Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.
Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
breast cancer; SNP; FGF receptors; susceptibility; disease subtypes
To assess the value of CT perfusion imaging in the differentiation of different histological categorization of benign tumours from malignant tumours in patients with parotid neoplasms.
CT perfusion was successfully performed in 62 patients with parotid neoplasms whose diagnoses were confirmed by surgery or biopsy. The software generated a tissue time–density curve (TDC) and measured blood volume, blood flow, mean transit time and capillary permeability surface product. One-way ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyse the difference and diagnostic efficacies of all perfusion data between each one of the benign tumours and malignancies. Statistical significance was assigned at the 5% level.
Pleomorphic adenomas mainly had a gradually ascending TDC. Warthin tumours showed a fast ascent followed by a fast descent. The TDC of basal cell adenomas had a fast ascension followed by a plateau, then a gradual descent. Malignant tumours mainly showed a rapidly ascending curve with a stable plateau. Significant differences were observed in blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time between pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours (p < 0.05) as well as in blood flow and blood volume between the Warthin tumours, the basal cell adenomas and the malignant tumours (p < 0.05). Differences in permeability surface between the basal cell adenomas and malignant tumours were significant (p < 0.01).
CT perfusion of parotid gland could provide TDC and perfusion data, which were useful in the differentiation of different histological benign tumours and malignant tumours in the parotid gland.
parotid gland; neoplasms; computed tomography; perfusion
Despite past extensive studies, the role of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) in αβ T cells in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that BTLA expression on αβ T cells is decreased in patients with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Particularly, BTLA expression levels are likely critical for αβ T cells to manifest and maintain an active central memory phenotype with high capacity for secretion of IFN-γ and perforin, which are important for immune memory against TB infection. BTLAhigh αβ T cells also exhibited higher capacity in response to Mtb peptide stimulation. In contrast to the role of BTLA played for negative regulation of immune responses, our data in the current studies suggest that BTLA expression on αβ T cells is likely associated with protective immune memory against Mtb infection in the setting of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. This previous unappreciated role for BTLA may have implications for prevention and treatment of patients with Mtb infection.
Human active pulmonary tuberculosis; B and T lymphocyte attenuator; memory T cells; αβ T cells
Studies of anthropometric measures and ovarian cancer risk have predominantly included women of European descent with mixed findings.
Data from the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) were used to evaluate associations between anthropometric measures and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression.
A total of 152 EOC cases occurred among 70 258 women. Increasing quartiles of weight, hip circumference, and weight gain during adulthood were associated with significantly increased EOC risks. Body mass index (BMI) was also associated; overweight (25⩽BMI<29.99) and obese women (BMI⩾30.0) had significantly increased risks (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.13, and HR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.28, respectively). No significant associations were observed for height, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHER).
Results from this large prospective study of Chinese women support the hypothesis that general adiposity contributes to the aetiology of ovarian cancer.
adiposity; obesity; body mass index; ovarian cancer; prospective cohort
Whether vaccination against a virus can protect against more virulent coinfection with the virus and additional pathogen(s) remains poorly characterized. Overlapping endemicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria suggests that HIV/malaria coinfection frequently complicates acute and chronic HIV infection. Here we showed that vaccination of macaques with recombinant Listeria ΔactA prfA* expressing simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) gag and env elicited Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses, and protected against life-threatening SHIV-related malaria after SHIV/Plasmodium fragile coinfection. SHIV antigen immunization reduced peak viremia, resisted SHIV/malaria-induced lymphoid destruction, and blunted coinfection-accelerated decline of CD4+ T-cell counts after SHIV/malaria coinfection. SHIV antigen immunization also weakened coinfection-driven overreactive proinflammatory interferon-γ (IFNγ) responses and led to developing T helper cell 17/22 (Th17/Th22) responses after SHIV/malaria coinfection. The findings suggest that vaccination against AIDS virus can alter patterns of immune responses to the SHIV/malaria coinfection and protect against life-threatening SHIV-related malaria.
