The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of protein-bound polysaccharide Kureha(PSK) on murine dendritic cells (DCs). These impacts of PSK on DCs from bone marrow derived DCs(BMDCs) were assessed with inverted phase contrast microscope, conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphology, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, cytochemistry assay for key surface molecules, FITC-dextran for phagocytosis, bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production. We found that under the influence of PSK, immature DCs changed into mature DCs with decrease of antigens up-taking, simultaneously high expression of key surface molecules of the MHC classII,CD40, CD80, CD86 and CD83 as well as more production of IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). These data indicate that PSK could markedly promote maturation of DCs and this adjuvant-like activity may have potential therapeutic value in vaccine preparation.
polysaccharide kureha; bone marrow derived DCs; maturation; modulation
Defects in insulin secretion and reduction in β-cell mass are associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, and understanding the basis for these dysfunctions may reveal strategies for diabetes therapy. In this study, we show that pancreas-specific knockout of growth factor receptor–binding protein 10 (Grb10), which is highly expressed in pancreas and islets, leads to elevated insulin/IGF-1 signaling in islets, enhanced β-cell mass and insulin content, and increased insulin secretion in mice. Pancreas-specific disruption of Grb10 expression also improved glucose tolerance in mice fed with a high-fat diet and protected mice from streptozotocin-induced β-cell apoptosis and body weight loss. Our study has identified Grb10 as an important regulator of β-cell proliferation and demonstrated that reducing the expression level of Grb10 could provide a novel means to increase β-cell mass and reduce β-cell apoptosis. This is critical for effective therapeutic treatment of both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
The mechanisms driving the spatial patterns of species richness and composition are essential to the understanding of biodiversity. Numerous studies separately identify the contributions of the environment (niche process) and space (neutral process) to the species richness or composition at different scales, but few studies have investigated the contributions of both types of processes in the two types of data at the landscape scale. In this study, we partitioned the spatial variations in all, exotic and native understory plant species richness and composition constrained by environmental variables and space in 134 plots that were spread across 10 counties in Hainan Island in southern China. The 134 plots included 70 rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation plots, 50 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) plantation plots, and 14 secondary forest plots. RDA based variation partitioning was run to assess the contribution of environment and space to species richness and composition. The results showed that the environmental variables alone explained a large proportion of the variations in both the species richness and composition of all, native, and exotic species. The RDA results indicated that overstory composition (forest type here) plays a leading role in determining species richness and composition patterns. The alpha and beta diversities of the secondary forest plots were markedly higher than that of the two plantations. In conclusion, niche differentiation processes are the principal mechanisms that shape the alpha and beta diversities of understory plant species in Hainan Island.
Hyperglycemia is related to stroke. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can reflect pre-stroke glycaemia status. However, the information on the direct association between HbA1c and recurrence after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic strokes is rare and there is no consistent conclusion.
The ACROSS-China database comprised of 2186 consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients with baseline HbA1c values. After excluding patients who died from non-stroke recurrence and patients lost to follow up, 1817 and 1540 were eligible for 3-month and 1-year analyses, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to evaluate the associations between HbA1c and 3-month and 1-year stroke recurrence.
The HbA1c values at admission were divided into 4 levels by quartiles: Q1 (<5.5%); Q2 (5.5 to <6.1%); Q3 (6.1% to <7.2%); and Q4 (≥7.2%). The cumulative recurrence rates were 8.3% and 11.0% for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. In multivariate analyses, when compared with Q1, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) were 2.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.26) in Q3 and 3.71(95% CI 1.68-8.21) in Q4 for 3-month stroke recurrence; 3.30 (95% CI 1.31-8.34) in Q3 and 3.35 (95% CI 1.36-8.21) in Q4 for 1-year stroke recurrence. Adding fasting plasma glucose in the multivariate analyses did not modify the association: AHRs were 2.75 (95% CI 1.24-6.11) in Q3 and 3.67 (95% CI 1.59-8.53) in Q4 for 3-month analysis; AHRs were 3.08 (95% CI 1.10-8.64) in Q3 and 3.31(95% CI 1.35-8.14) in Q4 for 1-year analysis.
A higher “normal” HbA1c level reflecting pre-stroke glycaemia status independently predicts stroke recurrence within one year after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic stroke onset. HbA1c is recommended as a routine test in acute ischemic stroke patients.
Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) increase the risk for affective disorders in human survivors. Postischemic anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors have been documented in animal models of CA/CPR; however, the stability of post-CA/CPR anxiety-like behavior over time and the underlying physiologic mechanisms remain unknown. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system may mediate the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression; therefore, this study measured CA/CPR-induced changes in CRF receptor binding and HPA axis negative feedback. Mice were exposed to CA/CPR or SHAM surgery and assessed 7 or 21 days later. Consistent with earlier demonstrations of anxiety-like behavior 7 days after CA/CPR, increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field was also present 21 days after CA/CPR. On postoperative day 7, CA/CPR was associated with an increase in basal serum corticosterone concentration relative to SHAM, but this difference resolved by postoperative day 21. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test showed that the CA/CPR group had enhanced negative feedback compared with SHAM controls at postoperative day 21. Furthermore, there was a gradual increase in CRF1 receptor binding in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, as well as a transient decrease of both CRF1, and CRF2A receptors in the dorsal hippocampus. Therefore, sustained changes in activity of the HPA axis and the CRF system after CA/CPR may contribute to the postischemic increase in affective disorders.
cardiac arrest; corticosterone; CRF; dexamethasone; HPA; ischemia
The antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects of adiponectin make it a desirable drug target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the adiponectin-based drug development approach turns out to be difficult due to extremely high serum levels of this adipokine. On the other hand, a significant correlation between adiponectin multimerization and its insulin-sensitizing effects has been demonstrated, suggesting a promising alternative therapeutic strategy. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein in fat (fDsbA-L) exhibited increased levels of total and the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. The fDsbA-L mice also displayed resistance to diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with WT control mice. The protective effects of DsbA-L overexpression on diet-induced insulin resistance, but not increased body weight and fat cell size, were significantly decreased in adiponectin-deficient fDsbA-L mice (fDsbA-L/Ad−/−). In addition, the fDsbA-L/Ad−/− mice displayed greater activity and energy expenditure compared with adiponectin knockout mice under a high-fat diet. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DsbA-L protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through adiponectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, upregulation of DsbA-L could be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
Endoscopy is widely used to detect and remove premalignant lesions with the goal of preventing gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Because current endoscopes do not provide cellular resolution, all suspicious lesions are biopsied and subjected to histological evaluation. Technologies that facilitate directed biopsies should decrease both procedure-related morbidity and cost. Here we explore the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), an optical biopsy tool that relies on intrinsic tissue emissions, to evaluate pathology in both experimental and human GI specimens, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections from these tissues for comparison. After evaluating the entire normal mouse GI tract, MPM was used to investigate disease progression in mouse models of colitis and colorectal carcinogenesis. MPM provided sufficient histological detail to identify all relevant substructures in ex vivo normal GI tissue, visualize both acute and resolving stages of colitis, and show the progression of colorectal carcinogenesis. Next, ex vivo specimens from human subjects with celiac sprue, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal neoplasia were imaged by MPM. Finally, colonic mucosa in live anesthetized rats was imaged in vivo using a flexible endoscope prototype. In both animal models and human specimens, MPM images demonstrated a striking similarity to the results of H&E staining, as demonstrated by the 100% concordance achieved by the study pathologists’ diagnoses. In summary, MPM is a promising technique that accurately visualizes histology in fresh, unstained tissues. Our findings support the continued development of MPM as a technology to enhance the early detection of GI pathologies including premalignant lesions.
Recently, evidence from several studies has revealed that air pollution is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. However, to date, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Considering the high prevalence of air pollution and breast cancer in China, it is necessary to understand how air pollution may affect breast cancer.
We analyzed 1,832 female patients who had resided in the same cities for at least 10 years prior to their diagnosis. Variables including demographic data as well as clinical and tumor characteristics, including the patient’s age at menarche, family history of breast cancer, tumor histopathological type, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status at the time of diagnosis were analyzed.
Compared to patients residing in low-pollution areas, patients living in high-pollution areas demonstrated a younger age at menarche (p<0.001), a greater family history of breast cancer (p = 0.034) and more invasive cancers (p = 0.028) with higher tumor grades (p = 0.028) and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive status (p = 0.022). Differences in tumor grade were only found in ER-positive cases.
Our findings and clinical data indicate that long-term air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of breast cancer by playing the role of a xenoestrogen, and also provides new insight into the association between air pollution and the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, it is urgently necessary to study the association between air pollution and breast cancer to improve the living quality and health of females, and applicable public health strategies may need to be established or modified as soon as possible.
A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after modified radical mastectomy operation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered using TAC regimen. Severe neutropenia occurred after chemotherapy. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was given to treat neutropenia. On the second day of G-CSF use, the patient complained of swelling of her neck on the left side, which subsided spontaneously after discontinuation of G-CSF medication. However, the same symptom recurred following G-CSF use on the second cycle of chemotherapy. B-mode ultrasound showed swollen lymph nodes and biopsy revealed no evidence of metastasis. Therefore, the unilateral lymphadenopathy is considered to be the side effect of G-CSF, which is very rare.
