Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with early mortality. We sought to determine the incidence, cause, and risk factors for death in an adult population of patients with SCD. All patients aged ≥18 years seen at the Adult Sickle Cell Center at Duke University Medical Center between January 2000 and April 2005 were enrolled. Forty-three patients (21 males and 22 females) died during the study period. Median age of survival was 39 years for females (95% CI 34–56), 40 years for males (95% CI 34–48), and 40 years overall (95% CI 35–48). Cardiac causes of death accounted for 25.6% (11/43 patients); pulmonary, 14.0% (6 patients); other SCD related, 32.6% (14 patients); unknown, 14.0% (6 patients); and others, 14.0% (6 patients). Pulseless electrical activity arrest, pulmonary emboli, multi-organ failure, and stroke were the most frequent causes of death. Among the deceased patients, the most common pre-morbid conditions were cardiopulmonary: ACS/pneumonia (58.1%), pHTN (41.9%), systemic hypertension (HTN) (25.6%), congestive heart failure (CHF) (25.6%), myocardial infarction (20.9%), and arrhythmias (14.0%). Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRv) was significantly higher (3.1 m/s vs. 2.6 m/s, p<0.001) and hemoglobin significantly lower (8.3 g/dL vs. 9.2 g/dL, p<0.05) in deceased patients as compared to patients who lived, respectively. With improved preventive and therapeutic advances, including hydroxyurea therapy, acute complications such as infection are no longer the leading cause of death; instead causes of death and pre-morbid conditions are shifting to chronic cardiopulmonary complications. Further, arrhythmia leading to premature death is under-recognized in SCD and warrants further investigation.
sickle cell disease; adult; mortality; risk factors; cardiopulmonary complications
A major drawback of internalizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) radioiodinated with direct electrophilic approaches is that tumor retention of radioactivity is compromised by the rapid washout of iodo-tyrosine, the primary labeled catabolite for mAbs labeled via this strategy. In our continuing efforts to develop more versatile residualizing labels that could overcome this problem, we have designed SIB-DOTA, a prosthetic labeling template that combines the features of the prototypical, dehalogenation resistant N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate (SIB) with DOTA, a useful macrocyclic chelator for labeling with radiometals. Herein we describe the synthesis of the unlabeled standard of this prosthetic moiety, its protected tin precursor, and radioiodinated SIB-DOTA. An anti-EGFRvIII-reactive mAb, L8A4 was radiolabeled with [131I]SIB-DOTA in 27.1 ± 6.2% (n = 2) conjugation yields and its targeting properties to the same mAb labeled with [125I]SGMIB both in vitro and in vivo using U87MG·ΔEGFR cells and xenografts were compared. In vitro paired-label internalization assays showed that the intracellular radioactivity from [131I]SIB-DOTA-L8A4 was 21.4 ± 0.5% and 26.2 ± 1.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 16 and 24 h, respectively. In comparison, these values for [125I]SGMIB-L8A4 were 16.7 ± 0.5% and 14.9 ± 1.1%. Similarly, the SIB-DOTA prosthetic group provided better tumor targeting in vivo than SGMIB over 8 d period. These results suggest that SIB-DOTA warrants further evaluation as a residualizing agent for labeling internalizing mAbs including those targeted to EGFRvIII.
Monoclonal antibody; Internalization; Residualizing Labels; Radioiodine
Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), and recently it has been shown as a promising nontoxic antineoplastic agent. In this study, we demonstrated that DCA could induce autophagy in LoVo cells, which were confirmed by the formation of autophagosomes, appearance of punctate patterns of LC3 immunoreactivity and activation of autophagy associated proteins. Moreover, autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Atg7 siRNA treatment can significantly enhance DCA-induced apoptosis. To determine the underlying mechanism of DCA-induced autophagy, target identification using drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) coupled with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis were utilized to profile differentially expressed proteins between control and DCA-treated LoVo cells. As a result, Cathepsin D (CTSD) and thioredoxin-like protein 1 (TXNL1) were identified with significant alterations compared with control. Further study indicated that DCA treatment significantly promoted abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. On the other hand, DCA-triggered autophagy could be attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrated that the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, a major negative regulator of autophagy, was suppressed by DCA treatment. To our knowledge, it was the first study to show that DCA induced protective autophagy in LoVo cells, and the potential mechanisms were involved in ROS imbalance and Akt-mTOR signaling pathway suppression.
