047 mg/L), 0.1 µM for 2, 4-dimethylphenol and 2-nitrophenol, 10 µM for 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and 2-chlorophenol, 100 µM for 2, 4-dichlorophenol, 0.01 µM for 4-nitrophenol, and 1 µM for o-cresol. These concentrations were measured by modified luciferase assay within 3 hrs compared to 6–7 hrs in previous studies. Importantly, increased expression of luciferase gene of pRLuc42R was observed by RT-PCR.
The present study offers an effective strategy to design a quick and sensitive biosensor for phenol by constructing recombinant bacteria having DmpR gene.
BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) is the pollution index of any water sample. One of the main factors influencing the estimation of BOD is the nature of microorganisms used as seeding material. In order to meet the variation in wastewater characteristics, one has to be specific in choosing the biological component that is the seeding material. The present study deals with the estimation of BOD of dairy wastewater using a specific microbial consortium and compares of the results with seeding material (BODSEED). Bacterial strains were isolated from 5 different sources and were screened by the conventional BOD method. The selected microbial seed comprises of Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp. BOD : COD (Chemical oxygen demand) ratio using the formulated seed comes in the range of 0.7-0.8 whereas that using BODSEED comes in the ratio of 0.5-0.6. The ultimate BOD (UBOD) was also performed by exceeding the 3-day dilution BOD test. After 90 days, it has been observed that the ratio of BOD : COD increased in case of selected consortium 7 up to 0.91 in comparison to 0.74 by BODSEED. The results were analyzed statistically by t-test and it was observed that selected consortium was more significant than the BODSEED.
Many studies have focused on multidrug therapy (MDT) for multibacillary (MB) leprosy and rarely on long-term outcome of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy having recommendation of therapy for 6 months fixed duration therapy for PB patients. Studies on measuring risk of disability are rare. The present study is to assess the cure; default, relapse and disability in a prospective cohort of PB leprosy during follow-up of >4 years after treatment.
Primary in our field area of Agra District.
920 PB leprosy patients entered the study, 621 completed treatment, 599 followed finally including 271 males, no ethnic differentiation, patients of all age groups except for children below 5 years and old persons above 70 years were not included.
6 months fixed duration MDT as recommended by WHO.
Primary and secondary outcomes
Treatment completion, cure, relapse and development of disability based on clinical assessment by well-experienced doctors.
Data have been analysed using SPSS software, risk is computed as incidence per 100 person–years (PY) and test of significance used.
Study reports 91% cure rate. Incidence of relapse was 1.3/100 PY with no significant variation by age, sex, delay in detection, patches and nerves. Crude incidence of disability was 2.2% and varied significantly by age and nerve thickening but not by sex, number of patches, nerves and delay in treatment. Incidence of disability was 0.50/100 PY in treatment completed and 0.43 among defaulters.
The study concludes that relapses do occur after MDT treatment but at the level of 1–2%, incidence of disability remains low (<1/100 PY) in PB leprosy. Low incidence of relapse and disability suggests that 6 months therapy is quite effective. However, further improvement may help to improve its efficacy. Longer follow-up may add to efficacy measures.
Biotechnology & Bioinformatics; Health informatics; Epidemiology; Dermatology; Dermatological epidemiology; Chemotherapy
Nitrogen responsiveness of three-finger millet genotypes (differing in their seed coat colour) PRM-1 (brown), PRM-701 (golden), and PRM-801 (white) grown under different nitrogen doses was determined by analyzing the growth, yield parameters and activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase; GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) at different developmental stages. High nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed in PRM-1 genotype, whereas high nitrogen uptake efficiency was observed in PRM-801 genotype. At grain filling nitrogen uptake efficiency in PRM-1 negatively correlated with NR, GS, GOGAT activities whereas it was positively correlated in PRM-701 and PRM-801, however, GDH showed a negative correlation. Growth and yield parameters indicated that PRM-1 responds well at high nitrogen conditions while PRM-701 and PRM-801 respond well at normal and low nitrogen conditions respectively. The study indicates that PRM-1 is high nitrogen responsive and has high nitrogen use efficiency, whereas golden PRM-701 and white PRM-801 are low nitrogen responsive genotypes and have low nitrogen use efficiency. However, the crude grain protein content was higher in PRM-801 genotype followed by PRM-701 and PRM-1, indicating negative correlation of nitrogen use efficiency with source to sink relationship in terms of seed protein content.
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo.
buffalo; DGAT1; PCR-SSCP; polymorphism; SNP
This work demonstrated that ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) smaller than 10 nm display unique advantages over nanoparticles larger than 10 nm in terms of localization to, and penetration of, breast cancer cells, multicellular tumor spheroids, and tumors in mice. Au@tiopronin nanoparticles that have tunable sizes from 2 to 15 nm with identical surface coatings of tiopronin and charge were successfully prepared. For monolayer cells, the smaller the Au@tiopronin NPs, the more AuNPs found in each cell. In addition, the accumulation of Au NPs in the ex vivo tumor model was size-dependent: smaller AuNPs were able to penetrate deeply into tumor spheroids, whereas 15 nm nanoparticles were not. Owing to their ultrasmall nanostructure, 2 and 6 nm nanoparticles showed high levels of accumulation in tumor tissue in mice after a single intravenous injection. Surprisingly, both 2 and 6 nm Au@tiopronin nanoparticles were distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas 15 nm Au@tiopronin nanoparticles were found only in the cytoplasm, where they formed aggregates. The ex vivo multicellular spheroid proved to be a good model to simulate in vivo tumor tissue and evaluate nanoparticle penetration behavior. This work gives important insights into the design and functionalization of nanoparticles to achieve high levels of accumulation in tumors.
ultrasmall gold nanoparticles; multicellular tumor spheroid; penetration behavior; drug delivery; cancer therapy
Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients.