A 46-year-old male was diagnosed of lung adenocarcinoma with right adrenal gland metastasis in January 2009, and underwent chemotherapy (DC (docetaxel and cisplatin) regimen) and stereotactic radiotherapy. In December 2009, whole brain radiotherapy was given to the patient due to brain metastasis. In January 2010, he complained of redness, swelling and tenderness of the fifth terminal phalange of his right hand. Open surgery and biopsy confirmed bone metastasis to the finger. The patient then received local injection of OK-432 combined with radiotherapy. The symptoms were greatly relieved after treatment and the patient has survived for 28 months at the time of this report.
The role of many genes and interactions among genes involved in flowering time have been studied extensively in Arabidopsis, and the purpose of this study was to investigate how effectively results obtained with the model species Arabidopsis can be applied to the Brassicacea with often larger and more complex genomes. Brassica rapa represents a very close relative, with its triplicated genome, with subgenomes having evolved by genome fractionation. The question of whether this genome fractionation is a random process, or whether specific genes are preferentially retained, such as flowering time (Ft) genes that play a role in the extreme morphological variation within the B. rapa species (displayed by the diverse morphotypes), is addressed. Data are presented showing that indeed Ft genes are preferentially retained, so the next intriguing question is whether these different orthologues of Arabidopsis Ft genes play similar roles compared with Arabidopsis, and what is the role of these different orthologues in B. rapa. Using a genetical–genomics approach, co-location of flowering quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) resulted in identification of candidate genes for flowering QTLs and visualization of co-expression networks of Ft genes and flowering time. A major flowering QTL on A02 at the BrFLC2 locus co-localized with cis eQTLs for BrFLC2, BrSSR1, and BrTCP11, and trans eQTLs for the photoperiod gene BrCO and two paralogues of the floral integrator genes BrSOC1 and BrFT. It is concluded that the BrFLC2 Ft gene is a major regulator of flowering time in the studied doubled haploid population.
Brassica rapa; candidate gene mapping; expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL); FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC).; flowering time; gene expression networks; genome triplication.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and to assess corresponding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hospitalized cirrhotic patients in China.
METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study included 16 teaching hospitals, which were members of “Hepatobiliary Cooperation Group, Society of Gastroenterology, Chinese Medical Association”, from different areas of China carried out between June and October in 2011. All the eligible hospitalized cirrhotic patients (n = 538) were required to complete triplicate number connection tests combined with one digit symbol test for diagnosing MHE. Patients’ clinical examination data were complemented by a modified questionnaire assessing HRQoL. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient.
RESULTS: Male was predominant (68.6%) in 519 patients who met the criteria of the study, with a mean age of 49.17 ± 11.02 years. The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was chronic hepatitis B (55.9%). The prevalence of MHE was 39.9% and varied by Child-Pugh-Classification score (CPC-A: 24.8%, CPC-B: 39.4% and CPC-C: 56.1%, P < 0.01). MHE (P < 0.01) and higher CPC scores (P < 0.01) were associated with a high HRQoL scores (reflecting poorer quality of life). The prevalence of MHE was proportionate to CPC (P = 0.01) and high quality of life scores (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients have a high prevalence of MHE that is proportionate to the degree of liver function and HRQoL impairment.
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy; Health-related quality of life; China; Child-Pugh Classification; Liver cirrhosis
The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.
In April 2013, a hospital in Suzhou City notified authorities of a patient with nitrite poisoning with two other family members who had similar toxic symptoms five days prior. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible route of contamination.
A case was defined as any person living in the Yang Shan Hua Yuan community who had been diagnosed with cyanoderma and food poisoning symptoms from 15 to 25 April 2013. Active case finding was conducted by interviewing community residents and reviewing medical records from local clinics; information was then retrospectively collected on the patient’s food history, cooking procedures and food sources.
We identified three nitrite poisoning cases, one male and two females, from the same family. The time between dinner and onset of illness was less than an a hour. A retrospective survey showed that a substance presumed to be sugar mixed with asparagus on 17 April and with stir-fried asparagus on 21 April was the suspected contaminant. The presumed sugar came from a clean-up of a neighbouring rental house. Nitrite was detected in a vomitus sample, the sugar substance and two leftover food samples.