co-infection; HIV/AIDS; immunology; malaria; T cell; vaccination
Drug responses vary greatly among individuals due to human genetic variations, which is known as pharmacogenomics (PGx). Much of the PGx knowledge has been embedded in biomedical literature and there is a growing interest to develop text mining approaches to extract such knowledge. In this paper, we present a study to rank candidate gene-drug relations using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Our approach consists of three steps: 1) recognize gene and drug entities in MEDLINE abstracts; 2) extract candidate gene-drug pairs based on different levels of co-occurrence, including abstract level, sentence level, and phrase level; and 3) rank candidate gene-drug pairs using multiple different methods including term frequency, Chi-square test, Mutual Information (MI), a reported Kullback-Leibler (KL) distance based on topics derived from LDA (LDA-KL), and a newly defined probabilistic KL distance based on LDA (LDA-PKL). We systematically evaluated these methods by using a gold standard data set of gene-drug relations derived from PharmGKB. Our results showed that the proposed LDA-PKL method achieved better Mean Average Precision (MAP) than any other methods, suggesting its promising uses for ranking and detecting PGx relations.
Gene-drug Relation; Latent Dirichlet Allocation; Ranking; Pharmacogenomics
Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between cruciferous vegetables (CVs) intake and female lung cancer risk have produced inconsistent results.
Patients and methods
This study followed 74 914 Chinese women aged 40–70 years who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. CV intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and reassessed during follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we carried out a meta-analysis of all observational studies until December 2011.
After excluding the first 2 years of follow-up, 417 women developed lung cancer over a mean of 11.1 years of follow-up. An inverse association of borderline statistical significance was observed between CV consumption and female lung cancer risk, with HR for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of 0.73 (95% CI 0.54–1.00, P trend = 0.1607). The association was strengthened in analyses restricting to never smokers, with the corresponding HR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.40–0.87, P trend = 0.0510). The finding of an inverse association between CV intake and lung cancer risk in women was supported by our meta-analysis of 10 included studies.
Our study suggests that CV consumption may reduce the risk of lung cancer in women, particularly among never smokers.
cruciferous vegetable; lung cancer; meta-analysis; prospective study; women
No prospective study has investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) in mainland China, and little is known about the effect of diabetes duration on PLC risk.
Data from two population-based cohorts (the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002–2006 and the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996–2000) were thus used to assess the associations among T2DM, diabetes duration and PLC risk in Chinese population.
During follow-up through 2009, 344 incident PLC cases were identified among 60 183 men and 73 105 women. T2DM is significantly associated with the increased risk of PLC in both men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.51] and women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.03–2.61). The highest risk of incident liver cancer was observed in the first 5 years after diabetes diagnosis, and decreased substantially with the prolonged diabetes duration (Ptrend < 0.001). No synergistic interaction in the development of PLC was found between diabetes and other known risk factors.
T2DM is associated with the increased risk of subsequent liver cancer within 5 years after diagnosis in Chinese population, suggesting that hyperinsulinaemia rather than hyperglycaemia is more likely to be a primary mediator for this association.
China; cohort study; primary liver cancer; type 2 diabetes
Do genetic polymorphisms which influence age at menarche in women of European ancestry also influence women of Chinese ancestry?
Many genetic variants influencing age at menarche in European populations appear to impact Chinese populations in a similar manner.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS
Prior genome-wide association studies have uncovered 42 SNPs associated with age at menarche in European populations. This study is the first to demonstrate that many of the genetic determinants of age at menarche are shared between European and Chinese women.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
We evaluated 37 of 42 SNPs identified as associated with age at menarche from a recent, large meta-analysis, consisting primarily of women of European ancestry, in a population of 6929 Chinese women from Shanghai, China. We also constructed weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) combining the number of effect variants for all 37 SNPs, or only the SNPs associated with age at menarche among our study population, to evaluate their joint influence on age at menarche.
For 32 of the 37 evaluated variants, the direction of the allele associations were the same between women of European ancestry and women of Chinese ancestry (P = 3.71 × 10−6, binomial sign test); 9 of these were statistically significant. Subjects in the highest quintile of GRSs began menarche ∼5 months later than those in the lowest quintile.
