Topological superconductivity is one of most fascinating properties of topological quantum matters that was theoretically proposed and can support Majorana Fermions at the edge state. Superconductivity was previously realized in a Cu-intercalated Bi2Se3 topological compound or a Bi2Te3 topological compound at high pressure. Here we report the discovery of superconductivity in the topological compound Sb2Te3 when pressure was applied. The crystal structure analysis results reveal that superconductivity at a low-pressure range occurs at the ambient phase. The Hall coefficient measurements indicate the change of p-type carriers at a low-pressure range within the ambient phase, into n-type at higher pressures, showing intimate relation to superconducting transition temperature. The first principle calculations based on experimental measurements of the crystal lattice show that Sb2Te3 retains its Dirac surface states within the low-pressure ambient phase where superconductivity was observed, which indicates a strong relationship between superconductivity and topology nature.
Glucosamine (Glmn), a product of glucose metabolism via the hexosamine pathway, causes insulin resistance in isolated adipocytes by impairing insulin-induced GLUT 4 glucose transporter translocation to the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that Glmn causes insulin resistance in vivo by a similar mechanism in skeletal muscle. We performed euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (12 mU/kg/min + 3H-3-glucose) in awake male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without Glmn infusion at rates ranging from 0.1 to 6.5 mg/kg/min. After 4h of euglycemic clamping, hindquarter muscles were quick-frozen and homogenized, and membranes were subfractionated by differential centrifugation and separated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient (25, 30, and 35% sucrose). Membrane proteins were solubilized and immunoblotted for GLUT 4. With Glmn, glucose uptake (GU) was maximally reduced by 33 +/- 1%, P < 0.001. The apparent Glmn dose to reduce maximal GU by 50% was 0.1 mg/kg/min or 1/70th the rate of GU on a molar basis. Control galactosamine and mannosamine infusions had no effect on GU. Relative to baseline, insulin caused a 2.6-fold increase in GLUT 4 in the 25% membrane fraction (f), P < 0.01, and a 40% reduction in the 35%f, P < 0.05, but had no effect on GLUT 4 in the 30% f, P= NS. Addition of Glmn to insulin caused a 41% reduction of GLUT 4 in the 25%f, P < 0.05, a 29% fall in the 30%f, and prevented the reduction of GLUT 4 in the 35% f. The 30%f membranes were subjected to a second separation with a 27 and 30% sucrose gradient. Insulin mobilized GLUT 4 away from the 30%f, P < 0.05, but not the 27% f. In contrast, Glmn reduced GLUT 4 in the 27%f, P < 0.05, but not the 30%f. Thus Glmn appears to alter translocation of an insulin-insensitive GLUT 4 pool. Coinfusion of Glmn did not alter enrichment of the sarcolemmal markers 5'-nucleotidase, Na+/K+ATPase, and phospholemman in either 25, 30, or 35% f. Thus Glmn completely blocked movement of Glut 4 induced by insulin. Glmn is a potent inducer of insulin resistance in vivo by causing (at least in part) a defect intrinsic to GLUT 4 translocation and/or trafficking. These data support a potential role for Glmn to cause glucose-induced insulin resistance (glucose toxicity).
Active DNA demethylation regulates many vital biological processes, including early development and locus-specific gene expression in plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, bifunctional DNA glycosylases directly excise the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site. Recent evidence suggests that mammals utilize DNA glycosylases after 5-methylcytosine is oxidized and/or deaminated. In both cases, the resultant single-nucleotide gap is subsequently filled with an unmodified cytosine through the DNA base excision repair pathway. The enzymatic removal of 5-methylcytosine is tightly integrated with histone modifications and possibly noncoding RNAs. Future research will increase our understanding of the mechanisms and critical roles of active DNA demethylation in various cellular processes as well as inspire novel genetic and chemical therapies for epigenetic disorders.
To compare the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of 320-detector CT coronary angiography with prospective and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gating in a single heartbeat.