This family cluster of nitrite poisoning resulted from the mistaken use of nitrite as sugar to cook dishes. We recommend that sodium nitrite be dyed a bright colour to prevent such a mistake and that health departments strengthen food hygiene education to alert people about the danger of eating unidentified food from an unknown source.
Differences in the levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in ventral and dorsal spinal roots can be used to differentiate the spinal nerves. Although many methods are available to assay AChE, a rapid and sensitive method has not been previously developed. Here, we describe an antibody-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assay and its application for the quantification of AChE in the solutions of ventral and dorsal spinal roots. The frequency variation of the QCM device corresponds to the level of AChE over a wide dynamic range (0.5–10 µg/ml), which is comparable to the response range of the ELISA method. The frequency shift caused by the ventral roots is 3-fold greater than that caused by the dorsal roots. The antibody-based QCM sensor was stable across many successive replicate samples, and the method required less than 10 min, including the AChE extraction and analysis steps. This method is a rapid and convenient means for the quantification of AChE in biological samples and may be applicable for distinguishing the ventral and dorsal roots during surgical operations.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have organ dysfunction and resulting poor quality of life; however, in China little information is available regarding factors that affect their health. Here, the relationship between risk factors, activities and psychological disorders and health of patients with COPD in rural areas of Xuzhou, China was assessed.
A cross-sectional study of 7597 COPD patients randomly selected by place of residence from 24,641 COPD patients who had been identified by screening of the 1.10 million health records of all residents of the target area was carried out to evaluate the relationships between risk factors, activities, psychological disorders and the ADO index (age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction). The participants were assessed by spirometry and by administering a newly designed face-to-face questionnaire, which included items on general factors, risk factors, activities and psychological disorders. Correlations between the ADO index and the items addressed by the questionnaire were calculated.
The mean score of the ADO index was 3.7 ± 1.6. The ADO indices of current smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers were 3.9 ± 2.1, 3.7 ± 1.9, and 3.2 ± 1.5, respectively (P < 0.001). The ADO indices of cooks and non-cooks were 4.0 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 1.7, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between self-assessment of health status and ADO index was 0.976 (P < 0.001). Only 5.7% of patients reported no limitation of their daily living activities. The correlation coefficient between daily living activities and ADO index was 0.981 (P < 0.001). Only 5.5% of patients reported no limitation of social activities. The correlation coefficient between social activities and ADO index was 0.989 (P < 0.001), between the assessed anxiety score and ADO index 0.972 (P < 0.001), and between the assessed depression score and ADO index 0.989 (P < 0.001).
COPD severity was significantly correlated with behavior (especially regarding smoking and cooking with biofuel in confined spaces), physical strength, daily living activities, social activities, anxiety and depression. Comprehensive approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of COPD.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Health status; Survey
Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China.
In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48.
Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p < 0.001). Continuous abstinence rates from months 24 to 36 (45.8% vs 4.0%) and months 24 to 48 (44.3% vs 5.1%) were also higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation.
Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation.
Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Smoker; Behavioral intervention; Smoking cessation; Risk factors
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of side population (SP) cells from kidney and bone marrow for reconstitution of kidney SP pools after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The SP and non-SP cells in kidneys following IRI were isolated and serially assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The apoptosis, proliferation, phenotype, and paracrine actions of SP cells were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that the SP cells from ischemic kidney were acutely depleted within one day following renal IRI and were progressively restored to baseline within 7 days after IRI, through both proliferation of remaining kidney SP cells and homing of bone marrow-derived cells to ischemic kidney. Either hypoxia or serum deprivation alone increased apoptosis of SP cells, and a combination of both further aggravated it. Furthermore, hypoxia in vivo and in vitro induced the increase in the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in kidney SP but not non-SP cells. In summary, these results suggest that following renal IRI, kidney SP cells are acutely depleted and then progressively restored to baseline levels by both self-proliferation and extrarenal source, that is, bone marrow-derived cell homing.