BIAS, LIMITATIONS AND GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS
Age at menarche was obtained by self-report, which can be subject to recall errors. The current analysis was restricted to loci which met or approached GWAS significance thresholds and did not evaluate loci which may act predominantly or exclusively in the Chinese population. The smaller sample size for our meta-analysis compared with meta-analyses conducted in European populations reduced the power to detect significant results.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS
This study was supported, in part, by grants from US National Institutes of Health (grants R01CA124558, R01CA090899, R01CA070867; R01CA064277 and R01CA092585 and UL1 RR024975), Ingram professorship funds and Allen Foundation funds. There are no competing interests to declare.
menarche; genome-wide association study; genetics; reproductive endocrinology
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is overpressed in many human tumors and has a key role in regulating intracellular redox balance. Recently, thioredoxin system has emerged as a valuable target for anticancer drug development. Herein we demonstrate that selenocystine (SeC) could enhance auranofin (AF)-induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through synergetic inhibition of TrxR1. SeC pretreatment significantly enhanced AF-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. The combined treatment with SeC and AF also resulted in enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, DNA damage, and inactivation of ERK and AKT. Inhibitors of ERK and AKT effectively enhanced combined treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. However, inhibition of ROS reversed the apoptosis induced by SeC and AF, and recovered the inactivation of ERK and AKT, which revealed the importance of ROS in cell apoptosis and regulation of ERK and AKT pathways. Moreover, xenograft lung tumor growth in nude mice was more effectively inhibited by combined treatment with SeC and AF by induction of apoptosis through targeting TrxR1 in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest the strategy to use SeC and AF in combination could be a highly efficient way to achieve anticancer synergism by targeting TrxR1.
selenocystine; auranofin; thioredoxin reductase; apoptosis; signaling pathway
Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and Crohn's disease (CD) are granulomatous
disorders with similar clinical manifestations and pathological features that
are often difficult to differentiate. This study evaluated the value of
fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) for
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in fecal samples and
biopsy specimens to differentiate ITB from CD. From June 2010 to March 2013, 86
consecutive patients (38 females and 48 males, median age 31.3 years) with
provisional diagnoses of ITB and CD were recruited for the study. The patients'
clinical, endoscopic, and histological features were monitored until the final
definite diagnoses were made. DNA was extracted from 250 mg fecal samples and
biopsy tissues from each patient. The extracted DNA was amplified using FQ-PCR
for the specific MTB sequence. A total of 29 ITB cases and 36 CD cases were
included in the analysis. Perianal disease and longitudinal ulcers were
significantly more common in the CD patients (P<0.05), whereas night sweats,
ascites, and circumferential ulcers were significantly more common in the ITB
patients (P<0.05). Fecal FQ-PCR for MTB was positive in 24 (82.8%) ITB
patients and 3 (8.3%) CD patients. Tissue PCR was positive for MTB in 16 (55.2%)
ITB patients and 2 (5.6%) CD patients. Compared with tissue FQ-PCR, fecal FQ-PCR
was more sensitive (X2=5.16, P=0.02). We conclude that FQ-PCR for MTB
on fecal and tissue samples is a valuable assay for differentiating ITB from CD,
and fecal FQ-PCR has greater sensitivity for ITB than tissue FQ-PCR.
Intestinal tuberculosis; Crohn's disease; Diagnosis; Fluorescent quantitative PCR; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) typically have a positive relationship with obesity and diabetes, which are risk factors for liver cancer. However, studies on their association with liver cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we assessed the association of GI, GL, and carbohydrates with liver cancer risk.
Patients and methods
A total of 72 966 women and 60 207 men from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) were included for analysis. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data were used to calculate daily dietary GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake. These values were energy adjusted and categorized into quintiles. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders.
After a median follow-up time of 11.2 years for the SWHS and 5.3 years for the SMHS, 139 and 208 incident liver cancer cases were identified in the SWHS and SMHS, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression models, no statistically significant trends by quintile of GI, GL, or carbohydrate intake were observed. Stratification by chronic liver disease/hepatitis, diabetes, or body mass index (BMI) did not alter the findings.
