Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, which has been characterized by the World Health Organization as a new entity. Although PBL is most commonly seen in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, it can also be seen in extra-oral sites in immunocompromised patients who are HIV-negative. Here we present a rare case of PBL of the small intestine in a 55-year-old HIV-negative male. Histopathological examination of the excisional lesion showed a large cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation diffusely infiltrating the small intestine and involving the surrounding organs. The neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for CD79a, CD138 and CD10 and partly positive for CD38 and epithelial membrane antigen. Approximately 80% of the tumor cells were positive for Ki-67. A monoclonal rearrangement of the kappa light chain gene was demonstrated. The patient died approximately 1.5 mo after diagnosis in spite of receiving two courses of the CHOP chemotherapy regimen. In a review of the literature, this is the first case report of PBL with initial presentation in the small intestine without HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection, and a history of hepatitis B virus infection and radiotherapy probably led to the iatrogenic immunocompromised state.
Plasmablastic lymphoma; Small intestine; Human immunodeficiency virus; Differential diagnosis
We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work.
White matter (WM) microstructural declines have been demonstrated in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the pattern of WM microstructural changes in aMCI after controlling for WM atrophy is unknown. Here, we address this issue through joint consideration of aMCI alterations in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, as well as macrostructural volume in WM and gray matter compartments. Participants were 18 individuals with aMCI and 24 healthy seniors. Voxelwise analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxelwise analyses of high-resolution structural data was conducted using voxel based morphometry. After controlling for WM atrophy, the main pattern of TBSS findings indicated reduced fractional anisotropy with only small alterations in mean diffusivity/radial diffusivity/axial diffusivity. These WM microstructural declines bordered and/or were connected to gray matter structures showing volumetric declines. However, none of the potential relationships between WM integrity and volume in connected gray matter structures was significant, and adding fractional anisotropy information improved the classificatory accuracy of aMCI compared to the use of hippocampal atrophy alone. These results suggest that WM microstructural declines provide unique information not captured by atrophy measures that may aid the magnetic resonance imaging contribution to aMCI detection.
Alzheimer’s disease; atrophy; diffusion tensor imaging; mild cognitive impairment
Metabolic pathway analysis, one of the most important fields in biochemistry, is pivotal to understanding the maintenance and modulation of the functions of an organism. Good comprehension of metabolic pathways is critical to understanding the mechanisms of some fundamental biological processes. Given a small molecule or an enzyme, how may one identify the metabolic pathways in which it may participate? Answering such a question is a first important step in understanding a metabolic pathway system. By utilizing the information provided by chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions, and protein-protein interactions, a novel method was proposed by which to allocate small molecules and enzymes to 11 major classes of metabolic pathways. A benchmark dataset consisting of 3,348 small molecules and 654 enzymes of yeast was constructed to test the method. It was observed that the first order prediction accuracy evaluated by the jackknife test was 79.56% in identifying the small molecules and enzymes in a benchmark dataset. Our method may become a useful vehicle in predicting the metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes, providing a basis for some further analysis of the pathway systems.
Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS) in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances.
Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition) of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants.
People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group.
These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.
Mild cognitive impairment; Neurological soft signs; Neuropsychological tests
The impact of temperature and cycle length on microbial competition between polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing populations enriched in feast-famine sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was investigated at temperatures of 20 °C and 30 °C, and in a cycle length range of 1–18 h. In this study, the microbial community structure of the PHB-producing enrichments was found to be strongly dependent on temperature, but not on cycle length. Zoogloea and Plasticicumulans acidivorans dominated the SBRs operated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively. Both enrichments accumulated PHB more than 75% of cell dry weight. Short-term temperature change experiments revealed that P. acidivorans was more temperature sensitive as compared with Zoogloea. This is particularly true for the PHB degradation, resulting in incomplete PHB degradation in P. acidivorans at 20 °C. Incomplete PHB degradation limited biomass growth and allowed Zoogloea to outcompete P. acidivorans. The PHB content at the end of the feast phase correlated well with the cycle length at a constant solid retention time (SRT). These results suggest that to establish enrichment with the capacity to store a high fraction of PHB, the number of cycles per SRT should be minimized independent of the temperature.
