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1.  Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study 
Background
A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship.
Aims
To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
Method
Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30.
Results
Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women.
Conclusions
Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.
doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.123299
PMCID: PMC3696877  PMID: 23661765
2.  The lifetime impact of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 
Psychological Medicine  2011;42(4):875-887.
Background
To presents nationally representative data on the lifetime independent association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychiatric comorbidity, correlates, quality of life and treatment-seeking in the United States.
Method
Data were derived from a large national sample of the US population. Face-to-face surveys of more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older residing in households were conducted during the 2004-2005 period. Diagnoses of ADHD, axis I and II disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version.
Results
ADHD was associated independently of the effects of other psychiatric comorbidity with increased risk of bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specific phobia and, narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders. A lifetime history of ADHD was also associated with increased risk of engaging in behaviors reflecting lack of planning and deficient inhibitory control, with high rates of adverse events, lower perceived health, social support and higher perceived stress. Fewer than half of individuals with ADHD had ever sought treatment, and about one quarter had ever received medication. The average age of first treatment contact was 18.40 years.
Conclusions
ADHD is common and associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders, impulsive behaviors, greater number of number of traumas, lower quality of life, perceived social support and social functioning, even after adjusting for additional comorbidity. When treatment is sought, it is often in late adolescence or early adulthood, suggesting the need to improve diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
doi:10.1017/S003329171100153X
PMCID: PMC3383088  PMID: 21846424
3.  Impulsivity in the general population: A national study 
Journal of psychiatric research  2012;46(8):994-1001.
Objective
The construct of impulsivity is an important determinant of personality differences, psychiatric disorders, and associated risk-taking behaviors. Most existing knowledge about impulsivity comes from clinical samples. To date, no study has estimated the prevalence of impulsivity and examined its correlates in the general population.
Method
We analyzed data from a large national sample of the United States population. Face-to-face surveys of 34 653 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and drug disorders as well as personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule—DSM-IV Version.
Results
Impulsivity was common (17% of the sample), particularly among males and younger individuals, and associated with a broad range of axis I and II disorders, particularly drug dependence, cluster B, dependent and schizotypal personality disorders, bipolar disorder and ADHD. It was associated with behavioral disinhibition, attention deficits, and lack of planning. Individuals with impulsivity were more likely to engage in behaviors that could be dangerous to themselves or others, including driving recklessly, starting fights, shoplifting, perpetrating domestic violence and trying to hurt or kill themselves. They were exposed to higher risk of lifetime trauma and to substantial physical and psychosocial impairment.
Conclusion
Given the association of impulsivity with psychiatric disorders and multiple adverse events, there is a need to target impulsivity in prevention and treatment efforts.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.04.023
PMCID: PMC3564492  PMID: 22626529
Impulsivity; Prevalence; Comorbidity; Adverse events; Externalizing disorders; Trauma
4.  Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism 
Brain and Behavior  2012;2(5):647-660.
Attentional dysfunction is among the most consistent observations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural nature of this deficit in ASD is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the neurobehavioral correlates of attentional dysfunction in ASD. We used the Attention Network Test-Revised and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control functions, as well as the neural substrates underlying these attentional functions in unmedicated, high-functioning adults with ASD (n = 12) and matched healthy controls (HC, n = 12). Compared with HC, individuals with ASD showed increased error rates in alerting and executive control, accompanied by lower activity in the mid-frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus for alerting, and by the absence of significant functional activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for executive control. In addition, greater behavioral deficiency in executive control in ASD was correlated with less functional activation of the ACC. These findings of behavioral and neural abnormalities in alerting and executive control of attention in ASD may suggest core attentional deficits, which require further investigation.
doi:10.1002/brb3.90
PMCID: PMC3489817  PMID: 23139910
Alerting; anterior cingulate cortex; attentional networks; autism; executive control
5.  In vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the attentional networks in autism 
Brain research  2010;1380:198-205.
Attentional dysfunction is one of the most consistent findings in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the significance of such findings for the pathophysiology of autism is unclear. In this study, we investigated cellular neurochemistry with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (1H-MRS) in brain regions associated with networks subserving alerting, orienting, and executive control of attention in patients with ASD. Concentrations of cerebral N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatinine + phosphocreatinine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol (Ins) and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) were determined by 3 T 1H-MRS examinations in 14 high-functioning medication-free adults with a diagnosis of ASD and 14 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls (HC) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), thalamus, temporoparietal junction (TPJ), and areas near or along the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Compared to HC group, the ASD group showed significantly lower Glx concentrations in right ACC and reduced Ins in left TPJ. This study provides evidence of abnormalities in neurotransmission related to networks subserving executive control and alerting of attention, functions which have been previously implicated in ASD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.057
PMCID: PMC3073642  PMID: 21185269
autism; spectroscopy; glutamate; anterior cingulate cortex; intraparietal sulcus; myo-inositol
6.  Obsessive compulsive disorder comorbidity in DBA 
Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid aplasia characterized as a normochromic macrocytic anemia with a selective deficiency in red blood cell precursors in otherwise normocelullar bone marrow. DBA is known to be associated with mental retardation and learning disabilities. Although comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions have not been reported in the existing literature, we report in this paper a case of a DBA patient with previously undiagnosed comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), successfully treated with sertaline 200 mg/day and valproic acid 600 mg/day. This case of comorbid presentation has clinical, therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Given the difficulty of distinguishing among mental retardation, learning disabilities and OCD and the importance of precocious diagnosis in treating OCD especially since there are treatment methods interfering with anemia symptoms, physicians should adapt an adequate screening tool treating a child with DBA and comorbid mental disorder.
doi:10.1186/1745-0179-4-6
PMCID: PMC2322982  PMID: 18331650

Results 1-6 (6)