Most of pyruvoyl-dependent proteins observed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are critical regulatory enzymes, which are primary targets of inhibitors for anti-cancer and anti-parasitic therapy. These proteins undergo an autocatalytic, intramolecular self-cleavage reaction in which a covalently bound pyruvoyl group is generated on a conserved serine residue. Traditional detections of the modified serine sites are performed by experimental approaches, which are often labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we initiated in an attempt for the computational predictions of such serine sites with Feature Selection based on a Random Forest. Since only a small number of experimentally verified pyruvoyl-modified proteins are collected in the protein database at its current version, we only used a small dataset in this study. After removing proteins with sequence identities >60%, a non-redundant dataset was generated and was used, which contained only 46 proteins, with one pyruvoyl serine site for each protein. Several types of features were considered in our method including PSSM conservation scores, disorders, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities, amino acid factors and amino acid occurrence frequencies. As a result, a pretty good performance was achieved in our dataset. The best 100.00% accuracy and 1.0000 MCC value were obtained from the training dataset, and 93.75% accuracy and 0.8441 MCC value from the testing dataset. The optimal feature set contained 9 features. Analysis of the optimal feature set indicated the important roles of some specific features in determining the pyruvoyl-group-serine sites, which were consistent with several results of earlier experimental studies. These selected features may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the post-translational self-maturation process, providing guidelines for experimental validation. Future work should be made as more pyruvoyl-modified proteins are found and the method should be evaluated on larger datasets. At last, the predicting software can be downloaded from http://www.nkbiox.com/sub/pyrupred/index.html.
To investigate the relationship between higher-order aberration (HOA) and myopic progression in school children.
Between April 23, 2011 and August 29, 2011 in the children's myopia outpatient clinic of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 148 eyes of 74 schoolchildren were reviewed. HOAs for a 6-mm pupil were measured with an aberrometer. Myopic progression rate was defined according to the change in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) divided by the time span (years). Subjects with myopic progression rate of ≥0.50 diopters (D) were classified as the ‘fast’ group and the subjects with myopic progression rate of <0.50D were classified as the ‘slow’ group. A retrospective study was conducted to compare HOA between the two groups, using root mean square (RMS) values and Zernike coefficients.
The RMS values of HOA (t=2.316, P=0.02), HOA without Z40 (t=2.224, P=0.03), third-order aberrations (t'=2.62, P=0.01), and coma (t'=2.49, P=0.01) were significantly higher in the fast group than those in the slow group. The individual Zernike coefficients of Z3−1 (t=-2.072, P=0.04) and Z51 (Z =-2.627, P=0.01) displayed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Significant correlations were found between the RMS values of HOA (r=0.193, P=0.019), RMS values of HOA without Z40 (r=0.23, P =0.005), RMS values of coma (r=0.235, P=0.004), RMS values of third-order aberrations (r=0.243, P =0.003), and the progression rate.
Our results provide evidence of a relationship between HOA and myopic progression. In a future prospective longitudinal study, we aim to verify whether HOA is a risk factor for myopic progression.
aberration; myopia; children; disease progression; refractive errors/etiology
Multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections, which is attributable mainly to the production of diverse β-lactamases by S. maltophilia. The L2 β-lactamase mediated by the AmpR-L2 module is the most represented lactamase. Here, we announce the genome sequence of S028, an isolate harboring the AmpR-L2 module.
BEP clade of the grass family (Poaceae) is composed of three subfamilies, i.e. Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae. Controversies on the phylogenetic relationships among three subfamilies still persist in spite of great efforts. However, previous evidence was mainly provided from plastid genes with only a few nuclear genes utilized. Given different evolutionary histories recorded by plastid and nuclear genes, it is indispensable to uncover their relationships based on nuclear genes. Here, eleven species with whole-sequenced genome and six species with transcriptomic data were included in this study. A total of 121 one-to-one orthologous groups (OGs) were identified and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by different tree-building methods. Genes which might have undergone positive selection and played important roles in adaptive evolution were also investigated from 314 and 173 one-to-one OGs in two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. Our results support the ((B, P) E) topology with high supporting values. Besides, our findings also indicate that 24 and nine orthologs with statistically significant evidence of positive selection are mainly involved in abiotic and biotic stress response, reproduction and development, plant metabolism and enzyme etc. from two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrates the power of phylogenomic approach to shed lights on the evolutionary relationships within the BEP clade, and offers valuable insights into adaptive evolution of the grass family.
To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD.
Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172).
Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Maximum primary tumor diameter; TNM stage; Survival
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work, a computational method was proposed for identifying lung-cancer-related genes with a shortest path approach in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Based on the PPI data from STRING, a weighted PPI network was constructed. 54 NSCLC- and 84 SCLC-related genes were retrieved from associated KEGG pathways. Then the shortest paths between each pair of these 54 NSCLC genes and 84 SCLC genes were obtained with Dijkstra's algorithm. Finally, all the genes on the shortest paths were extracted, and 25 and 38 shortest genes with a permutation P value less than 0.05 for NSCLC and SCLC were selected for further analysis. Some of the shortest path genes have been reported to be related to lung cancer. Intriguingly, the candidate genes we identified from the PPI network contained more cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. Furthermore, these genes possessed more functional similarity with the known cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. This study proved the efficiency of the proposed method and showed promising results.