Two independent reviewers separately scored image quality of coronary artery segment for 480 cardiac CT studies in a prospective group and a retrospective group (240 patients with a heart rate <65 beats per minute in each group). The two groups matched well for clinical characteristics and CT parameters. There was good agreement for image quality scores of coronary artery segment between the independent reviewers (κ = 0.73). Of the 7023 coronary artery segments, the image quality scores of the prospective group and retrospective group were not significantly different (p>0.05). The mean radiation dose was 10.0±3.5 mSv (range 6.2–21.6 mSv) for prospective ECG gating at 65–85% of R–R interval (the interval between the R-wave of one heartbeat to the R-wave of the next). The mean radiation dose for retrospective ECG-triggered modulated scans was 23.2±3.4 mSv (range 17–27.4 mSv). The mean radiation dose was 57% lower for prospective gating than for retrospective gating (p<0.01).
Compared with coronary angiography, the results for prospective vs retrospective ECG gating were 92% vs 90% for sensitivity (p = 0.23), 89% vs 91% for specificity (p = 0.19), 90% vs 93% for positive predictive value (p = 0.25) and 92% vs 95% for negative predictive value (p = 0.21) for lesions with ≥50% stenosis, respectively.
320-detector CT coronary angiography performed with prospective ECG gating has similar subjective image quality scores, but a 57% lower radiation dose than retrospective ECG gating in a single heartbeat.
To determine the genetic basis of early onset autosomal recessive Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (arBVMD) in a family with three affected children.
Clinical and family-based genetic study.
Seven subjects making up a family with three children affected by Best vitelliform macular dystrophy were studied. Standard ophthalmic exam with dilated ophthalmoscopy and imaging were performed in each individual. The eleven exons of BEST1were directly sequenced.
All three affected children have the clinical characteristic features of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy: large macular vitelliform lesions, scattered vitelliform lesions along the arcades and in the peripheral retina, and an accumulation of serous retinal fluid. A novel compound heterozygous mutation in the BEST1gene was found in the three affected individuals (L41P and I201T). The unaffected parents and children only harbor one heterozygous mutation.
arBVMD can be caused by the compound heterozygous mutation L41P and I201T in the BEST1gene.
autosomal recessive Best vitelliform macular dystrophy; BEST1 gene; genetics
Prohibitin, which can inhibit oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we investigate the effects of altering prohibitin levels in affected tissues in the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mouse model with intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of IL-10 on prohibitin and the role of prohibitin in intestinal fibrosis of murine colitis. After the mice were treated with IL-10, prohibitin expression and localization were evaluated in IL-10KO and wild-type (WT, 129/SvEv) mice. The colon tissue was then investigated and the potential pathogenic molecular mechanisms were further studied. Fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays revealed a significant upregulation of prohibitin with IL-10 treatment. Furthermore, IL-10 decreases inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β1 in the IL-10KO model of Crohn's disease and demonstrates a promising trend in decreasing tissue fibrosis. In conclusion, we hypothesize that IL-10 treatment is associated with increased prohibitin and would decrease inflammation and fibrosis in an animal model of Crohn's disease. Interestingly, prohibitin may be a potential target for intestinal fibrosis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Deciphering interneuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain functions yet remains as a challenging task in neurobiology. Using simultaneous quadruple-octuple in vitro and dual in vivo whole-cell recordings, we found two previously unknown interneuronal circuits that link cortical layer 1–3 (L1-3) interneurons and L5 pyramidal neurons in the rat neocortex. L1 single-bouquet cells (SBCs) preferentially form unidirectional inhibitory connections on L2/3 interneurons that inhibit the entire dendritic-somato-axonal axis of ~1% of L5 pyramidal neurons located within the same column. In contrast, L1 elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs) frequently form mutual inhibitory and electric connections with L2/3 interneurons, and these L1-3 interneurons inhibit the distal apical dendrite of >60% of L5 pyramidal neurons across multiple columns. Functionally, SBC→L2/3 interneuron→L5 pyramidal neuronal circuits disinhibit and ENGC↔L2/3 interneuron→L5 pyramidal neuronal circuits inhibit the initiation of dendritic complex spikes in L5 pyramidal neurons. As dendritic complex spikes can serve coincidence detection, these cortical interneuronal circuits may be essential for salience selection.