There is little evidence that dietary GI, GL, or carbohydrates affect the incidence of liver cancer in this Asian population.
Chinese men and women; cohort study; diet; glycemic index; glycemic load; primary liver cancer
Direct molecular imaging of nanoscale relationship between T-cell receptor complexes (TCR/CD3) and gangliosidosis GM1 before and after T-cell activation has not been reported. In this study, we made use of our expertise of near-field scanning optical microscopy(NSOM)/immune-labeling quantum dots- (QD-)based dual-color imaging system to visualize nanoscale profiles for distribution and organization of TCR/CD3, GM1, as well as their nanospatial relationship and their correlation with PKCθ signaling cascade during T-cell activation. Interestingly, after anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Ab co-stimulation, both TCR/CD3 and GM1 were clustered to form nanodomains; moreover, all of TCR/CD3 nanodomains were colocalized with GM1 nanodomains, indicating that the formation of GM1 nanodomains was greatly correlated with TCR/CD3 mediated signaling. Specially, while T-cells were pretreated with PKCθ signaling inhibitor rottlerin to suppress IL-2 cytokine production, no visible TCR/CD3 nanodomains appeared while a lot of GM1 nanodomains were still observed. However, while T-cells are pretreated with PKCαβ signaling inhibitor GÖ6976 to suppress calcium-dependent manner, all of TCR/CD3 nanodomains were still colocalized with GM1 nanodomains. These findings possibly support the notion that the formation of GM1 nanodomains indeed serves as platforms for the recruitment of TCR/CD3 nanodomains, and TCR/CD3 nanodomains are required for PKCθ signaling cascades and T-cell activation
The quantitative parameters in the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography time–intensity
curve of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied to explore
their possible implication for histological grading of HCC.
A total of 130 HCC patients (115 males and 15 females; age: 48.13±11.00
years) were studied using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography time–intensity
curve and histological pathology. The quantification software Sonoliver® (TomTec
Imaging Systems, Unterschleissheim, Germany) was applied to derive time–intensity
curves of regions of interest in the interior of HCCs and in reference. Quantitative
parameters of 115 patients were successfully obtained, including maximum of
intensity (IMAX), rise time (RT), time to peak (TTP),
rise slope (RS) and washout time (WT). Histological grading
of HCC was performed using haematoxylin–eosin staining, and monoclonal
antibodies specific for smooth muscle actin were used to observe unpaired
There were significant differences among WTs in the three differentiated
HCC groups (p<0.05). However, there were no
significant differences among RT, TTP, RS and IMAX in the differentiated HCC
groups. Moreover, the number of UAs in the differentiated HCC groups showed
no statistical significance.
WT plays an important role in predicting well, moderately and poorly differentiated
Dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell subset exist only in primates, and recognize phosphoantigen from selected pathogens including M. tuberculosis(Mtb). In vivo function of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in tuberculosis remains unknown. We conducted mechanistic studies to determine whether earlier expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells during Mtb infection could increase immune resistance to tuberculosis in macaques. Phosphoantigen/IL-2 administration specifically induced major expansion and pulmonary trafficking/accumulation of phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, significantly reduced Mtb burdens and attenuated tuberculosis lesions in lung tissues compared to saline/BSA or IL-2 controls. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells differentiated into multifunctional effector subpopulations capable of producing anti-TB cytokines IFNγ, perforin and granulysin, and co-producing perforin/granulysin in lung tissue. Mechanistically, perforin/granulysin-producing Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limited intracellular Mtb growth, and macaque granulysin had Mtb-bactericidal effect, and inhibited intracellular Mtb in presence of perforin. Furthermore, phosphoantigen/IL2-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells produced IL-12, and their expansion/differentiation led to enhanced pulmonary responses of peptide-specific CD4+/CD8+ Th1-like cells. These results provide first in vivo evidence implicating that early expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells during Mtb infection increases resistance to tuberculosis. Thus, data support a rationale for conducting further studies of the γδ T-cell-targeted treatment of established TB, which might ultimately help explore single or adjunctive phosphoantigen expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell subset as intervention of MDR-tuberculosis or HIV-related tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis(TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While CD4+/CD8+ T cells are protective, role of γδ T cells in TB and other infections remains unknown in humans. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells exist only in primates, represent a dominant circulating γδ T-cell subpopulation, and recognize phosphoantigen from Mtb and some selected pathogens. Here, we determined whether earlier expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells during Mtb infection increased resistance to TB in macaques. Phosphoantigen plus IL-2 administration induced expansion and pulmonary accumulation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, significantly reduced Mtb counts and attenuated TB lesions in lung tissues. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells produced anti-TB cytokines IFNγ, perforin and granulysin, and co-produced perforin and granulysin in lung tissue. Perforin/granulysin-co-producing Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limited intracellular Mtb growth, and macaque granulysin killed Mtb bacteria, and inhibited intracellular Mtb in presence of perforin. Furthermore, expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T effectors enhanced pulmonary responses of peptide-specific CD4+/CD8+ T cells, which correlated with the ability of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells to produce IL-12. These results provide first evidence implicating a protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells in TB, supporting a rationale to explore Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell-targeted treatment of drug-resistant TB or HIV-related TB.