cycle length; number of cycle per SRT; Plasticicumulans acidivorans; temperature; Zoogloea
GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with AlN/GaN super-lattices (SLs) (4 to 10 periods) as barriers were prepared on (0001) sapphire substrates. An innovative method of calculating the concentration of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) was brought up when AlN/GaN SLs were used as barriers. With this method, the energy band structure of AlN/GaN SLs was analyzed, and it was found that the concentration of 2-DEG is related to the thickness of AlN barrier and the thickness of the period; however, it is independent of the total thickness of the AlN/GaN SLs. In addition, we consider that the sheet carrier concentration in every SL period is equivalent and the 2-DEG concentration measured by Hall effect is the average value in one SL period. The calculation result fitted well with the experimental data. So, we proposed that our method can be conveniently applied to calculate the 2-DEG concentration of HEMT with the AlN/GaN SL barrier.
Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals.
Anterior cingulate cortex; Dopamine; Drug abuse; GABA; Glutamate; Impulsivity; Lateral prefrontal cortex; Medial prefrontal cortex; Norepinephrine; Orbitofrontal cortex; Serotonin
We review recent work on emotional memory enhancement in older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer dementia (AD) and evaluate the viability of incorporating emotional components into cognitive rehabilitation for these groups. First, we identify converging evidence regarding the effects of emotional valence on working memory in healthy aging. Second, we introduce work that suggests a more complex role for emotional memory enhancement in aging and identify a model capable of unifying disparate research findings. Third, we survey the neuroimaging literature for evidence of a special role for the amygdala in MCI and early AD in emotional memory enhancement. Finally, we assess the theoretical feasibility of incorporating emotional content into cognitive rehabilitation given all available evidence.
aging; Alzheimer disease; mild cognitive impairment; cognitive rehabilitation; amygdala; emotional memory enhancement; executive function; working memory
High sensation seeking has been linked to increased risk for drug abuse and other negative behavioral outcomes. This study explored the neurobiological basis of this personality trait using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). High sensation seekers (HSSs) and low sensation seekers (LSSs) viewed high- and low-arousal pictures. Comparison of the groups revealed that HSSs showed stronger fMRI responses to high-arousal stimuli in brain regions associated with arousal and reinforcement (right insula, posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex), whereas LSSs showed greater activation and earlier onset of fMRI responses to high-arousal stimuli in regions involved in emotional regulation (anterior medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate). Furthermore, fMRI response in anterior medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate was negatively correlated with urgency. Finally, LSSs showed greater sensitivity to the valence of the stimuli than did HSSs. These distinct neurobiological profiles suggest that HSSs exhibit neural responses consistent with an overactive approach system, whereas LSSs exhibit responses consistent with a stronger inhibitory system.
The present study sought to identify altered brain activation patterns in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that could precede frank task impairment and neocortical atrophy. A high accuracy lexical decision (LD) task was therefore employed. Both MCI and normal senior (NS) groups completed the LD task while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Accuracy on the LD task was high (≥ 89% correct for both groups), and both groups activated a network of occipitotemporal regions and inferior frontal cortex. However, compared to the NS group, the MCI group showed reduced fMRI activation in these regions and increased activation in bilateral portions of anterior cingluate cortex. Results from a voxel-based morphometry analysis indicate that altered activations in the MCI group were not within regions of atrophy. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrate that reduced fMRI response in the left and right mid-fusiform gyri accurately discriminate MCI from NS. When activation magnitude in both fusiform gyri were included in a single logistic regression model, group classification accuracy was very high (area under the curve = 0.93). These results show that a disrupted functional response in the ventral temporal lobe accurately distinguishes individuals with MCI from normal seniors, a finding which may have implications for identifying seniors at risk for cognitive decline.