LEDGF/p75 interacts with DNA/protein to regulate gene expression and function. Despite the recognized diversity of function of LEDGF/p75, knowledge of its transregulation is in its infancy. Here we report that LEDGF/p75 gene is TATA-less, contains GC-rich cis elements and is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1 involving small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo1). Using different cell lines, we showed that Sp1 overexpression increased the level of LEDGF/p75 protein and mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, RNA interference depletion of intrinsic Sp1 or treatment with artemisinin, a Sp1 inhibitor, reduced expression of LEDGF/p75, suggesting Sp1-mediated regulation of LEDGF/p75. In silico analysis disclosed three evolutionarily conserved, putative Sp1 sites within LEDGF/p75 proximal promoter (−170/+1 nt). DNA-binding and transactivation assays using deletion and point mutation constructs of LEDGF/p75 promoter-CAT revealed that all Sp1 sites (−50/−43, −109/−102 and −146/−139) differentially regulate LEDGF/p75. Cotransfection studies with Sp1 in Drosophila cells that were Sp1-deficient, showed increased LEDGF/p75 transcription, while in lens epithelial cells (LECs) promoter activity was inhibited by artemisinin. These events were correlated with levels of endogenous Sp1-dependent LEDGF/p75 expression, and higher resistance to UVB-induced cell death. ChIP and transactivation assays showed that Sumoylation of Sp1 repressed its transcriptional activity as evidenced through its reduced binding to GC-box and reduced ability to activate LEDGF/p75 transcription. As whole, results revealed the importance of Sp1 in regulating expression of LEDGF/p75 gene and add to our knowledge of the factors that control LEDGF/p75 within cellular microenvironments, potentially providing a foundation for LEDGF/p75 expression-based transcription therapy.
This study investigates the extent of hole delocalization in one-electron oxidized adenine (A)- and guanine (G)-stacks and shows that new IR vibrational bands are predicted that are characteristic of hole delocalization within A-stacks. The geometries of A-stack (Ai; i = 2 – 8) and G-stack (GG and GGG) in their neutral and one-electron oxidized states were optimized with the bases in a B-DNA conformation using the M06-2X/6-31G* method. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is localized on a single adenine in A-stacks and on a single guanine in GG and GGG stacks; located at the 5′-site of the stack. On one-electron oxidation (removal of an electron from the HOMO of the neutral A- and G-stacks) a “hole” is created. Mulliken charge analysis shows that these “holes” are delocalized over 2 – 3 adenine bases in the A-stack. The calculated spin density distribution of (Ai)•+ (i = 2 – 8), also, showed delocalization of the hole predominantly on two adenine bases with some delocalization on a neighboring base. For GG and GGG radical cations, the hole was found to be localized on a single G in the stack. The calculated HFCCs of GG and GGG are in good agreement with the experiment. Further, from the vibrational frequency analysis, it was found that IR spectra of neutral and the corresponding one-electron oxidized adenine stacks are quite different. The IR spectra of (A2)•+ has intense IR peaks between 900 – 1500 cm−1 which are not present in the neutral A2 stack. The presence of (A2)•+ in the adenine stack has a characteristic intense peak at ~1100 cm−1. Thus IR and Raman spectroscopy has potential for monitoring the extent of hole delocalization in A stacks.
Adenine stack; one-electron oxidized adenine and guanine; vibrational frequency of adenine stack; hole delocalization; hole transfer; ionization potential; nuclear relaxation energy (NRE)
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is known to metabolize nicotine, the major constituent of tobacco, leading to the production of toxic metabolites and induction of oxidative stress that result in liver damage and lung cancer. Recently, we have shown that CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol and metabolizes nicotine into cotinine and other metabolites leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U937 monocytes. However, the mechanism by which CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol is unknown. In this study, we have examined the role of the PKC/Nrf2 pathway (protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 to the nucleus) in ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction. Our results showed that 100 mM ethanol significantly induced CYP2A6 mRNA and protein (∼150%) and increased ROS formation, and induction of gene expression and ROS were both completely blocked by treatment with either a CYP2E1 inhibitor (diallyl sulfide) or an antioxidant (vitamin C). The results suggest the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CYP2A6 expression. Subsequently, we investigated the role of Nrf2 pathway in oxidative stress-mediated regulation of CYP2A6 expression in U937 monocytes. Our results showed that butylated hydroxyanisole, a stabilizer of nuclear Nrf2, increased CYP2A6 levels >200%. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of PKC, completely abolished ethanol-induced CYP2A6 expression. Furthermore, our results showed that a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (U0126) completely abolished ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction and Nrf2 translocation. Overall, these results suggest that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress produced as a result of ethanol metabolism translocates Nrf2 into the nucleus through PKC/MEK pathway, resulting in the induction of CYP2A6 in monocytes. An increased level of CYP2A6 in monocytes is expected to further increase oxidative stress in smokers through CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Thus, this study has clinical relevance because of the high incidence of alcohol use among smokers, especially in HIV-infected individuals.