Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery.
The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status.
Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms.
The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity.
Model-based Analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment, and estimating the empirical false discovery rate. In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq datasets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment, and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires approximately 3 GB of RAM and 1.5 hours of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq dataset containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open-source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS.
MACS; ChIP-seq; peak calling; transcription factor; histone modification
Tissue barriers are critical in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various cancers. Preserving or restoring barrier functions of the epithelia cells is a therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat the illness. Mounting evidence indicates that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) play key roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases. In particular, we note an interesting link between vitamin D/VDR signaling and tissue barriers. In the current review, we summarize the recent progress on vitamin D and cell junction complexes. We focus on the functions of VDR and VDR-associated intracellular junction proteins, such as β-catenin and claudins. We also discuss the potential therapeutic functions of vitamin D in treating defective tissue barriers that involve skin, intestine, lung, kidney, and other organs. However, the mechanisms for the vitamin D/VDR signaling in tissue barriers remain largely unknown. Further studies on vitamin D/VDR’s multiple functions in physiological models will suggest new therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment diseases with defective barrier functions.
Adherens junction; β-catenin; cancer; Claudin; E-cadherin; inflammation; tight junction; vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor; ZO-1
It remains unclear whether white matter (WM) changes found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are stress-induced or precursors for vulnerability. The current study aimed to identify susceptibility factors relating to the development of PTSD and to examine the ability of these factors to predict the course of longitudinal PTSD. Sixty two victims who had experienced traffic accidents underwent diffusion tensor imaging using a 3.0T MRI system within 2 days after their accidents. Of these, 21 were diagnosed with PTSD at 1 or 6 months using the Clinician-Administered Ptsd Scale (CAPS). Then, 11 trauma-exposed victims with PTSD underwent the second MRI scan. Compared with the victims without PTSD, the victims with PTSD showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), temporal lobes and midbrain, and increased mean diffusivity (MD) in the vmPFC within 2 days after the traumatic event. Importantly, decreased FA of the vmPFC in the acute phase predicted greater future CAPS scores. In addition, we found decreased FA in the insula in the follow-up scan in the victims with PTSD, which correlated with the decreased FA of the vmPFC in their baseline scan. These results suggested that the WM might have changed within 2 days after the traumatic event in the individuals who would later develop PTSD. Furthermore, decreased FA of the vmPFC could be a possible vulnerability marker predicting future development of PTSD and may provide an outcome prediction of the acquired signs.
Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is responsible for nearly 50% of all the conﬁrmed hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in mainland China, sometimes it could also cause severe complications, and even death. To clarify the genetic characteristics and the epidemic patterns of CVA16 in mainland China, comprehensive bioinfomatics analyses were performed by using 35 CVA16 whole genome sequences from 1998 to 2011, 593 complete CVA16 VP1 sequences from 1981 to 2011, and prototype strains of human enterovirus species A (EV-A). Analysis on complete VP1 sequences revealed that subgenotypes B1a and B1b were prevalent strains and have been co-circulating in many Asian countries since 2000, especially in mainland China for at least 13 years. While the prevalence of subgenotype B1c (totally 20 strains) was much limited, only found in Malaysia from 2005 to 2007 and in France in 2010. Genotype B2 only caused epidemic in Japan and Malaysia from 1981 to 2000. Both subgenotypes B1a and B1b were potential recombinant viruses containing sequences from other EV-A donors in the 5’-untranslated region and P2, P3 non-structural protein encoding regions.