Activity-dependent modifications of excitatory synapses contribute to synaptic maturation and plasticity, and are critical for learning and memory. Consequently, impairments in synapse formation or synaptic transmission are thought to be responsible for several types of mental disability. BRAG1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTP-binding protein Arf6 that localizes to the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Mutations in BRAG1 have been identified in families with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). These mutations mapped to either the catalytic domain or an IQ-like motif, however the pathophysiological basis of these mutations remains unknown. Here, we show that the BRAG1 IQ motif binds apo-calmodulin (CaM), and that calcium-induced CaM release triggers a reversible conformational change in human BRAG1. We demonstrate that BRAG1 activity, stimulated by activation of NMDA-sensitive glutamate receptors (-Rs), depresses AMPA-R-mediated transmission via JNK-mediated synaptic removal of GluA1-containing AMPA-Rs in rat hippocampal neurons. Importantly, a BRAG1 mutant that fails to activate Arf6 also fails to depress AMPA-R signaling, indicating that Arf6 activity is necessary for this process. Conversely, a mutation in the BRAG1 IQ-like motif that impairs CaM binding results in hyperactivation of Arf6 signaling and constitutive depression of AMPA transmission. Our findings reveal a role for BRAG1 in response to neuronal activity with possible clinical relevance to nonsyndromic X-linked intellectual disability.
Normal cells require adhesion to extracellular matrix for survival. Cell detachment causes a drastic increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promotes anoikis. In the present study, we observed that upon detachment from matrix, human mammary epithelial cells strongly upregulate manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, or SOD2), a principal mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies ROS through dismutation of superoxide. Induction of MnSOD by cell detachment is dependent on the NFκB transcription factor. Detachment of mammary epithelial cells potently increases mitochondrial superoxide levels, which are further elevated by depletion of MnSOD in suspended cells. Consequently, cells depleted of MnSOD are hypersensitive to matrix detachment and exhibit increased anoikis. These results suggest that detachment-induced MnSOD counters mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and confers anoikis resistance. Taken together with our previous finding that detached cells evade excessive ROS production by attenuating oxidative metabolism of glucose, we conclude that mammary epithelial cells coordinate their responses to detachment through increasing MnSOD and decreasing ROS generation from mitochondrial glucose oxidation, thereby mitigating anoikis. Anoikis is a barrier to tumor metastasis. Indeed, MnSOD expression is elevated in human breast cancer metastases compared with primary tumors. Expression of MnSOD correlates with histologic tumor grades in human cancer and contributes to cancer cell's resistance to anoikis. Our study suggests that inhibition of ROS detoxification coupled with stimulation of glucose oxidative metabolism may be an efficient strategy to enhance anoikis and block metastasis.
anoikis; ROS; MnSOD; NFκB; metastasis; NRF2
To elucidate the safety and efficacy of exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) for the protection of photoreceptor cells in a rat model of retinal detachment (RD).
Recombinant rat EPO (400 ng) was injected into the vitreous cavity of normal rats to observe the eye manifestations. Retinal function was assessed by flash electroretinograms. Histopathological examination of retinal tissue was performed at 14 days and 2 months after injection, respectively. To investigate the inhibitory effect of EPO on photoreceptor cell apoptosis in RD rats, 100, 200, or 400 ng EPO was injected into the vitreous cavity immediately after RD model establishment. Apoptosis of photoreceptor cells was determined at 3 days after injection. Caspase-3 activation was measured by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively, and the level of Bcl-XL expression was analyzed by western blot.
Intravitreal injection of EPO 400 ng into normal rats had no significant impact on retinal function, morphology, or structure. Apoptosis of retinal photoreceptor cells apparently increased after RD and was significantly reduced following EPO treatment. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer in the RD+400 ng group was significantly thicker than that in other experimental RD groups both at 14 days and at 2 months after RD (P<0.05). Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed decreased caspase-3 activation and increased Bcl-XL expression following EPO treatment.