Alzheimer’s disease; MCI; fMRI; structural imaging; lexical decision; fusiform gyrus
The affective priming effect has mostly been studied using reaction time measures; however, the neural bases of affective priming are not well established. To understand the neural correlates of cross-domain emotional stimuli presented rapidly, we obtained event-related potential (ERP) measures during an affective priming task using short SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony) conditions. Two sets of 480 picture-word pairs were presented at SOAs of either 150 ms or 250 ms between prime and target stimuli. Participants decided whether the valence of each target word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral results from both SOA conditions were consistent with previous reports of affective priming, with longer RTs for incongruent than congruent pairs at SOAs of 150 ms (771 vs. 738 ms) and 250 ms (765 vs. 720 ms). ERP results revealed that the N400 effect (associated with incongruent pairs in affective processing) occurred at anterior scalp regions at an SOA of 150 ms, and this effect was only observed for negative target words across the scalp at an SOA of 250 ms. In contrast, late positive potentials (associated with attentional resource allocation) occurred across the scalp at an SOA of 250 ms. LPPs were only observed for positive target words at posterior parts of the brain at an SOA of 150 ms. Our finding of ERP signatures at very short SOAs provides the first neural evidence that affective pictures can exert an automatic influence on the evaluation of affective target words.
Affective priming; Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); Event-related potential (ERP); Evaluative decision task
AIM: To investigate the biological features of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells.
METHODS: The cell ultrastructure, cell cycle and apoptosis, and the abilities of proliferation and invasion of HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 and the parent HepG2 cells were examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trans-well assay. Oncogenicity of the two cell lines was compared via subcutaneous injection and orthotopic injection or implantation in nude mice, and the pathological analysis of tumor formation was performed. Two cytoskeletal proteins were detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Compared with HepG2 cells, HepG2.2.15 cells showed organelle degeneration and filopodia disappearance under electron microscope. HepG2.2.15 cells proliferated and migrated slowly in vitro, and hardly formed tumor and lung metastasis in nude mice. Flow cytometry showed that the majority of HepG2.2.15 cells were arrested in G1 phase, and apoptosis was minor in both cell lines. Furthermore, the levels of cytoskeletal proteins F-actin and Ezrin were decreased in HepG2.2.15 cells.
CONCLUSION: HepG2.2.15 cells demonstrated a lower proliferation and invasion ability than the HepG2 cells due to HBV transfection.
HepG2.2.15; HepG2; Hepatitis B virus; Biological feature; Tumor
Experience-seekers continuously pursue novel environmental stimuli, a tendency linked to genetic variation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission. However, the neuroantomical basis accompanying these genetic and neurochemical associations is unknown. Animal and human experimental results suggest a central role for the hippocampus in processing novel stimuli. Here, we explored whether differences in human experience seeking are related to variations in hippocampal volume. High resolution anatomic MR images were analyzed in 40 individuals who ranged from low through high on a validated experience seeking personality scale. Manual tracing analysis demonstrated positive correlation between right hippocampal volumes and scores on the experience seeking scale. A separate voxel-based morphometric analysis confirmed these results and localized the significant increase to the anterior portion of right hippocampal grey matter. We tested and were able to reject the possibility that results were mediated by a personality trait related to, but distinct from, experience seeking. The present data provide the first direct evidence for a relationship between human experience seeking and brain structure. In addition, these results provide new ecologically relevant evidence for a link between right anterior hippocampus and novelty processing.