Although Listeria monocytogenes can induce systemic infection causing spontaneous abortion, septicemia, and meningitis, studies have not been performed to investigate human anti-L. monocytogenes immune responses, including those of Ag-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, a dominant human γδ T cell subset. L. monocytogenes is the only pathogen known to possess both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways that produce metabolic phosphates or phosphoantigens activating human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, making it interesting to explore in vivo anti-L. monocytogenes immune responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. In this study, we demonstrated that subclinical systemic L. monocytogenes infection of rhesus macaques via parenteral inoculation or vaccination with an attenuated Listeria strain induced multieffector-functional immune responses of phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Subclinical systemic infection and reinfection with attenuated L. monocytogenes uncovered the ability of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells to mount expansion and adaptive or recall-like expansion. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could traffic to and accumulate in the pulmonary compartment and intestinal mucosa. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could evolve into effector cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-17, or perforin after L. monocytogenes infection, and some effector Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could coproduce IL-17 and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IFN-γ, or TNF-α and perforin. Surprisingly, in vivo-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells in subclinical L. monocytogenes infection could directly lyse L. monocytogenes-infected target cells and inhibit intracellular L. monocytogenes bacteria. Thus, we present the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of multieffector-functional Vγ2Vδ2 T cell responses against L. monocytogenes.
The evidence for a role of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI) in the etiology of small intestine cancer is based mainly on case–control studies from Europe and United States.
Subjects and methods
We harmonized the data across 12 cohort studies from mainland China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, comprising over 500 000 subjects followed for an average of 10.6 years. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for BMI and (only among men) tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking.
A total of 134 incident cases were observed (49 adenocarcinoma, 11 carcinoid, 46 other histologic types, and 28 of unknown histology). There was a statistically non-significant trend toward increased HR in subjects with high BMI [HR for BMI >27.5 kg/m2, compared with 22.6–25.0, 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–2.96]. No association was suggested for tobacco smoking; men drinking >400 g of ethanol per week had an HR of 1.57 (95% CI 0.66–3.70), compared with abstainers.
Our study supports the hypothesis that elevated BMI may be a risk factor for small intestine cancer. An etiologic role of alcohol drinking was suggested. Our results reinforce the existing evidence that the epidemiology of small intestine cancer resembles that of colorectal cancer.
alcohol drinking; body mass index; prospective studies; small intestine cancer; tobacco smoking
Vγ2Vδ2 T (also known as Vγ9Vδ2 T) cells exist only in primates, and in humans represent a major γδ T-cell sub-population in the total population of circulating γδ T cells. Results from recent studies suggest that while (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) phosphoantigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other microbes activates and expands primate Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, the Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to HMBPP on antigen-presenting cells (APC). In response to HMBPP stimulus, Vγ2Vδ2 TCRs array to form signaling-related nanoclusters or nanodomains during the activation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Primary infections with HMBPP-producing pathogens drive the evolution of multieffector functional responses in Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, although Vγ2Vδ2 T cells display different patterns of responses during the acute and chronic phases of Mtb infection and in other infections. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in primary Mtb infection can exhibit a broader TCR repertoire and a greater clonal response than previously assumed, with different distribution patterns of Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell clones in lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments. Emerging in vivo data suggest that HMBPP activation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells appears to impact other immune cells during infection.