Lasonolide A (LSA) is a natural product with high and selective cytotoxicity against mesenchymal cancer cells, including leukemia, melanomas and glioblastomas. Here, we reveal that LSA induces rapid and reversible premature chromosome condensation (PCC) associated with cell detachment, plasma membrane smoothening and actin reorganization. PCC is induced at all phases of the cell cycle in proliferative cells as well as in circulating human lymphocytes in G0. It is independent of Cdk1 signaling, associated with cyclin B downregulation and induced in cells at LSA concentrations that are three orders of magnitude lower than those required to block phosphatases 1 and 2A in vitro. At the epigenetic level, LSA-induced PCC is coupled with histone H3 and H1 hyperphosphorylation and deacetylation. Treatment with SAHA reduced LSA-induced PCC, implicating histone deacetylation as one of the PCC effector mechanisms. In addition, PCC is coupled with topoisomerase II (Top2) and Aurora A hyperphosphorylation and activation. Inhibition of Top2 or Aurora A partially blocked LSA-induced PCC. Our findings demonstrate the profound epigenetic alterations induced by LSA and the potential of LSA as a new cytogenetic tool. Based on the unique cellular effects of LSA, further studies are warranted to uncover the cellular target of lasonolide A (“TOL”).
Histone H3 phosphorylation; histone H3 deacetylation; chromosome condensation; Maturation Promoting Factor; topoisomerase II; Aurora kinase
An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Further, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suitable for diagnosis of FMDV serotype O infection in field stations.
Efficiently obtaining a reliable coronary artery centerline from computed tomography angiography data is relevant in clinical practice. Whereas numerous methods have been presented for this purpose, up to now no standardized evaluation methodology has been published to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the existing or newly developed coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. This paper describes a standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for the quantitative evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. The contribution of this work is fourfold: 1) a method is described to create a consensus centerline with multiple observers, 2) well-defined measures are presented for the evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, 3) a database containing thirty-two cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standard is described and made available, and 4) thirteen coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, implemented by different research groups, are quantitatively evaluated and compared. The presented evaluation framework is made available to the medical imaging community for benchmarking existing or newly developed coronary centerline extraction algorithms.
Standardized evaluation; Centerline extraction; Tracking; Coronaries; Computed Tomography
Fur protein plays key roles in regulating numerous genes in bacteria and is essential for intracellular iron concentration regulation. However, atomic level pictures of the iron binding site and its functional mechanism remain to be established. Here we present results of the first quantum chemical investigation of various first- and second-shell models and experimental Mössbauer data of E. Coli Fur, including 1) the first robust evidence that site 2 is the Fe binding site with a 3His/2Glu ligand set, being the first case in non-heme proteins, with computed Mössbauer data in excellent accord with experiment; 2) the first discovery of a conservative hydrogen bonding interaction in the iron binding site based on X-ray and homology structures; 3) the first atomic level hypothesis of active site reorganization upon iron concentration increase, triggering the conformational change needed for its function. These results shall facilitate structural and functional studies of Fur family proteins.
Fur; Iron binding; Mössbauer; Mechanism; Quantum chemical calculation
Trastuzumab has shown positive results in many patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer, but it is less effective for controlling metastases in the CNS, which remains a site of relapse. The poor prognosis for patients with brain metastases is thought to be largely due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents delivery of most drugs to the CNS and to the heterogeneous and limited permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) bursts combined with circulating microbubbles can temporarily permeabilize both the BBB and the BTB. This technique has been investigated as a potential noninvasive method for targeted drug delivery in the brain. Here, we investigated whether BBB/BTB permeabilization in the tumor and surrounding brain tissue induced by FUS and microbubbles can slow tumor growth and improve survival in a breast cancer brain metastases model. HER2/neu-positive human breast cancer cells (BT474) were inoculated in the brains of 41 nude (nu/nu) rats. Animals in the treatment group received six weekly treatments of BTB/BBB permeabilization under MRI guidance combined with IV administration of trastuzumab (2 mg/kg). Tumor growth and survival rates were monitored via MRI for seven weeks after sonication. Starting at week seven and continuing through the end of the study, the mean tumor volume of the FUS+trastuzumab group was significantly (P<0.05) less than those of the three control groups (no treatment, FUS alone, trastuzumab alone). Furthermore, in four out of 10 rats treated with FUS+trastuzumab, the tumor appeared to be completely resolved in MRI, an outcome which was not observed in any of the 31 rats in three control groups. Trastuzumab improved median survival by 13% compared to the no treatment group, a difference which was significant (P=0.044). Treatment with FUS+trastuzumab produced the most significant benefit compared to the no-treatment controls (P=0.0084). More than half (6/10) animals survived at the study endpoint, leading to a median survival time greater than 83 days (at least 32% longer than the untreated control group). Overall, this work suggests that BBB/BTB permeabilization induced by FUS and microbubbles can improve outcomes in breast cancer brain metastases.