When tracking visible or occluded moving targets, several frontal regions including the frontal eye fields (FEF), dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) are involved in smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). To investigate how these areas play different roles in predicting future locations of moving targets, twelve healthy college students participated in a smooth pursuit task of visual and occluded targets. Their eye movements and brain responses measured by event-related functional MRI were simultaneously recorded. Our results show that different visual cues resulted in time discrepancies between physical and estimated pursuit time only when the moving dot was occluded. Visible phase velocity gain was higher than that of occlusion phase. We found bilateral FEF association with eye-movement whether moving targets are visible or occluded. However, the DLPFC and ACC showed increased activity when tracking and predicting locations of occluded moving targets, and were suppressed during smooth pursuit of visible targets. When visual cues were increasingly available, less activation in the DLPFC and the ACC was observed. Additionally, there was a significant hemisphere effect in DLPFC, where right DLPFC showed significantly increased responses over left when pursuing occluded moving targets. Correlation results revealed that DLPFC, the right DLPFC in particular, communicates more with FEF during tracking of occluded moving targets (from memory). The ACC modulates FEF more during tracking of visible targets (likely related to visual attention). Our results suggest that DLPFC and ACC modulate FEF and cortical networks differentially during visible and memory-guided eye tracking of moving targets.
fMRI; Smooth Pursuit; Saccade; Working Memory; Visual Motion; Simultaneous Recording
Speed of visual word recognition is an important variable affecting linguistic competence. Although speed of visual word recognition varies widely between individuals, the neural basis of reaction time (RT) differences is poorly understood. Recently, a magnetic resonance technique called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to provide information about white matter (WM) microstructure in vivo. Here, we used DTI to explore whether visual word recognition RT correlates with regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the WM of healthy young adults. Participants completed a speeded lexical decision task that involved visual input, linguistic processes, and a motor response output. Results indicated that lexical decision RT was correlated negatively with FA in WM of inferior parietal and frontal language regions rather than in WM of visual or motor regions. Voxels within the inferior parietal and frontal correlation clusters were composed primarily of DTI-based tracts oriented in the anterior-posterior orientation at or near the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and likely including other smaller association fibers. These results provide new microstructural evidence demonstrating that speed of lexical decision is associated with the degree to which portions of frontal and parietal WM are directionally oriented.
word recognition; reading; diffusion tensor imaging; fractional anisotropy
To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and presented 1–3 times. Sixty-four channel ERP responses were recorded while participants classified items as “man-made” or “not man-made” in a repetition priming task. The two groups showed different ERP responses at frontal electrode sites after seeing a visual stimulus for 400–800 ms. The frontal late positive components (LPC) showed different habituation of ERP responses to new and studied repeated objects between high and low sensation seekers. Source localization analysis (LORETA) indicated that during visual stimulus adaptation the left ventral pre-frontal cortex showed lack of frontal involvement among high sensation seekers. Furthermore, frontal LPC latencies during repeated visual exposure correlated with boredom susceptibility and experience seeking subscales. The distinct profiles of brain responses to repeated visual experience in high and low sensation seekers provide evidence that individual differences in neural adaptation can be linked to personality dimensions.
sensation seeking; repetition effect; EEG/ERP; priming; LORETA; LPC
Previously we reported that priming of visual motion perception is reduced in older adults compared to younger adults (Jiang, Greenwood, & Parasuraman, 1999; Jiang, Luo, & Parasuraman, 2002b). To examine the neural mechanisms underlying this age-related effect, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during perceptual judgments of motion directions by younger and older adults in two experiments. When judging single-step motion, both younger and older adults evoked significantly larger ERP late positive component (LPC) responses to unambiguous motion compared to LPC responses elicited by ambiguous motion. In contrast, compared to the younger adults, the older adults evoked comparable but delayed ERP responses to single motion steps. In the second experiment the younger and older groups judged the directions of two successive motion-steps (either motion priming or motion reversals). Under short (200–400 ms) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), the difference between the ERP responses to priming and reversal conditions was significantly larger for the younger than for the older adults. This study provides the first electrophysiological evidence that brain aging leads to delayed processing of single motion direction and visual motion priming as early as 100 ms in the early visual cortex. Age-related changes in strength and temporal characteristics of neural responses in temporal-parietal regions were particularly pronounced in older adults when successive motion signals are placed closely in time, within 400 ms.
