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1.  Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects 
The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies.
PMCID: PMC4201313  PMID: 25294374
Therapeutic radionuclide; Targeted radionuclide therapy; Radioimmunotherapy; Molecular targeting; Theranostics
2.  Characteristic Variation of α-Fetoprotein DNA Nanometer-Range Irradiated by Iodine-125 
To obtain the characteristic variation of structure and functional groups of α-fetoprotein (AFP) DNA irradiated by iodine-125(125I), the AFP antisense oligonucleotide labeled with various radioactivity dose 125I was mixed with the AFP DNA in a simulated polymerase chain reaction temperature condition. After the mixtures were irradiated by the 125I from 2 to 72 hours, the mutation of the biogenic conformation and functional groups of the irradiated DNA were investigated using laser Raman spectroscopy. The shifted peak and the decreased intensity of the characteristic Raman spectra were found, which demonstrated that the structure of the phosphodiester linkage was broke, the pyridine and purine bases in DNA emerged and damaged. The model of gene conformation changed from form B to form C spectrum after the nanometer-range irradiation with 125I from 2 to 24 hours. The damage of local pyridine and purine bases gradually increased along with the accumulation of irradiation, and the bases and ribosome were finally dissociated and stacked.
PMCID: PMC3615693  PMID: 23573955
gene therapy; irradiation; radionuclide; Raman spectroscopy
3.  Pharmacotherapy response and regional cerebral blood flow characteristics in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder 
To analyze the correlation between the pharmacotherapy response and the characteristics of the pre-treatment regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) was used to determine the pre-treatment rCBF in 30 OCD patients and 30 normal controls. Based on their clinical remission response, the subjects were divided into two groups: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and SSRIs plus quetiapine. The subjects with clinical remission response were identified after treatment for a period of 24 weeks, and the rCBF imaging data were processed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software with two-sample Z-tests.
Nineteen OCD patients who achieved clinical remission were included in the study. Increased rCBF in forebrain regions, including the frontal lobe, cingulate gyrus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia, was found in 11 responders to SSRIs compared to normal control patients. The eight SSRI plus quetiapine responders exhibited a decrease in rCBF within posterior brain regions, including the parietal lobe, cerebellar vermis, and occipital lobe, and an increase in rCBF in the frontal lobe, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum tonsil compared to normal control patients.
The characteristics of increased rCBF in forebrain regions and decreased rCBF in posterior brain regions before treatment of OCD patients was a potentially predictor of treatment response to guide treatment options.
PMCID: PMC3733897  PMID: 23898909
Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Regional cerebral blood flow; SSRI; Quetiapine; Therapy response
4.  Variability of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in elderly Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease 
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized worldwide as a public health problem, and its prevalence increases as the population ages. However, the applicability of formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on serum creatinine (SC) levels in elderly Chinese patients with CKD is limited.
Materials and methods
Based on values obtained with the technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging method, 319 elderly Chinese patients with CKD were enrolled in this study. Serum creatinine was determined by the enzymatic method. The GFR was estimated using the Cockroft–Gault (CG) equation, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, the Jelliffe-1973 equation, and the Hull equation.
The median of difference ranged from −0.3–4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2. The interquartile range (IQR) of differences ranged from 13.9–17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accuracy with a deviation less than 15% ranged from 27.6%–32.9%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 30% ranged from 53.6%–57.7%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 50% ranged from 74.9%–81.5%. None of the equations had accuracy up to the 70% level with a deviation less than 30% from the standard glomerular filtration rate (sGFR). Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean difference ranged from −3.0–2.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, the agreement limits of all the equations, except the CG equation, exceeded the prior acceptable tolerances defined as 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. When the overall performance and accuracy were compared in different stages of CKD, GFR estimated using the CG equation showed promising results.
Our study indicated that none of these equations were suitable for estimating GFR in the elderly Chinese population investigated. At present, based on overall performance, as well as performance in different CKD stages, the CG equation may be the most accurate for estimating GFR in elderly Chinese patients with CKD.
PMCID: PMC3474145  PMID: 23091374
elderly; equation; glomerular filtration rate; serum creatinine; Chinese

Results 1-4 (4)