(E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate; γδ T cell; HMBPP; human infection; phosphoantigen; T cell receptor; T-cell response; tuberculosis
While granulysin has been suggested to play an important role in adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections by killing pathogens, and molecular force for protein–protein interaction or protein–bacteria interaction may designate the specific functions of a protein, the molecular-force basis underlying the bacteriolytic effects of granulysin at single-molecule level remains unknown. Here, we produced and purified bactericidal domain of macaque granulysin (GNL). Our bacterial lysis assays suggested that GNL could efficiently kill bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, we found that the interaction force between GNL and L. monocytogenes measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) was about 22.5 pN. Importantly, our AFM-based single molecular analysis suggested that granulysin might lyse the bacteria not only through electrostatic interactions but also by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. Thus, this work provides a previous unknown mechanism for bacteriolytic effects of granulysin.
AFM; Granulysin; Perforin; Bacteria; Listeria monocytogenes
The possibility that simultaneous expansion of T regulatory cells (Treg) and T effector cells early postinfection can confer some immunological benefits has not been studied. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that early, simultaneous cytokine expansion of Treg and T effector cells in a tissue infection site can allow these T cell populations to act in concert to control tissue inflammation/damage while containing infection. IL-2 treatments early after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of macaques induced simultaneous expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg, CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, and CD4+ T effector/CD8+ T effector/Vγ2Vδ2 T effector populations producing anti-M. tuberculosis cytokines IFN-γ and perforin, and conferred resistance to severe TB inflammation and lesions. IL-2–expanded Foxp3+ Treg readily accumulated in pulmonary compartment, but despite this, rapid pulmonary trafficking/accumulation of IL-2–activated T effector populations still occurred. Such simultaneous recruitments of IL-2–expanded Treg and T effector populations to pulmonary compartment during M. tuberculosis infection correlated with IL-2–induced resistance to TB lesions without causing Treg-associated increases in M. tuberculosis burdens. In vivo depletion of IL-2–expanded CD4+Foxp3+ Treg and CD4+ T effectors during IL-2 treatment of M. tuberculosis-infected macaques significantly reduced IL-2–induced resistance to TB lesions, suggesting that IL-2–expanded CD4+ T effector cells and Treg contributed to anti-TB immunity. Thus, IL-2 can simultaneously activate and expand T effector cells and Foxp3+ Treg populations and confer resistance to severe TB without enhancing M. tuberculosis infection.
Immune evasion is one of the recognized hallmarks of cancer. Inflammatory responses to cancer can also contribute directly to oncogenesis. Since the immune system is hardwired to protect the host, there is a possibility that cancers, regardless of their histological origins, endow themselves with a common and shared inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern (iCAMP) to promote oncoinflammation. However, the definition of iCAMP has not been conceptually and experimentally investigated.
Methods and Findings
Genome-wide cDNA expression data was analyzed for 221 normal and 324 cancer specimens from 7 cancer types: breast, prostate, lung, colon, gastric, oral and pancreatic. A total of 96 inflammatory genes with consistent dysregulation were identified, including 44 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated genes. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for some of these genes. The iCAMP contains proteins whose roles in cancer have been implicated and others which are yet to be appreciated. The clinical significance of many iCAMP genes was confirmed in multiple independent cohorts of colon and ovarian cancer patients. In both cases, better prognosis correlated strongly with high CXCL13 and low level of GREM1, LOX, TNFAIP6, CD36, and EDNRA. An “Inflammatory Gene Integrated Score” was further developed from the combination of 18 iCAMP genes in ovarian cancer, which predicted overall survival. Noticeably, as a selective nuclear import protein whose immuno-regulatory function just begins to emerge, karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is uniformly up-regulated across cancer types. For the first time, the cancer-specific up-regulation of KPNA2 and its clinical significance were verified by tissue microarray analysis in colon and head-neck cancers.