Intravitreal injection of EPO 400 ng is safe, and EPO may suppress caspase-3 activation and enhance Bcl-XL expression, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis and protection of photoreceptor cells.
erythropoietin; retinal detachment/experimental; flash electroretinogram; apoptosis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between extended-release (ER) fluvastatin tablet and its immediate-release (IR) capsule in Chinese healthy subjects. This was an open-label, single/multiple-dose, two-period, two-treatment, crossover, randomized trial with a minimum washout period of 7 days. Twenty healthy male adult subjects were given fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD by oral administration or fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID for seven days. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on day 1 and day 7. Serum concentrations of fluvastatin were determined by LC-MS/MS. For fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD, Cmax was 61.0 ± 39.0 and 63.9 ± 29.7 ng/mL, and AUC0−24 h was 242 ± 156 and 253 ± 91.1 ng·h/mL on day 1 and 7, respectively. For fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID, Cmax was 283 ± 271 and 382 ± 255 ng/mL, and AUC0−24 h was 720 ± 776 and 917 ± 994 ng·h/mL on day 1 and day 7, respectively. The relative bioavailability of fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD to fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID is (45.3 ± 23.9)% and (43.3 ± 24.1)% on day 1 and day 7, respectively. Tmax for fluvastatin ER tablet was 2.50 and 2.60 h and for capsule was 0.78 and 0.88 h on day 1 and day 7, respectively. In the first period, compared to baseline, cholesterol decreased 15.3% in fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD and 16.9% in fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID. Triglyceride decreased 3.7% in fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD and 19.1% in fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID. The difference has no statistical significance at P > 0.05 in reduction percent of cholesterol and triglyceride between the two groups. No adverse events were recorded. The results indicated that Cmax of fluvastatin ER tablet is reduced and Tmax is prolonged compared with IR capsule. There is no accumulation for ER formulation after multiple doses.
The regulation of mitochondrial quality has emerged as a central issue in neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancer. We utilized repeated low-dose applications of the complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) over 2 weeks to study cellular responses to chronic mitochondrial stress. Chronic MPP+ triggered depletion of functional mitochondria resulting in diminished capacities for aerobic respiration. Inhibiting autophagy/mitophagy only partially restored mitochondrial content. In contrast, inhibiting activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases conferred complete cytoprotection with full restoration of mitochondrial functional and morphological parameters, enhancing spare respiratory capacity in MPP+ co-treated cells above that of control cells. Reversal of mitochondrial injury occurred when U0126 was added 1 week after MPP+, implicating enhanced repair mechanisms. Chronic MPP+ caused a >90% decrease in complex I subunits, along with decreases in complex III and IV subunits. Decreases in respiratory complex subunits were reversed by co-treatment with U0126, ERK1/2 RNAi or transfection of dominant-negative MEK1, but only partially restored by degradation inhibitors. Chronic MPP+ also suppressed the de novo synthesis of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, accompanied by decreased expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM. U0126 completely reversed each of these deficits in mitochondrial translation and protein expression. These data indicate a key, limiting role for mitochondrial biogenesis in determining the outcome of injuries associated with elevated mitophagy.
Parkinson's disease; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; autophagy; mitochondrial biogenesis; mitogen-activated protein kinases; mitochondrial transcription factor A
Background and aims
Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional–structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source–sink relationships.
A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle.
Key Results and Conclusions
Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source–sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source–sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source and vegetative sink strength on fruit-set and fruit weight. When the source–sink ratio at fruit-set decreased, the number of fruit retained on the plant increased competition for assimilates with vegetative organs. Therefore, total plant and vegetative dry weights decreased, especially for large-fruited cultivars. Optimization study showed that temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set and ripening was predicted to be reduced when fruits were harvested earlier. Furthermore, there was a 20 % increase in the number of extra fruit set.