Ambiguous motion; Age-related difference; Bi-stable perception; EEG/ERP; Visual motion priming; Motion reversal
During China’s Cultural Revolution, a large proportion of urban youth were forced to go to the countryside as a result of the state’s “send-down” policy. Past research has been ambivalent about the long-term social consequences for the Chinese youth who experienced send-down. Some scholars have suggested that the send-down experience may have yielded beneficial effects. To test this claim, we analyze data from the Survey of Family Life in Urban China, which we conducted in three large cities in 1999. Questions available in this data set allow us to ascertain the send-down experience of both the respondent and a sibling and educational attainment at the times of send-down and return. Our analyses of the new data show that the send-down experience does not seem to have benefited the affected Chinese youth. Differences in social outcomes between those who experienced send-down and those who did not are either non-existent or spurious due to other social processes.
Malaria and trypanosomiasis are diseases which afflict millions and for which novel therapies are urgently required. We have tested two well-characterized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for antiparasitic activity. One CPP, designated TP10, has broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, both blood and mosquito stages, and against blood-stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei.
adult aging; repetition priming; evoked potentials; implicit memory; prior learning; working memory
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of visual affective priming. Eighteen young native English-speakers (6 males, 12 females) participated in the study. Two sets of 720 prime-target pairs (240 affectively congruent, 240 affectively incongruent, and 240 neutral) used either words or pictures as primes and only words as targets. ERPs were recorded from 64 scalp electrodes while participants pressed either “Happy” or “Sad” buttons to indicate target pleasantness. The response time (RT) results confirmed an affective priming effect, with faster responses to affectively congruent trials (659 ms) than affectively incongruent trials (690 ms). Affectively incongruent trials had larger and more negative N200 activation than those to neutral trials. Importantly, a delayed N400 for word prime-target pairs matched the RT results with larger negative amplitudes for incongruent than congruent pairs. This finding suggests that the N400 component is not only sensitive to semantic mismatches, but is also sensitive to affective mismatches for word prime-target pairs.
Valence; Semantic; EEG/ERP; Visual evaluative task; N200; N400
In two experiments, the temporal dynamics of neural activity underlying perceptual priming of visual motion was examined using event-related potentials (ERPs) during directional judgments of the apparent motion of two-dimensional sine-wave gratings. Compared to perceptually ambiguous motion, unambiguous left- or rightward motion was associated with enhanced ERP activity about 300 ms after the onset of apparent motion. In the second experiment, ERPs were recorded to two successive motion jumps in which an unambiguous motion jump served as a prime for a subsequent target motion that was ambiguous. The prime-target time interval was varied between 200, 400, and 1000 ms. In a control (motion reversal) condition, the two motion jumps were both unambiguous but in opposite directions. Compared to the motion reversal condition, motion priming was associated with an enhancement of ERP amplitudes at 100 ms and 350 ms following target stimulus onset. ERP enhancement was greatest at a short prime-target interval of 200 ms, which was also associated behaviorally with the strongest priming. The ERP enhancement and behavioral priming were both eliminated at the long 1000 ms prime-target interval. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a subset of subjects supported the view that motion priming involves modulation of neural responses both in early visual cortex and in later stages of visual processing.
Perceptual priming; Visual motion; Brain imaging; ERP; fMRI
Repetition of visually common objects was examined in relation to prior intentional learning and memory status using a delayed match-to-sample task. Both response time and two temporally separate ERP components indexed repetition. The early repetition effect (~200 –550 ms) evoked more ERP responses for repeated visual objects, and was diminished by prior intentional learning (old / new) or being maintained in working memory (targets / distracters). In contrast, the late repetition effect (after ~550 ms) evoked reduced ERP activation for repeated items, and was not affected by prior learning nor working memory status. Our source localization results indicate that the late and posterior repetition effect in visual cortex is consistent with repetition suppression results reported in monkey physiology and human fMRI studies. Meanwhile, the early and anterior repetition effect, in temporal pole and frontal cortices, is modulated by explicit memory mechanisms.
implicit; explicit learning; EEG/ERPs; fMRI; working memory; priming; temporal pole; LORETA