This work defines an inflammatory signature shared by seven epithelial cancer types and KPNA2 as a consistently up-regulated protein in cancer. Identification of iCAMP may not only serve as a novel biomarker for prognostication and individualized treatment of cancer, but also have significant biological implications.
Accumulating evidence suggests that human γδ T cells act as non-classical T cells and contribute to both innate and adaptive immune responses in infections. Vγ2 Vδ2 T (also termed Vγ9 Vδ2 T) cells exist only in primates, and in humans represent a dominant circulating γδ T-cell subset. Primate Vγ2 Vδ2 T cells are the only γδ T cell subset capable of recognizing microbial phosphoantigen. Since nonhuman primate Vγ2 Vδ2 T cells resemble their human counterparts, in-depth studies have been undertaken in macaques to understand the biology and function of human Vγ2 Vδ2 T cells. This article reviews the recent progress for immune biology of Vγ2 Vδ2 T cells in infections.
Keywords γδ T cells; T cell receptor; T cell responses; Human infections; Tuberculosis; Phosphoantigen; (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP); HIV; Pneumonic plague
The role of IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells in intracellular pathogen infections is poorly characterized. IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells may also express other effector molecules, and therefore synergize or contribute to anti-microbial effector function. This hypothesis cannot be tested by conventional approaches manipulating a single IL-22 cytokine at genetic and protein levels, and IL-22+ T cells cannot be purified for evaluation due to secretion nature of cytokines. Here, we surprisingly found that upon activation, CD4+ T cells in M. tuberculosis-infected macaques or humans could evolve into T effector cells bearing membrane-bound IL-22 after de novo IL-22 production. Membrane-bound IL-22+ CD4+ T effector cells appeared to mature in vivo and sustain membrane distribution in highly-inflammatory environments during active M. tuberculosis infection. NSOM/QD-based nanoscale molecular imaging revealed that membrane-bound IL-22, like CD3, distributed in membrane and engaged as ~100–200 nm nanoclusters or ~300–600 nm nanodomains for potential interaction with IL-22 receptor. Importantly, purified membrane-bound IL-22+ CD4+ T cells inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication in macrophages. Our findings suggest that IL-22-producing T cells can evolve to retain IL-22 on membrane for prolonged IL-22 half-lives and to exert efficient cell-cell interaction for anti-M. tuberculosis effector function.
Tuberculosis; IL-22; Infection; NSOM/QD; nanoscale molecular imaging
Clonal responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T effector cells producing antituberculosis cytokine IFN-γ in the context of immune protection against tuberculosis remain poorly characterized in humans. Utilizing decade-long TCR expertise, we previously developed a useful method to isolate clonotypic TCR sequences from Ag-specific IFN-γ–producing T cells and to specifically measure clonotypic TCR frequencies in the T cell pool. In this study, we investigated TCR Vβ repertoires/CDR3 usage, clonal expansion or dominance, and pulmonary trafficking or accumulation for purified protein deritative (PPD)-specific T effector cells producing IFN-γ during bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and subsequent M. tuberculosis challenge of macaques. We found that while PPD-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T effector clones employed diverse TCR Vβ repertoires, 30–33% of IFN-γ+CD4+ T cell clones from three M. tuberculosis-infected macaques expressed TCR bearing a conserved residue leucine in CDR3. Many Ag-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ and few CD8+ T effector cells emerged as dominant clones during mycobacterial infections and underwent major recall expansion after pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection of BCG-vaccinated macaques. PPD-specific T cell clones readily trafficked to the airway or lung after BCG vaccination or M. tuberculosis infection, and some of them continuously accumulated in lungs during M. tuberculosis infection even after they became undetectable in the circulation. Importantly, remarkable recall expansion and pulmonary accumulation of T effector cells coincided with BCG-induced protection against tuberculosis. Thus, rapid clonal expansion and pulmonary accumulation of Ag-specific T effector cells appear to be one of the immune mechanisms underlying immunity against tuberculosis.