Source–sink relationship; fruit-set pattern; functional–structural models; Capsicum annuum
SB939 is an orally available, competitive histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor selective for class I, II and IV histone deacetylases. Preclinical evaluation of SB939 revealed a profile suggesting improved efficacy compared to other HDAC inhibitors. This phase I study was carried out to determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicity, recommended phase II dose (RPTD), as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of SB939 in a daily × 5 schedule in advanced solid tumours.
Sequential dose-escalating cohorts of patients were enrolled into 8 dose levels. At dose level 1, SB939 was taken on days 1–3 and 15–17 every 4 weeks, then on days 1–5 and 15–19 for other dose levels. Detailed PK sampling was performed in cycle 1, days 1 and 5. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected on cycle 1 at various time points for determination of acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) levels.
In total, 38 patients received a total of 96 cycles of treatment. The maximal administered dose was 90 mg and the RPTD was 60 mg given 5 consecutive days every 2 weeks. The most frequent non-hematologic adverse events (AEs) of at least possible attribution to SB939 were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhoea. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed dose-proportional increases in AUC across the doses evaluated. Elimination half-life was 5.6–8.9 h. There was no clear relationship between AcH3 changes and dose level or anti-tumour response.
SB939 is well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumours. The RPTD of this drug is 60 mg on a schedule of 5 consecutive days every 2 weeks. The toxicities of SB939 are consistent with other HDAC inhibitors.
histone deacetylase; phase I; toxicity; pharmacokinetic; pharmacodynamic
In this article we discuss variable selection for decision making with focus on decisions regarding when to provide treatment and which treatment to provide. Current variable selection techniques were developed for use in a supervised learning setting where the goal is prediction of the response. These techniques often downplay the importance of interaction variables that have small predictive ability but that are critical when the ultimate goal is decision making rather than prediction. We propose two new techniques designed specifically to find variables that aid in decision making. Simulation results are given along with an application of the methods on data from a randomized controlled trial for the treatment of depression.
decision making; variable selection; depression; machine learning
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
Memory formation is modulated by pre- and post-synaptic signaling events in neurons. The neuronal protein kinase Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylates a variety of synaptic substrates and is implicated in memory formation. It has also been shown to play a role in homeostatic regulation of synaptic plasticity in cultured neurons. Surprisingly, we found that Cdk5 loss of function in hippocampal circuits results in severe impairments in memory formation and retrieval. Moreover, Cdk5 loss of function in the hippocampus disrupts cAMP signaling due to an aberrant increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins. Dysregulation of cAMP is associated with defective CREB phosphorylation and disrupted composition of synaptic proteins in Cdk5-deficient mice. Rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor that prevents cAMP depletion, restores synaptic plasticity and memory formation in Cdk5-deficient mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for Cdk5 in the regulation of cAMP-mediated hippocampal functions essential for synaptic plasticity and memory formation.
Our laboratory has been investigating the impact of a neurotoxic exposure to methamphetamine (METH) on cellular components of the striatum post-synaptic to the dopaminergic terminals. A systemic bolus injection of METH (30 mg/kg, ip) induces the production of new cells in the striatum during a period lasting from 24-48 hours after METH. The newly generated cells arise from dormant striatal progenitors and not from the subventricular zone. The newly generated cells display glial phenotypes and begin to die 24 hours after birth, or 2.5 days post-METH. The protracted phase of cell death lasts for at least three months post-METH at which time the bulk of the newly generated cells have disappeared. The METH-induced production of new cells is associated with enlarged striatal volume (up to 50% larger than controls in some animals). As the newly generated cells die over a period of three months, the enlarged striatal volume normalizes. In conclusion, a neurotoxic dose of METH induces the generation of new cells in the striatum associated with enlarged striatal volume. The new cells die over three months post-METH and the enlarged striatal volume returns to control levels. This observation is significant because studies involving METH users show striatal enlargement and the normalization of striatal volume in METH users who have been abstinent for up to 20 months.
Methamphetamine; neurotoxicity; cytogenesis; striatum; striatal volume; normalization.