dichloroacetate; autophagy; DARTS; ROS; LoVo cells
Natural killer (NK) cells are important in host to eliminate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in turn preventing the development of tumour cells into metastasis but the mechanisms are very poorly defined. Here we find that the expression level of miR-296-3p is much lower in the non-metastatic human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line P69 than that in the highly metastatic cell line M12, which is derived from P69. We demonstrate that miR-296-3p directly targets and inhibits the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the malignant M12. The data from clinical tissue microarrays also show that miR-296-3p is frequently upregulated and ICAM-1 is reversely downregulated in PCa. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-296-3p in P69 increases the tolerance to NK cells whereas knockdown of miR-296-3p in M12 reduces the resistance to NK cells, which both phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression or silencing of ICAM-1 in P69 and M12, respectively. These results are also manifested in vivo by the decrease in the incidence of pulmonary tumour metastasis exhibited by knockdown of miR-296-3p in M12 when injected into athymic nude mice via tail vein, and consistently down-expression of ICAM-1 reverses this to increase extravasation of CTCs into lungs. Above results suggest that this newly identified miR-296-3p-ICAM-1 axis has a pivotal role in mediating PCa metastasis by possible enhancing survival of NK cell-resistant CTC. Our findings provide novel potential targets for PCa therapy and prognosis.
NK cells; ICAM-1; prostate cancer; miR-296-3p; metastasis
Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis.
Taro; Breast cancer; Antimetastatic activity; Tumor; Cancer therapy
A type of lower motor neuron (LMN) disease inherited as autosomal recessive in Romney sheep was characterized with normal appearance at birth, but with progressive weakness and tetraparesis after the first week of life. Here, we carried out genome-wide homozygosity mapping using Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChips on lambs descended from one carrier ram, including 19 sheep diagnosed as affected and 11 of their parents that were therefore known carriers. A homozygous region of 136 consecutive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci on chromosome 2 was common to all affected sheep and it was the basis for searching for the positional candidate genes. Other homozygous regions shared by all affected sheep spanned eight or fewer SNP loci. The 136-SNP region contained the sheep ATP/GTP-binding protein 1 (AGTPBP1) gene. Mutations in this gene have been shown to be related to Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) phenotypes including ataxia in mice. One missense mutation c.2909G>C on exon 21 of AGTPBP1 was discovered, which induces an Arg to Pro substitution (p.Arg970Pro) at amino-acid 970, a conserved residue for the catalytic activity of AGTPBP1. Genotyping of this mutation showed 100% concordant rate with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected, carrier, phenotypically normal and unrelated normal individuals. This is the first report showing a mutant AGTPBP1 is associated with a LMN disease in a large mammal animal model. Our finding raises the possibility of human patients with the same etiology caused by this gene or other genes in the same pathway of neuronal development.
AGTPBP1; lower motor neuron disease; missense mutation; Purkinje cell degeneration; sheep
Adefovir and tenofovir are nucleotide analogues used as long-term therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Side effects are few, but prolonged and high-dose therapy has been associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction (RTD).
To assess the incidence of RTD during long-term nucleotide therapy of chronic hepatitis B.
A total of 51 patients being treated at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health were studied. Diagnosis of RTD required de novo appearance of at least three of five features: hypophosphataemia, hypouricaemia, serum creatinine elevation, proteinuria or glucosuria.
Among 51 patients treated for 1–10 (mean 7.4) years with adefovir (n = 42), tenofovir (n = 4) or adefovir followed by tenofovir (n = 5), 7 (14%) developed RTD. Time to onset ranged from 22 to 94 (mean 49) months with an estimated 10-year cumulative rate of 15%. All seven had low urinary percent maximal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (<82%). Patients with RTD were older (58 vs. 44 years; P = 0.01) and had lower baseline glomerular filtration rates (82 vs. 97 cc/min; P = 0.08) compared to those without; but did not differ in other features. Six patients with RTD were switched to entecavir, all subsequently had improvements in serum phosphate (2.0–3.0 mg/dL), creatinine (1.6–1.1 mg/dL), uric acid (2.7 –3.8 mg/dL) and proteinuria.
Renal tubular dysfunction develops in 15% of patients treated with adefovir or tenofovir for 2–9 years and is partially reversible with change to other antivirals. Monitoring for serum phosphate, creatinine and urinalysis is prudent during long-term adefovir and tenofovir therapy.