Blood-brain barrier; targeted drug delivery; MRgFUS; breast cancer; trastuzumab; microbubbles
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic clonal myeloproliferative disorder, which is often complicated by arterial or venous thrombosis and idiopathic bleeding diathesis. The present study reports a female patient with ET complicated by acute myocardial infarction, leading to ventricular aneurysm following interventional therapy for 3 years and a subsequent in-stent restenosis. Following careful examination, a ventricular aneurysm resection and coronary artery bypass graft were carried out. During this case, the monitoring and controlling of the platelet count, pre- and post-operatively, was extremely important for successful surgery.
essential thrombocythemia; acute myocardial infarction; ventricular aneurysm; surgical treatment
The α-(1,2) fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2) and α-(1,3) fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9) are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and Lewis Y (LeY) conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs) of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently expressed and regulated by androgen, although they catalyze the same α-(1,3) fucose linkage. Our study showed that androgen could differentially regulate the expression of these fucosyltransferases and provided an insight into the characteristic distribution of each fucosyltransferase responsible for LeX/LeY biosynthesis in the male reproductive tract.
fucosyltransferase; androgen; male reproductive tract
AIM: To compare the outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) between patients receiving restrictive and liberal transfusion.
METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were employed to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials regarding the outcome of UGIB after restrictive or liberal transfusion. Primary outcomes were death and rebleeding. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization, amount of blood transfused, and hematocrit and hemoglobin at discharge or after expansion.
RESULTS: Overall, 4 papers were included in this meta-analysis. The incidence of death was significantly lower in patients receiving restrictive transfusion than those receiving liberal transfusion (OR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.87, P = 0.01). The incidence of rebleeding was lower in patients receiving restrictive transfusion than those receiving liberal transfusion, but this difference did not reach any statistical significance (OR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.03-2.10, P = 0.21). Compared with those receiving liberal transfusion, patients receiving restrictive transfusion had a significantly shorter length of hospitalization (standard mean difference: -0.17, 95%CI: -0.30--0.04, P = 0.009) and a significantly smaller amount of blood transfused (standard mean difference: -0.74, 95%CI: -1.15--0.32, P = 0.0005) with a lower hematocrit and hemoglobin level at discharge or after expansion.
CONCLUSION: Restrictive transfusion should be employed in patients with UGIB.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding; Blood transfusion; Meta-analysis; Randomized controlled trial
To evaluate the effects of the multiple burr hole (MBH) revascularization on ischemic type adult Moyamoya disease (MMD) by computed tomography perfusion (CTP).
Eighty-six ischemic MMD patients received CTP 1 week before and 3 weeks after MBH operation. Fifty-seven patients received it again at 6 month and underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and mRS follow-up. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and relative values of ischemic symptomatic hemispheres were measured. Differences in pre- and post-surgery perfusion CT values were assessed.
There were significant differences of CBF, TTP, and relative time to peak (rTTP) in ischemic hemisphere between 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery, and no significant difference in relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), CBV, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), MTT, relative mean transit time (rMTT). According to whether there was symptom improvement or not on 3 weeks after MBH, the rTTP value was not statistically significant in the patients whose symptoms were not improved at all on 3 weeks after operation. Six-month follow-up showed that CBF, rCBF, and rCBV values were significantly higher than those before operation. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT, and rTTP values were significantly lower than those before operation.
