12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) is an enzyme that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid derivatives. In this study, we showed that inhibition of 12/15-LO by baicalein (BA) significantly attenuated clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Inhibited migration of autoimmune T cells into the central nervous system (CNS) by BA treatment could be attributed to reduced activation of microglia, which was indicated by suppressed phagocytosis, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the CNS. We further observed that inhibition of 12/15-LO with BA led to increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ in microglia of EAE mice. This was confirmed in vitro in primary microglia and a microglia cell line, BV2. In addition, we demonstrated that BA did not affect 12/15-LO or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) expression in microglia, but significantly decreased 12/15-LO products without influencing the levels of 5-LO metabolites. Moreover, among these compounds only 12/15-LO metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was able to reverse BA-mediated upregulation of PPARβ/δ in BV2 cells. We also showed that inhibition of microglia activation by PPARβ/δ was associated with repressed NF-κB and MAPK activities. Our findings indicate that inhibition of 12/15-LO induces PPARβ/δ, demonstrating important regulatory properties of 12/15-LO in CNS inflammation. This reveals potential therapeutic applications for MS.
12/15-LO; PPARβ/δ; baicalein; microglia; EAE
In this article, we propose a model selection method, the Bayesian composite model space approach, to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a half-sib population for continuous and binary traits. In our method, the identity-by-descent-based variance component model is used. To demonstrate the performance of this model, the method was applied to map QTL underlying production traits on BTA6 in a Chinese half-sib dairy cattle population. A total of four QTLs were detected, whereas only one QTL was identified using the traditional least square (LS) method. We also conducted two simulation experiments to validate the efficiency of our method. The results suggest that the proposed method based on a multiple-QTL model is efficient in mapping multiple QTL for an outbred half-sib population and is more powerful than the LS method based on a single-QTL model.
Bayesian model selection; variance component model; Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm; QTL mapping
Nanoparticles are now emerging as a novel class of autophagy activators. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) are valuable nanomaterials in many industries. This article is designed to assess the autophagic response for f-SWCNTs exposure in vitro and in vivo. A few types of f-SWCNTs were screened in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells for the autophagic response and related pathways in vitro. Formation of autophagosomes and LC3-II upregulation were confirmed on the basis of electron microscopy and LC3 western blotting for COOH-CNT, but not for PABS-CNT and PEG-CNT. MTT assay showed marked increase in cell viability, when COOH-CNT was added to cells in the presence of autophagy inhibitor 3MA, ATG6 or TSC2 siRNA. Consistent with the involvement of the Akt–TSC1/2–mTOR pathway, the phosphorylation levels of mTOR, mTOR's substrate S6 and Akt were shown significantly decreased in A549 cells on treatment with COOH-CNT using western blotting. What's more, autophagy inhibitor 3MA significantly reduced the lung edema in vivo. In a word, COOH-CNT induced autophagic cell death in A549 cells through the AKT–TSC2–mTOR pathway and caused acute lung injury in vivo. Inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced COOH-CNT-induced autophagic cell death and ameliorated acute lung injury in mice, suggesting a potential remedy to address the growing concerns on the safety of nanomaterials.
SWCNT; autophagy; mTOR; acute lung injury
The semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT) has been synthesized by S-doping, and they have extensive potential application in electronic devices. We investigated the electronic structures of S-doped capped (5, 5) C-SWNT with different doping position using first principles calculations. It is found that the electronic structures influence strongly on the workfunction without and with external electric field. It is considered that the extended wave functions at the sidewall of the tube favor for the emission properties. With the S-doping into the C-SWNT, the HOMO and LUMO charges distribution is mainly more localized at the sidewall of the tube and the presence of the unsaturated dangling bond, which are believed to enhance workfunction. When external electric field is applied, the coupled states with mixture of localized and extended states are presented at the cap, which provide the lower workfunction. In addition, the wave functions close to the cap have flowed to the cap as coupled states and to the sidewall of the tube mainly as extended states, which results in the larger workfunction. It is concluded that the S-doped C-SWNT is not incentive to be applied in field emitter fabrication. The results are also helpful to understand and interpret the application in other electronic devices.
Single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT); Electronic properties; Workfunctions
To investigate the effect of increases in extracellular Ca2+ entry produced by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist FPL-64176 (FPL) upon acute atrial arrhythmogenesis in intact Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts and its dependence upon diastolic Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ stores.
Confocal microscope studies of Fluo-3 fluorescence in isolated atrial myocytes were performed in parallel with electrophysiological examination of Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts.
Atrial myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz and exposed to FPL (0.1 μm) initially showed (<10 min) frequent, often multiple, diastolic peaks following the evoked Ca2+ transients whose amplitudes remained close to control values. With continued pacing (>10 min) this reverted to a regular pattern of evoked transients with increased amplitudes but in which diastolic peaks were absent. Higher FPL concentrations (1.0 μm) produced sustained and irregular patterns of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, independent of pacing. Nifedipine (0.5 μm), and caffeine (1.0 mm) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) (0.15 μm) pre-treatments respectively produced immediate and gradual reductions in the F/F0 peaks. Such nifedipine and caffeine, or CPA pre-treatments, abolished, or reduced, the effects of 0.1 and 1.0 μm FPL on cytosolic Ca2+ signals. FPL (1.0 μm) increased the incidence of atrial tachycardia and fibrillation in intact Langendorff-perfused hearts without altering atrial effective refractory periods. These effects were inhibited by nifedipine and caffeine, and reduced by CPA.
Enhanced extracellular Ca2+ entry exerts acute atrial arrhythmogenic effects that is nevertheless dependent upon diastolic Ca2+ release. These findings complement reports that associate established, chronic, atrial arrhythmogenesis with decreased overall inward Ca2+ current.
atrial arrhythmogenesis; Ca2+ homeostasis; calcium entry; murine hearts; store calcium
The potential of an increased risk of breast cancer in women with diabetes has been the subject of a great deal of recent research.
A meta-analysis was undertaken using a random effects model to investigate the association between diabetes and breast cancer risk.
Thirty-nine independent risk estimates were available from observational epidemiological studies. The summary relative risk (SRR) for breast cancer in women with diabetes was 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16–1.39) with no evidence of publication bias. Prospective studies showed a lower risk (SRR 1.23 (95% CI, 1.12–1.35)) than retrospective studies (SRR 1.36 (95% CI, 1.13–1.63)). Type 1 diabetes, or diabetes in pre-menopausal women, were not associated with risk of breast cancer (SRR 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74–1.35) and SRR 0.86 (95% CI, 0.66–1.12), respectively). Studies adjusting for body mass index (BMI) showed lower estimates (SRR 1.16 (95% CI, 1.08–1.24)) as compared with those studies that were not adjusted for BMI (SRR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.18–1.51)).
The risk of breast cancer in women with type 2 diabetes is increased by 27%, a figure that decreased to 16% after adjustment for BMI. No increased risk was seen for women at pre-menopausal ages or with type 1 diabetes.
diabetes; breast cancer; meta-analysis; body mass index
Pancreatic cancer is a multiple genetic disorder with many mutations identified during the progression. Two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines were established which showed different phenotype in vivo: a non-metastatic cell line, Panc02, and a highly metastatic cell line, Panc02-H7, a derivative of Panc02. In order to investigate whether the genetic mutations of key genes in pancreatic cancer such as KRAS, TP53 (p53), CDKN2A (p16), SMAD4, ZIP4, and PDX-1 contribute to the phenotypic difference of these two mouse pancreatic cancer cells, we sequenced the exonic regions of these key genes in both cell lines and in the normal syngeneic mouse pancreas and compared them with the reference mouse genome sequence. The exons of KRAS, SMAD4, CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes were amplified and the genotype of these genes was determined by Sanger sequencing. The sequences were analyzed with Sequencher software. A mutation in SMAD4 was identified in both cell lines. This homozygote G to T mutation in the first position of codon 174 (GAA) generated a stop codon resulting in the translation of a truncated protein. Further functional analysis indicates that different TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathways were involved in those two mouse cell lines, which may explain the phonotypic difference between the two cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in KRAS gene (TAT to TAC at codon 32) was also identified in the normal pancreas DNA of the syngenic mouse and in both derived tumoral Panc02 and Panc02-H7 cells. No mutation or SNP was found in CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes in these two cell lines. The absence of mutations in genes such as KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A, which are considered as key genes in the development of human pancreatic cancer suggests that SMAD4 might play a central and decisive role in mouse pancreatic cancer. These results also suggest that other mechanisms are involved in the substantial phenotypic difference between these two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways that lead to the aggressive metastatic potential of Panc02-H7.
CDKN2A (p16); genomic sequence; KRAS; mouse pancreatic cancer; PDX-1; SMAD4; TP53 (p53); ZIP4
Deregulated expression of zinc transporters was linked to several cancers. However, the detailed expression profile of all human zinc transporters in normal human organs and in human cancer, especially in pancreatic cancer is not available. The objectives of this study are to investigate the complete expression patterns of 14 ZIP and 10 ZnT transporters in a large number of normal human organs and in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We examined the expression patterns of ZIP and ZnT transporters in 22 different human organs and tissues, 11 pairs of clinical human pancreatic cancer specimens and surrounding normal/benign tissues, as well as 10 established human pancreatic cancer cell lines plus normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cells, using real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that human zinc transporters have tissue specific expression patterns, and may play different roles in different organs or tissues. Almost all the ZIPs except for ZIP4, and most ZnTs were down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared to the surrounding benign tissues. The expression patterns of individual ZIPs and ZnTs are similar among different pancreatic cancer lines. Those results and our previous studies suggest that ZIP4 is the only zinc transporter that is significantly up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer and might be the major zinc transporter that plays an important role in pancreatic cancer growth. ZIP4 might serve as a novel molecular target for pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Pancreatic cancer; profile; zinc transporter; ZIP4
To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from non-neoplastic lesion in cirrhotic liver in comparison with baseline ultrasound.
A total of 147 nodules (diameter ≤5.0 cm) in 133 cirrhotic patients (mean age±standard deviation: 52±13 years, range 20–82 years; gender: 111 males and 22 females) were examined with CEUS. There were 116 HCCs, 26 macroregenerative nodules and 5 high-grade dysplastic nodules. CEUS was performed with a real-time contrast-specific mode and a sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent.
Hypervascularity was observed in 94.8% (110/116) HCCs, 3.8% (1/26) macroregenerative nodules and 60.0% (3/5) high-grade dysplastic nodules during arterial phase on CEUS. Detection rates of typical vascular pattern (i.e. hypervascularity during arterial phase and subsequent washout) in HCCs with a diameter of ≤2.0 cm, 2.1–3.0 cm and 3.1–5.0 cm were 69.2% (27/39), 97.1% (33/34) and 100.0% (43/43), respectively. CEUS significantly improved the sensitivity [88.8% (103/116) vs 37.1% (43/116), p<0.001], negative predictive value [70.5% (31/44) vs 31.5% (29/92), p<0.001], and accuracy [91.2% (134/147) vs 49.0% (72/147), p<0.001] in differentiating HCCs from non-neoplastic lesions when compared with baseline ultrasound. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of CEUS for HCCs ≤2.0 cm in diameter were significantly lower than those for HCCs of 2.1–3.0 cm and 3.1–5.0 cm in diameter.
CEUS improves diagnostic performance in differentiating HCCs from non-neoplastic nodules in cirrhotic patients compared with baseline ultrasound. Diagnosis of HCCs ≤2.0 cm diameter by CEUS is still a clinical concern, and thus needs further investigation.
In our previous in vitro study we reported a constitutively active chimeric P2Y12 receptor (cP2Y12) and found AR-C78511 is a potent inverse agonist at this receptor. The role of this cP2Y12 receptor in platelet activation and thrombosis is not clear.
To investigate the physiological implications of the constitutively active P2Y12 receptor in platelet activation, thrombus formulation and evaluate the antiplatelet activity of AR-C78511 as an inverse agonist.
Methods and Results
We generated transgenic mice conditionally and platelet-specifically expressing cP2Y12. High expression of cP2Y12 receptor in platelets increased platelet reactivity as evidenced by increased platelet aggregation in response to multiple platelet agonists. Moreover, transgenic mice displayed shortened bleeding time, more rapid and stable thrombus formation in mesenteric artery injured with FeCl3. The constitutive activity of cP2Y12 in platelets was confirmed by decreased platelet cAMP levels and constitutive Akt phosphorylation in the absence of agonists. AR-C78511 reversed the cAMP decrease in transgenic mouse platelets, and exhibited superior antiplatelet effect over AR-C69931MX in transgenic mice.
These findings further emphasize the importance of P2Y12 in platelet activation, hemostasis and thrombosis, as well as the prothrombotic role of constitutive activity of P2Y12. Our data also validates the in vivo inverse agonist activity of AR-C78511 and confirms its superior antiplatelet activity over neutral antagonist.
P2Y12; platelet; thrombosis; transgenic mice; inverse agonist
The normal ANK protein has a strong influence on anti-calcification. It is known that TGF-β1 is also able to induce extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) elaboration via the TGF-β1-induced ank gene expression and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling acts as a downstream effector of TGF-β1. We hypothesized that the expression of the ank gene is regulated by mechanics through TGF-β1-p38 pathway. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of short-time mechanical tension-induced ank gene expression. We found that the continuous cyclic mechanical tension (CCMT) increased the ank gene expression in the endplate chondrocytes, and there was an increase in the TGF-β1 expression after CCMT stimulation. The ank gene expression significantly increased when treated by TGF-β1 in a dose-dependent manner and decreased when treated by SB431542 (ALK inhibitor) in a dose-dependent manner. Our study results indicate that CCMT-induced ank gene expressions may be regulated by TGF-β1 and p38 MAPK pathway.
Continuous cyclic mechanical tension (CCMT); Endplate chondrocytes; ank; TGF-β1; p38
Decreasing lignin content of plant biomass by genetic engineering is believed to mitigate biomass recalcitrance and improve saccharification efficiency of plant biomass. In this study, we compared two different pretreatment methods (i.e., dilute acid and cellulose solvent) on transgenic plant biomass samples having different lignin contents and investigated biomass saccharification efficiency. Without pretreatment, no correlation was observed between lignin contents of plant biomass and saccharification efficiency. After dilute acid pretreatment, a strong negative correlation between lignin content of plant samples and overall glucose release was observed, wherein the highest overall enzymatic glucan digestibility was 70% for the low-lignin sample. After cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation pretreatment, there was no strong correlation between lignin contents and high saccharification efficiencies obtained (i.e., 80–90%). These results suggest that the importance of decreasing lignin content in plant biomass to saccharification was largely dependent on pretreatment choice and conditions.
Nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTP-PPase) functions as one of the mechanisms to guarantee the fidelity of DNA replication through the cleavage of non-canonical nucleotides into di- or monophosphates. Human NTP-PPase is poorly understood and investigated. In the present study, by using tissue microarrays with the paired cancer and adjacent regions, we found that with the prevalent expression of dCTP pyrophosphohydrase (DCTPP1) in the cytosol and nucleus in tumors investigated, DCTPP1 was inclined to accumulate in the nucleus of cancer cells compared to the paired adjacent tissue cells in multiple carcinomas including lung, breast, liver, cervical, gastric and esophagus cancer. More significantly, the higher DCTPP1 expression in the nucleus of lung, gastric and esophagus cancer cells was associated with histological subtypes. The nucleic accumulation of DCTPP1 was apparently observed as well when tumor cell line MCF-7 was treated with H2O2
in vitro. Considering the roles of DCTPP1 on restricting the concentration of non-canonical nucleotides in the nucleotide pool, accumulation of DCTPP1 in the nucleus of tumor cells might suffice for maintaining the proper DNA replication in order to fulfill the requirement for the survival and proliferation of tumor cells.
dCTP pyrophosphohydrase; carcinomas; nucleic accumulation; immunohistochemistry; tissue microarrays
In a prospective cohort study of 5,995 older American men (MrOS), users of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors had a small but significant increase in bone loss at the hip over 4 years after adjustment for confounders. Use of angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARB) was not significantly associated with bone loss.
Experimental evidence suggests that angiotensin II promotes bone loss by its effects on osteoblasts. It is therefore plausible that ACE inhibitor and ARB may reduce rates of bone loss. The objective of this study is to examine the independent effects of ACE inhibitor and ARB on bone loss in older men.
Out of 5,995 American men (87.2%) aged ≥65 years, 5,229 were followed up for an average of 4.6 years in a prospective six-center cohort study—The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). Bone mineral densities (BMD) at total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter were measured by Hologic densitometer (QDR 4500) at baseline and year 4.
Out of 3,494 eligible subjects with complete data, 1,166 and 433 subjects reported use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs, respectively. When compared with nonusers, continuous use of ACE inhibitors was associated with a small (0.004 g/cm2) but significant increase in the average rate of BMD loss at total hip and trochanter over 4 years after adjustment for confounders. Use of ARB was not significantly associated with bone loss.
Use of ACE inhibitors but not ARB may marginally increase bone loss in older men.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; Angiotensin receptor blocker; Bone density
The two most common forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) exhibit different sex ratios: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs more frequently in men and follicular lymphoma (FL) more frequently in women. Looking among women alone, this pooled analysis explores the relationship between reproductive histories and these cancers.
Materials and methods
Self-reported reproductive histories from 4263 women with NHL and 5971 women without NHL were pooled across 18 case–control studies (1983–2005) from North America, Europe and Japan. Study-specific odd ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses.
Associations with reproductive factors were found for FL rather than NHL overall and DLBCL. In particular, the risk of FL decreased with increasing number of pregnancies (pooled ORtrend = 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.96). FL was associated with hormonal contraception (pooled OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.04–1.63), and risks were increased when use started after the age of 21, was used for <5 years or stopped for >20 years before diagnosis. DLBCL, on the other hand, was not associated with hormonal contraception (pooled OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.65–1.16).
Hormonal contraception is associated with an increased risk of FL but not of DLBCL or NHL overall.
case–control studies; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; follicular lymphoma; hormonal contraceptives; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; reproductive history
Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a key factor in apoptosis and autophagy of vascular endothelial cells (VECs), and involved in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E−/− (apoE−/−) mice. But the endogenous regulators of PC-PLC are not known. We recently found a small chemical molecule (6-amino-2, 3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1, 4-benzoxazine, ABO) that could inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis and promote autophagy in VECs, and further identified ABO as an inhibitor of annexin A7 (ANXA7) GTPase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that ANXA7 is an endogenous regulator of PC-PLC, and targeting ANXA7 by ABO may inhibit atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice. In this study, we tested our hypothesis. The results showed that ABO suppressed oxLDL-induced increase of PC-PLC level and activity and promoted the co-localization of ANXA7 and PC-PLC in VECs. The experiments of ANXA7 knockdown and overexpression demonstrated that the action of ABO was ANXA7-dependent in cultured VECs. To investigate the relation of ANXA7 with PC-PLC in atherosclerosis, apoE−/− mice fed with a western diet were treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day ABO. The results showed that ABO decreased PC-PLC levels in the mouse aortic endothelium and PC-PLC activity in serum, and enhanced the protein levels of ANXA7 in the mouse aortic endothelium. Furthermore, both dosages of ABO significantly enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis in the mouse aortic endothelium. As a result, ABO significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and effectively preserved a stable plaques phenotype, including reduced lipid deposition and pro-inflammatory macrophages, increased anti-inflammatory macrophages, collagen content and smooth muscle cells, and less cell death in the plaques. In conclusion, ANXA7 was an endogenous regulator of PC-PLC, and targeting ANXA7 by ABO inhibited atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice.
apoptosis; autophagy; PC-PLC; ANXA7; ABO; atherosclerosis
Although acupuncture analgesia is well documented, its mechanisms have not been thoroughly clarified. We previously showed that electroacupuncture (EA) activates supraspinal serotonin- and norepinephrine-containing neurones that project to the spinal cord. This study investigates the involvement of spinal alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (α2-ARs) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptors (5-HTRs) in EA effects on an inflammatory pain rat model.
Inflammatory hyperalgesia was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 0.08 ml) into the plantar surface of one hind paw and assessed by paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus. The selective α2a-AR antagonist BRL-44408, α2b-AR antagonist imiloxan hydrochloride, 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) antagonist SB204741, 5-HT3R antagonist LY278584, or 5-HT1AR antagonists NAN-190 hydrobromide, or WAY-100635 were intrathecally administered 20 min before EA or sham EA, which was given 2 h post-CFA at acupoint GB30.
EA significantly increased PWL compared with sham [7.20 (0.46) vs 5.20 (0.43) s]. Pretreatment with α2a-AR [5.35 (0.45) s] or 5-HT1AR [5.22 (0.38) s] antagonists blocked EA-produced anti-hyperalgesia; α2b-AR, 5-HT2BR, and 5-HT3R antagonist pretreatment did not. Sham plus these antagonists did not significantly change PWL compared with sham plus vehicle, indicating that the antagonists had little effect on PWL. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that α2a-ARs are on primary afferents and 5-HT1ARs are localized in N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subunit NR1-containing neurones in the spinal dorsal horn.
The data show that α2a-ARs and 5-HT1ARs are involved in the EA inhibition of inflammatory pain and that the NMDA receptors are involved in EA action.
acupuncture; norepinephrine; pain; serotonin; spinal cord
The effect of application mode on polymerization effectiveness of self-etch adhesives with different pHs has rarely been studied. We applied 2 self-etch adhesives—Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH ~ 0.8) and Adper Easy-Bond (AEB, pH ~ 2.5)—to dentin with or without agitation (dynamic or static application), to investigate photopolymerization efficacy on dentin, and to understand the role of chemical interaction/reaction between adhesives and dentin. Micro-Raman spectra and imaging were acquired across the dentin/adhesive (D/A) interface. The degree of conversion (DC) of each adhesive as a function of position was calculated. SEM-EDS was used to obtain the elemental distribution along the interface. Photopolymerization efficacies of the two self-etch adhesives on dentin were apparently different. APLP exhibited decreasing DCs as the distance from the D/A interface became greater for both application modes, while the DCs for the dynamic mode were much higher than those for the static mode. As for AEB, the DCs remained almost constant across the adhesive layer and showed no significant difference between two modes. Raman spectral analysis disclosed that the chemical interaction between dentin and adhesives was responsible for the observations. We also verified this by tracking the distribution of the elements Ca and P in the adhesive layers.
self-etch adhesives; pH; degree of conversion; micro-Raman; demineralization; imaging
To evaluate the visual and anatomical results of surgery for macular hole-related retinal detachment (MHRD) after phacoemulsification cataract extraction.
Data for all patients who underwent surgery for MHRD after phacoemulsification cataract extraction from 1 December 1998 to 30 September 2008 in one hospital were evaluated. Patient characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (VA) preoperatively and at last examination, surgical technique, anatomical success, and follow-up period were extracted and analysed statistically.
A total of 13 625 eyes of 10 076 patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery were included. In the follow-up period, 10 cases of MHRD in nine patients were observed, of which seven eyes had high myopia. The mean axial length was 30.97±1.36 mm (29.19, 32.97) and mean myopia was−19.35±1.93 (−7.5,−3.5) dioptres. Overall anatomical success was achieved in 90% (9 out of 10 eyes). There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.240) between the logarithm of the MAR VA before the phacoemulsification cataract extraction and after MHRD surgical repair. VA increased in three eyes but decreased in the other seven after MHRD surgery.
As a primary procedure, vitreous surgery combined with other necessary adjunct procedures such as membrane peeling and retinal tamponade seems to be successful in achieving anatomical success. However, VA improvement is dependent on the type of macular lesion and not the surgical procedure.
macular hole-related retinal detachment; MHRD; phacoemulsification; vitrectomy
To investigate the correlation between enhancement patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pathological findings.
The CEUS enhancement patterns of 40 pathologically proven ICC lesions were retrospectively analysed. Pathologically, the degree of tumour cell and fibrosis distribution in the lesion was semi-quantitatively evaluated.
4 enhancement patterns were observed in the arterial phase for 32 mass-forming ICCs: peripheral rim-like hyperenhancement (n=19); heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=6); homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3); and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=4). Among the four enhancement patterns, the differences in tumour cell distribution were statistically significant (p<0.05). The hyperenhancing area on CEUS corresponded to more tumour cells for mass-forming ICCs. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=2) and heterogeneous hypo-enhancement (n=2) were observed in the arterial phase for four periductal infiltrating ICCs. In this subtype, fibrosis was more commonly found in the lesions. Heterogeneous hyperenhancement (n=1) and homogeneous hyperenhancement (n=3) were observed in the arterial phase for four intraductal growing ICCs. This subtype tended to have abundant tumour cells.
The CEUS findings of ICC relate to the degree of carcinoma cell proliferation at pathological examination. Hyperenhancing areas in the tumour always indicated increased density of cancer cells.
The femoral head is prone to osteonecrosis. This study investigated dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI contrast washout features of the femoral head and compared the data with data from other bony compartments in normal rats.
7-month-old Wistar rats were used. DCE MRI of the right hip (n=18), right knee (n=12) and lumbar spine (n=10) was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DOTA (0.3 mmol kg–1). Temporal resolution was 0.6 s for hip and spine, and 0.3 s for knee. The total scan duration was 8 min for hip and spine, and 4.5 min for knee. The regions of interest for enhancement measurement included femoral head, proximal femoral diaphysis, distal femoral diaphysis and epiphysis, proximal tibial epiphysis and diaphysis, and lumbar vertebrae L1–5.
Femoral head showed no enhancement signal decay during the DCE MRI period, while all other bony compartments showed a contrast washin phase followed by a contrast washout phase. In the knee joint, the contrast washout of the proximal tibia diaphysis was slower that of other bony compartments of the knee.
Based on the evidence of delayed contrast washout, this study showed that blood perfusion in the femoral head could be compromised in normal rats.
Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2), a member of the karyopherin family, has a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport and is overexpressed in many cancers. Our previous study identified KPNA2 as significantly upregulated in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC), correlating with poor survival of patients. However, the precise mechanism of this effect remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of KPNA2 in the proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC cells, and its clinical significance in tumor progression. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression levels of KPNA2 in 162 out of 191 (84.8%) fresh EOC tissues, which was significantly correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, differentiation, histological type, recurrence, and prognosis of EOC patients. Our results showed that upregulation of KPNA2 expression significantly increased the proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC cells (EFO-21 and SK-OV3) in vitro and in vivo, by promoting cell growth rate, foci formation, soft agar colony formation, and tumor formation in nude mice. By contrast, knockdown of KPNA2 effectively suppressed the proliferation and tumorigenicity of these EOC cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results also indicated that the molecular mechanisms of the effect of KPNA2 in EOC included promotion of G1/S cell cycle transition through upregulation of c-Myc, enhanced transcriptional activity of c-Myc, activation of Akt activity, suppression of FOXO3a activity, downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, and upregulation of CDK regulator cyclin D1. Our results show that KPNA2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this disease.
KPNA2; epithelial ovarian carcinoma; proliferation; tumorigenicity; c-Myc; FOXO3a
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs) are the most widely distributed acetyltransferase systems among all three domains of life. GNATs appear to be involved in several key processes, including microbial antibiotic resistance, compacting eukaryotic DNA, controlling gene expression, and protein synthesis. Here, we report the crystal structure of a putative GNAT Ta0374 from Thermoplasma acidophilum, a hyperacidophilic bacterium, that has been determined in an apo-form, in complex with its natural ligand (acetyl coenzyme A), and in complex with a product of reaction (coenzyme A) obtained by cocrystallization with spermidine. Sequence and structural analysis reveals that Ta0374 belongs to a novel protein family, PaiA, involved in the negative control of sporulation and degradative enzyme production. The crystal structure of Ta0374 confirms that it binds acetyl coenzyme A in a way similar to other GNATs and is capable of acetylating spermidine. Based on structural and docking analysis, it is expected that Glu53 and Tyr93 are key residues for recognizing spermidine. Additionally, we find that the purification His-Tag in the apo-form structure of Ta0374 prevents binding of acetyl coenzyme A in the crystal, though not in solution, and affects a chain-flip rotation of “motif A” which is the most conserved sequence among canonical acetyltransferases.
GNAT acetyltransferase; pai operon; degradative enzyme production; sporulation; acetyl coenzyme A; spermidine/spermine; P-loop
Our retrospective study in breast cancer patients evaluated whether integrating subtype and pathologic complete response (pcr) information into axillary lymph node restaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nac) adds significance to its prognostic values.
Patients included in the analysis had stage ii or iii disease, with post-nac axillary lymph node dissection (alnd), without sentinel lymph node biopsy before completion of nac, with definitive subtyping data and subtype-oriented adjuvant treatments. The ypN grading system was used to restage axillary lymph node status, and ypN0 was adjusted by pcr in both breast and axilla into ypN0(pcr) and ypN0(non-pcr). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed.
Among the 301 patients analyzed, 145 had tumours that were hormone receptor–positive (hr+) and negative for the human epidermal growth factor receptor (her2–), 101 had tumours that were positive for her2 (her2+), and 55 had tumours that were triple-negative. The rate of pcr in both breast and axilla was 11.7%, 43.6%, and 25.5% respectively for the 3 subtypes. Compared with the non-pcr patients, the pcr patients had better disease-free survival (dfs) and overall survival (os): p = 0.002 for dfs and p = 0.011 for os. In non-pcr patients, dfs and os were similar in the ypN0(non-pcr) and ypN1 subgroups, and in the ypN2 and ypN3 subgroups. We therefore grouped the ypN grading results into ypN0(pcr) (n = 75), ypN0– 1(non-pcr) (n = 175), and ypN2–3 (n = 51). In those groups, the 3-year dfs was 98%, 91%, and 56%, and the 3-year os was 100%, 91%, and 82% respectively. The differences in dfs and os between those three subgroups were significant (all p < 0.05 in paired comparisons). Multivariate Cox regression showed that subtype and ypN staging adjusted by pcr were the only two independent factors predicting dfs.
Axillary lymph node status after nac, adjusted for pcr in breast and axilla, predicts differential dfs in patients without prior sentinel lymph node biopsy.
Breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; axillary restaging; pathologic complete response; prognosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious progressive and irreversible lung disease with unknown etiology and few treatment options. This disease was once thought to be a chronic inflammatory-driven process, but it is increasingly recognized that the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the cellular origin of fibroblast accumulation in response to injury. During the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrotic diseases, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is considered a pivotal inducer of EMT and fibroblast activation, and a number of therapeutic interventions that interfere with TGF-β signaling have been developed to reverse established fibrosis. However, efficient and well-tolerated antifibrotic agents are not currently available. Previously, we reported the identification of sorafenib to antagonize TGF-β signaling in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In this manuscript, we continued to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of sorafenib on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. We further demonstrated that sorafenib not only profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells, but also simultaneously reduced the proliferation and collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. Additionally, we presented in vivo evidence that sorafenib inhibited the symptoms of BLM-mediated EMT and fibroblast activation in mice, warranting the therapeutic potential of this drug for patients with IPF.
sorafenib; TGF-β signaling; pulmonary fibrosis; EMT; fibroblast activation