Many reports have shown that autophagy has a role as both a promoter and inhibitor in tumor development. However, the mechanism of this paradox is unknown. Tumor development is a multistep process. Therefore, we investigated whether the role of autophagy in hepatocarcinoma formation depended on the stage of tumor development. Based on our results, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine had a tumor-promotive effect in the rat model with N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in its dysplastic stage (Ds) and a tumor-suppressive effect in its tumor-forming stage (Ts). In the Ds, autophagy inhibition enhanced cell proliferation, DNA damage and inflammatory cytokines expression in liver. These changes were dependent on the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was resulted from autophagy inhibition, and ultimately accelerated the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in the Ts, autophagy inhibition restrained tumor formation by decreasing tumor cell survival and proliferation. In this stage, autophagy inhibition led to excessive ROS accumulation in the tumor, which promoted cell apoptosis, and prominently suppressed tumor cell metabolism. Taken together, our data suggested that autophagy suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ds by protecting normal cell stability and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ts by supporting tumor cells growth. Autophagy always had a role as a protector throughout the process of hepatocarcinoma development.
autophagy; hepatocarcinoma development; different stages; paradoxical role; ROS
Prostate cancers generally become androgen-independent and resistant to hormone therapy with progression. To understand the underlying mechanisms and facilitate the development of novel treatments for androgen-independent prostate cancer, we have investigated plasma membrane-associated sialidase (NEU3), the key enzyme for ganglioside hydrolysis participating in transmembrane signaling. We have discovered NEU3 to be upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with non-cancerous tissue, correlating with the Gleason score. NEU3 silencing with siRNA in prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells resulted in increased expression of differentiation markers and in cell apoptosis, but decrease in Bcl-2 as well as a progression-related transcription factor, early growth response gene (EGR-1). In androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells, forced overexpression of NEU3 significantly induced expression of EGR-1, androgen receptor (AR) and PSA both with and without androgen, the cells becoming sensitive to androgen. The NEU3-mediated induction was abrogated by inhibitors for PI-3 kinase and MAP kinase and more specifically by their silencing in the absence of androgen, being confirmed by increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in NEU3 overexpressing cells. NEU3 siRNA introduction caused reduction of cell growth of an androgen-independent PC-3 cells in culture and of transplanted tumors in nude mice. These data suggest that NEU3 regulates tumor progression through AR signaling, and thus be a potential tool for diagnosis and therapy of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
sialidase; prostate cancer; androgen receptor; EGR-1; PSA
Motivation: The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), long regarded as a ‘golden’ measure for the predictiveness of a continuous score, has propelled the need to develop AUC-based predictors. However, the AUC-based ensemble methods are rather scant, largely due to the fact that the associated objective function is neither continuous nor concave. Indeed, there is no reliable numerical algorithm identifying optimal combination of a set of biomarkers to maximize the AUC, especially when the number of biomarkers is large.
Results: We have proposed a novel AUC-based statistical ensemble methods for combining multiple biomarkers to differentiate a binary response of interest. Specifically, we propose to replace the non-continuous and non-convex AUC objective function by a convex surrogate loss function, whose minimizer can be efficiently identified. With the established framework, the lasso and other regularization techniques enable feature selections. Extensive simulations have demonstrated the superiority of the new methods to the existing methods. The proposal has been applied to a gene expression dataset to construct gene expression scores to differentiate elderly women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and those with normal BMD. The AUCs of the resulting scores in the independent test dataset has been satisfactory.
Conclusion: Aiming for directly maximizing AUC, the proposed AUC-based ensemble method provides an efficient means of generating a stable combination of multiple biomarkers, which is especially useful under the high-dimensional settings.
Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge.
Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions.
Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence.
Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions.
A highly sensitive biosensor was fabricated by incorporating myoglobin (Mb) within graphene oxide (GO) sheets and Nafion composite films. The stable composite Mb–GO–Nafion films were characterized by electrochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. It was found that Mb in Mb–GO–Nafion films retained its secondary structure similar to its native states. Cyclic voltammetry of Mb–GO–Nafion films showed a pair of well defined, quasi-reversible peaks at about −0.312 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) at pH 5.5, corresponding to direct electron transfer (DET) between Mb and the glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical parameter of Mb in Mb–GO–Nafion film such as apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) and formal potential (Eo′) were obtained. The dependence of Eo′ on solution pH indicated that the DET reaction of Mb was coupled with proton transfer. Mb in the films displayed good electrocatalytic activities towards various substrates such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrite and oxygen, indicating that the composite films have potential applications in fabricating novel biosensors without using mediators.
Graphene oxide sheets; Nafion; Myoglobin; Direct electron transfer; Electrochemistry; Electrocatalysis
The Ets transcription factor, Fli-1 is activated in murine erythroleukemia and overexpressed in various human malignancies including Ewing's sarcoma, induced by the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/Fli-1. Recent studies by our group and others have demonstrated that Fli-1 plays a key role in tumorigenesis, and disrupting its oncogenic function may serve as a potential treatment option for malignancies associated with its overexpression. Herein, we describe the discovery of 30 anti-Fli-1 compounds, characterized into six functional groups. Treatment of murine and human leukemic cell lines with select compounds inhibits Fli-1 protein or mRNA expression, resulting in proliferation arrest and apoptosis. This anti-cancer effect was mediated, at least in part through direct inhibition of Fli-1 function, as anti-Fli-1 drug treatment inhibited Fli-1 DNA binding to target genes, such as SHIP-1 and gata-1, governing hematopoietic differentiation and proliferation. Furthermore, treatment with select Fli-1 inhibitors revealed a positive relationship between the loss of DNA-binding activity and Fli-1 phosphorylation. Accordingly, anti-Fli-1 drug treatment significantly inhibited leukemogenesis in a murine erythroleukemia model overexpressing Fli-1. This study demonstrates the ability of this drug-screening strategy to isolate effective anti-Fli-1 inhibitors and highlights their potential use for the treatment of malignancies overexpressing this oncogene.
erythroleukemia; Fli-1; drug inhibition
Two different forms of death are commonly observed when Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected macrophages die: (i) necrosis, a death modality defined by cell lysis and (ii) apoptosis, a form of death that maintains an intact plasma membrane. Necrosis is a mechanism used by bacteria to exit the macrophage, evade host defenses, and spread. In contrast, apoptosis of infected macrophages is associated with diminished pathogen viability. Apoptosis occurs when tumor necrosis factor activates the extrinsic death domain pathway, leading to caspase-8 activation. In addition, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is required. Both pathways lead to caspase-3 activation, which results in apoptosis. We have recently demonstrated that during mycobacterial infection, cell death is regulated by the eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2 (proapoptotic) and lipoxin (LX)A4 (pronecrotic). Although PGE2 protects against necrosis, virulent Mtb induces LXA4 and inhibits PGE2 production. Under such conditions, mitochondrial inner membrane damage leads to macrophage necrosis. Thus, virulent Mtb subverts eicosanoid regulation of cell death to foil innate defense mechanisms of the macrophage.
Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.
borate glass; strontium; cytotoxicity; bone regeneration
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
The presence of IPH and/or FCR in the carotid atherosclerotic plaque indicates a high-risk lesion. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to establish the characteristics of lesions that may precede IPH and/or FCR. We further sought to construct a CAS that stratifies carotid disease severity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three hundred forty-four individuals from 4 imaging centers with 16%– 99% carotid stenosis by duplex sonography underwent carotid MR imaging. In approximately 60% of the study sample (training group), multivariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with IPH and FCR. Statistically significant parameters identified during multivariate analysis were used to construct CAS. CAS was then applied to the remaining arteries (40%, test group), and the accuracy of classification for determining the presence versus absence of IPH or, separately, FCR was determined by ROC analysis and calculation of the AUC.
The maximum proportion of the arterial wall occupied by the LRNC was the strongest predictor of IPH (P < .001) and FCR (P < .001) during multivariate analysis of the training group. The subsequently derived CAS applied to the test group was an accurate classifier of IPH (AUC = 0.91) and FCR (AUC = 0.93). Compared with MRA stenosis, CAS was a stronger classifier of both IPH and FCR.
LRNC quantification may be an effective complementary strategy to stenosis for classifying carotid atherosclerotic disease severity. CAS forms the foundation for a simple imaging-based risk-stratification system in the carotid artery to classify severity of atherosclerotic disease.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chromosomal polymorphic variations on the outcome of IVF and embryo transfer (IVF–embryo transfer) treatment for infertile couples.
During the period from October 2006 to December 2009, 1978 infertile couples who had received their first IVF–embryo transfer treatment cycle in our hospital were selected for this retrospective study, and the frequency of chromosomal polymorphic variations was calculated. From these, 1671 couples were selected and divided into three groups: 1402 couples with normal chromosomes (Group 1/control group), 82 couples with chromosomal polymorphic variations in only females (Group 2) and 187 couples with chromosomal polymorphic variations in only males (Group 3). The clinical pregnancy rates (CPR), early miscarriage rates and ongoing pregnancy rates after IVF–embryo transfer treatment were compared.
There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in implantation rates (29.37% in the control group, 29.70% in Group 2 and 31.41% in Group 3, P > 0.05) and CPR (45.86, 46.34 and 51.87%, respectively, P > 0.05). Although there was a trend toward higher first trimester pregnancy loss rates in Group 3 (male chromosomal polymorphic variations), but not in Group 2, compared with normal karyotype couples (10.31 versus 6.84%), the difference did not reach significance (P > 0.05).
Chromosomal polymorphic variations appear to have no adverse effects on the outcome of IVF–embryo transfer treatment.
chromosome polymorphism; IVF; pregnancy rate; early miscarriage
Large B-cell lymphoma presents with the most varied infiltrating patterns and morphologies. Here we report two cases of unusual large B-cell lymphoma in two old female patients. Both lymphomas show: 1) scattered and clustered large B-cells infiltrating the periphery of polyclonal lymphoid nodules; 2) large B-cells with an immunoblastic morphology; 3) large B-cell infiltration associated with vascular proliferation; 4) coexisting lymphoid nodules with hyaline vascular proliferation. The first case took an aggressive clinical course with transformation into acute leukemia, and imparted a short patient survival, whereas the second case responded to chemotherapy, experienced a local recurrence and long survival for >7 years. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of large B-cell lymphomas with a paranodular infiltrating pattern, immunoblastic morphology, and associated vascular proliferation.
Paranodular; DLBCL; immunoblastic; angioproliferative
The MCT-1 oncogene was originally identified from lymphoma cell lines. Herein we establish that MCT-1 is highly expressed in 85% of human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and that knocking down MCT-1 by a specific short hairpin RNA in DLBCL cells induces apoptosis, supporting a critical role for MCT-1 in DLBCL cell survival. However, the mechanism underlying MCT-1 regulation is largely unknown. We find that MCT-1 is phosphorylated and up-regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, by using a small inhibitory molecule targeting ERK, we interrupted MCT-1 phosphorylation and stability. Significantly, cells with distinct levels of MCT-1 protein displayed differential sensitivity to ERK inhibitor–induced apoptosis. Treatment with the ERK inhibitor showed marked in vivo antitumor activity in a human DLBCL xenograft model. Our findings establish a functional molecular interaction between MCT-1 and the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and suggest that the activation of MCT-1 function by its upstream kinase ERK plays an important role in lymphomagenesis.
There are declines in the protein expression of the NR2B (mouse ε2) and NR1 (mouse ζ1) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus during aging in C57BL/6 mice. This study was designed to determine if there is a greater effect of aging on subunit expression and a stronger relationship between long-term spatial memory and subunit expression within the synaptic membrane than in the cell as a whole. Male, C57BL/6JNIA mice (4, 11 & 26 months old) were tested for long-term spatial memory in the Morris water maze. Frontal cortex, including prefrontal regions, and hippocampus were homogenized and fractionated into light and synaptosomal membrane fractions. Western blots were used to analyze protein expression of NR2B and NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor. Old mice performed significantly worse than other ages in the spatial task. In the frontal cortex, the protein levels of the NR2B subunit showed a greater decline with aging in the synaptic membrane fraction than in the whole homogenate, while in the hippocampus a similar age-related decline was observed in both fractions. There were no significant effects of aging on the expression of the NR1 subunit. Within the middle-aged mouse group, higher expression of both NR2B and NR1 subunits in the synaptic membrane was associated with better memory. In the aged mice, however, higher expression of both subunits was associated with poorer memory. These results indicate that aging could be altering the localization of the NR2B subunit to the synaptic membrane within the frontal cortex. The correlational results suggest that NMDA receptor functions, receptor subunit composition, and/or the environment in which the receptor interacted in the hippocampus were not the same in the old animals as in younger mice and this may have contributed to memory declines during aging.
Prefrontal cortex; Hippocampus; NR2B (ε2); NR1 (ζ1); spatial; learning
Lethal 3 malignant brain tumor 1 (L3MBTL1), a homolog of the Drosophila polycomb tumor suppressor l(3)mbt, contains three tandem MBT repeats (3xMBT) that are critical for transcriptional repression. We recently reported that the 3xMBT repeats interact with mono- and dimethylated lysines in the amino termini of histones H4 and H1b to promote methylation-dependent chromatin compaction. Using a series of histone peptides, we now show that the recognition of mono- and dimethylated lysines in histones H3, H4 and H1.4 (but not their trimethylated or unmodified counterparts) by 3xMBT occurs in the context of a basic environment, requiring a conserved aspartic acid (D355) in the second MBT repeat. Despite the broad range of in vitro binding, the chromatin association of L3MBTL1 mirrors the progressive accumulation of H4K20 monomethylation during the cell cycle. Furthermore, transcriptional repression by L3MBTL1 is enhanced by the H4K20 monomethyltransferase PR-SET7 (to which it binds) but not SUV420H1 (an H4K20 trimethylase) or G9a (an H3K9 dimethylase) and knockdown of PR-SET7 decreases H4K20me1 levels and the chromatin association of L3MBTL1. Our studies identify the importance of H4K20 monomethylation and of PR-SET7 for L3MBTL1 function.
cell cycle; chromatin; L3MBTL1; lysine monomethylation; PR-SET7
Somatic mutations of LKB1 tumour suppressor gene have been detected in human cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The relationship between LKB1 mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and other common oncogene mutations in NSCLC is inadequately described. In this study we evaluated tumour specimens from 310 patients with NSCLC including those with adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma histologies. Tumours were obtained from patients of US (n=143) and Korean (n=167) origin and screened for LKB1, KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR mutations using RT—PCR-based SURVEYOR-WAVE method followed by Sanger sequencing. We detected mutations in the LKB1 gene in 34 tumours (11%). LKB1 mutation frequency was higher in NSCLC tumours of US origin (17%) compared with 5% in NSCLCs of Korean origin (P=0.001). They tended to occur more commonly in adenocarcinomas (13%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (5%) (P=0.066). LKB1 mutations associated with smoking history (P=0.007) and KRAS mutations (P=0.042) were almost mutually exclusive with EGFR mutations (P=0.002). The outcome of stages I and II NSCLC patients treated with surgery alone did not significantly differ based on LKB1 mutation status. Our study provides clinical and molecular characteristics of NSCLC, which harbour LKB1 mutations.
carcinoma; non-small cell lung; mutation; LKB1; EGFR; KRAS
Whereas the selective toxicity of insecticides between insects and mammals has a long history of studies, it is now becoming abundantly clear that, in many cases, the differential action of insecticides on insects and mammalian target receptor sites is an important factor. In this paper, we first introduce the mechanism of action and the selective toxicity of pyrethroids as a prototype of study. Then, a more detailed account is given for fipronil, based primarily on our recent studies. Pyrethroids keep the sodium channels open for a prolonged period of time, causing elevation of the depolarizing after-potential. Once the after-potential reaches the threshold for excitation, repetitive after-discharges are produced, resulting in hyperexcitation of intoxicated animals. Only about 1% of sodium channels needs to be modified to produce hyperexcitation, indicating a high degree of toxicity amplification from sodium channels to animals. Pyrethroids were > 1000-fold more potent on cockroach sodium channels than rat sodium channels, and this forms the most significant factor to explain the selective toxicity of pyrethroids in insects over mammals. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole, is known to act on the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor to block the chloride channel. It is effective against certain species of insects that have become resistant to most insecticides, including those acting on the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, and is much more toxic to insects than to mammals. Recently, fipronil has been found to block glutamate-activated chloride channels in cockroach neurons in a potent manner. Since mammals are devoid of this type of chloride channel, fipronil block of the glutamate-activated chloride channel is deemed responsible, at least partially, for the higher selective toxicity to insects over mammals and for the lack of cross-resistance.
fipronil; GABA receptor; glutamate-activated chloride channel; pyrethroid; selective toxicity; sodium channel
In a case–control study of 107 adults with leukaemia and 110 orthopaedic controls in China, a reduced risk was found with longer duration, higher quantity, and frequency of green tea intake.
adult leukaemia; case–control study; green tea; risk factor