CTP is a sensitive method to obtain functional imaging of cerebral microcirculation, which can be a noninvasive assessment of the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and cerebral perfusion changes in MMD before and after surgery. CBF and TTP map, especially the relative values of TTP, seems to have the capability of being quite sensitive to the presence of altered brain perfusion at early time after indirect revascularization.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00234-013-1291-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Moyamoya disease; CT perfusion; Multiple burr hole surgery; Ischemic
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease with characteristics of chronic, progressive inflammatory joint synovial damage, which mainly encroaches upon the synovium of the joint. The use of traditional medicine to treat RA slows the development of RA to a certain extent; however, it often has numerous side-effects. Therefore, the focus of RA research is the identification of a new, safe and effective medicine. The aim of the present study was to use an ultra performance liquid chromatography and photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) method to detect the paeoniflorin component in a Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction and in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction. In addition, the effects of paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats were investigated. The results indicate that a UPLC-PDA method for determining the presence of paeoniflorin in the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction was successfully established. The method was fast, simple, sensitive, precise and valid. Paeoniflorin was shown to be a bioactive component of the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction that was absorbed into rat plasma. Paeoniflorin significantly improved the disease resistant ability of RA rats and reduced the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, thereby inhibiting inflammation and bone erosion in the rats with CIA. The observations are likely to lay the foundation for further study of the mechanism of paeoniflorin in the treatment of RA.
ultra performance liquid chromatography; Radix Paeoniae Alba; paeoniflorin; collagen-induced arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; bizhongxiao decoction
The signaling protein CD40 and its ligand, CD40L, are thought to contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. We sought to determine their utility as markers of cerebral atherosclerosis and neurological dysfunction.
We recruited 82 patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and classified each as having large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, 30), small-artery occlusion (36), or cardioaortic embolism (16). We also recruited 17 patients who had carotid artery stenosis (CAS) without stroke and 20 healthy individuals as controls. CD40L expression on peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) was detected by direct immunofluorescence with flow cytometry, and serum soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was measured by ELISA.
CD40L expression on PBMCs was highest in the LAA group, followed by that in the CAS group (both P<0.01 versus control). It was also higher in patients with atherosclerotic infarction than in those without atherosclerosis (P<0.05). PBMC CD40L expression was sensitive and specific for detecting atherosclerosis and LAA cerebral infarction and was superior to serum C-reactive protein for predicting cerebral atherosclerosis (P<0.01). Serum sCD40L was higher in patients with ACI than in healthy controls (P<0.01) or patients with CAS (P<0.01) and correlated with increased disability on three scales (all P<0.01).
We conclude that patients with ACI have an upregulated CD40–CD40L system, which could be used as a clinical biomarker for assessing atherosclerotic instability and severity of neurological dysfunction.
Atherosclerosis; Biomarker; CD40 ligand; C-reactive protein; Stroke
Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations.
During 1974–2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974–1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV) in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV) in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents.
HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a major public health problem in China despite human vaccination. We investigated the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan (Zhejiang Province), a rural area with a high incidence of HFRS. During 1974–2011, a total of 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. Strikingly, phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences sampled from local rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel variants of Gou virus (GOUV) in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV) in the stripe field mice, respectively. Moreover, viral sequences sampled from infected humans in Longquan were very closely related to those from rodents. Overall, these data indicate that there is a continual spillover GOUV and HTNV from rodents to humans in Longquan, and this might be responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS. As well as highlighting the importance of the human-animal interface, these data also suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating neurodegenerative disorders with clinical, genetic, and neuropathological overlap. A hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in a non-coding region of C9ORF72 is the major genetic cause of both diseases. The mechanisms by which this repeat expansion causes “c9FTD/ALS” are not definitively known, but RNA-mediated toxicity is a likely culprit. RNA transcripts of the expanded GGGGCC repeat form nuclear foci in c9FTD/ALS, and also undergo repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation resulting in the production of three aggregation-prone proteins. The goal of this study was to examine whether antisense transcripts resulting from bidirectional transcription of the expanded repeat behave in a similar manner. We show that ectopic expression of (CCCCGG)66 in cultured cells results in foci formation. Using novel polyclonal antibodies for the detection of possible (CCCCGG)exp RAN proteins [poly(PR), poly(GP) and poly(PA)], we validated that (CCCCGG)66 is also subject to RAN translation in transfected cells. Of importance, foci composed of antisense transcripts are observed in the frontal cortex, spinal cord and cerebellum of c9FTD/ALS cases, and neuronal inclusions of poly(PR), poly(GP) and poly(PA) are present in various brain tissues in c9FTD/ALS, but not in other neurodegenerative diseases, including CAG repeat disorders. Of note, RNA foci and poly(GP) inclusions infrequently co-occur in the same cell, suggesting these events represent two distinct ways in which the C9ORF72 repeat expansion may evoke neurotoxic effects. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of c9FTD/ALS, and have significant implications for therapeutic strategies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1192-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Bidirectional transcription; C9ORF72; Expanded repeat; Frontotemporal dementia; Repeat-associated non-ATG translation; RNA foci
Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de
novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology.
Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes.
The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de
novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.
In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China.
A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data.
This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73).
There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher risk perception and fewer adaptation behaviors during heat waves may be more vulnerable to heat waves.
Risk perception; Climate change; Heat waves; Extreme heat; Adaptation behaviors; Heatstroke; Interactive effect
Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 2–15% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 41–73% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.5–12%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model.
Arabidopsis thaliana; nonhomologous end-joining; TAL effector nuclease; targeted mutagenesis
Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) or gene clusters are prevalent in higher eukaryotic genomes. For example, approximately 17% of genes are organized in tandem in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic redundancy created by TAGs presents a challenge for reverse genetics. As molecular scissors, engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) make DNA double-strand breaks in a sequence-specific manner. ZFNs thus provide a means to delete TAGs by creating two double-strand breaks in the gene cluster. Using engineered ZFNs, we successfully targeted seven genes from three TAGs on two Arabidopsis chromosomes, including the well-known RPP4 gene cluster, which contains eight resistance (R) genes. The resulting gene cluster deletions ranged from a few kb to 55 kb with frequencies approximating 1% in somatic cells. We also obtained large chromosomal deletions of ~9 Mb at approximately one tenth the frequency, and gene cluster inversions and duplications also were achieved. This study demonstrates the ability to use sequence-specific nucleases in plants to make targeted chromosome rearrangements and create novel chimeric genes for reverse genetics and biotechnology.
zinc finger nuclease (ZFN); tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs); deletion; inversion; Arabidopsis
The RP-HPLC resolution of two triterpenic acid isomers was unstable. Objective: To separate the oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) simply within RP-HPLC.
Materials and Methods:
The separation ability of five stationary phases was studied with the retention effect of their carbon loads. Also the resolution effects of mobile phase composition and different column temperatures were systematically investigated by using Drylab® (Rheodyne LLC.) after evaluating chromatograms automatically.
The best available resolution of two bioactive isomers was achieved (r = 3.4) via using PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) polymeric C18 bonded phase column. The chromatographic system was applied to the quantification in ten Chinese medicinal plants and the validation was carried out and the precision (RSD ≤1.34%), the linearity (r ≥ 0.9998) and the recovery (range from 92.1% to 102.6%) were acceptable.
It is clear that the method was simple, rapid and reliable for the quantification of two compounds in new HPLC method within PAH polymeric C18.
HPLC; oleanolic acid; PAH polymeric C18; ursolic acid
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) was diagnosed in a 52-year-old male with prolonged dry cough. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated that there were multiple calcified nodules in the anterolateral wall of trachea, sparing the posterior tracheal membrane. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) showed that submucosal nodules protruded into the airway lumen. Histopathological exam found ossification and cartilage in the submucosa. TO is a scarce benign disorder, characterized by submucosal bony and cartilaginous nodules. The clinical manifestation is undistinguished and treatment is symptomatically dependent. FOB is a definitive diagnostic procedure. The characteristics of FOB finding are described as beaded, spiculate, rock garden, or cobble-stoned like nodules, which projected into the tracheobronchus lumen, sparing the posterior wall. Histopathological exam might re-confirm the diagnosis, finding ossification and cartilage in the submucosa of airway. Awareness of TO is significantly important, especially in chronic cough patients with special CT image, and FOB should be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO); cough; fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB)