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1.  Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2015;347(6217):67-71.
Adipocytes have been suggested to be immunologically active, but their role in host defense is unclear. We observed rapid proliferation of preadipocytes and expansion of the dermal fat layer after infection of the skin by Staphylococcus aureus. Impaired adipogenesis resulted in increased infection as seen in Zfp423nur12 mice or in mice given inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ. This host defense function was mediated through the production of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide from adipocytes because cathelicidin expression was decreased by inhibition of adipogenesis, and adipocytes from Camp−/− mice lost the capacity to inhibit bacterial growth. Together, these findings show that the production of an antimicrobial peptide by adipocytes is an important element for protection against S. aureus infection of the skin.
PMCID: PMC4318537  PMID: 25554785
2.  Treatment of alarming head and neck infantile hemangiomas with interferon-α2a: a clinical study in eleven consecutive patients 
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of interferon-α2a in the treatment of alarming infantile hemangiomas in the head and neck region.
Patients and methods
From January 2009–December 2010, a subcutaneous injection of interferon-α2a was applied to eleven infants with giant multifocal or segmental hemangiomas at a dose of 3 million units/m2 per day. All patients did not respond to propranolol or corticosteroids. The age at initiation of interferon-α2a therapy ranged from 3 days to 8 months (median: 4 months). The duration of therapy ranged from 2–4.5 months (median: 3 months). Eight patients received medication for 3 months, one patient for 4.5 months, and two patients for 2 months.
Nine patients had a reduction in tumor mass of 95%; two patients’ tumors decreased in size by 75%. The overall response rate was 100%. The main adverse effects included fever, diarrhea, and anorexia, which resolved after stopping the medication. No serious adverse effect was observed.
Short-term treatment with interferon-α2a can be used as a safe and effective treatment for alarming infantile hemangiomas that are resistant to propranolol or corticosteroids, and that endanger the proper functioning of the affected organ or the patient’s life.
PMCID: PMC4324326
hemangioma; interferon-α; head and neck; adverse effect
3.  Anti-Lubricin Monoclonal Antibodies Created Using Lubricin-Knockout Mice Immunodetect Lubricin in Several Species and in Patients with Healthy and Diseased Joints 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0116237.
Lubricin, encoded by the gene PRG4, is the principal lubricant in articulating joints. We immunized mice genetically deficient for lubricin (Prg4-/-) with purified human lubricin, and generated several mAbs. We determined each mAb’s binding epitope, sensitivity, and specificity using biologic samples and recombinant lubricin sub-domains, and we also developed a competition ELISA assay to measure lubricin in synovial fluid and blood. We found the mAbs all recognized epitopes containing O-linked oligosaccharides conjugated to the peptide motif KEPAPTTT. By western blot, the mAbs detected lubricin in 1 μl of synovial fluid from several animal species, including human. The mAbs were specific for lubricin since they did not cross-react with other synovial fluid constituents from patients with camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP), who genetically lack this protein. The competition ELISA detected lubricin in blood samples from healthy individuals but not from patients with CACP, indicating blood can be used in a diagnostic test for patients suspected of having CACP. Lubricin epitopes in blood do not represent degradation fragments from synovial fluid. Therefore, although blood lubricin levels did not differentiate patients with inflammatory joint disease from healthy controls, epitope-specific anti-lubricin mAbs could be useful for monitoring disease activity in synovial fluid.
PMCID: PMC4314068  PMID: 25642942
4.  Identification and Cytotoxic Activities of Two New Trichothecenes and a New Cuparane-Type Sesquiterpenoid from the Cultures of the Mushroom Engleromyces goetzii 
Engleromyces goetzii is a traditional medicinal mushroom that is widely used to treat infection, inflammation and cancer in Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China. Two new trichothecenes, engleromycones A and B (1 and 2), one new cuparane-type sesquiterpenoid named infuscol F (11), eight known trichothecene analogs, sambucinol (3), 3-deoxysambucinol (4), trichothecolone (5), trichodermol (6), 8-deoxytrichothecin (7), trichothecin (8), trichothecinol B (9) and trichothecinol A (10), and one known cyclopentanoid sesquiterpene cyclonerodiol (12) were isolated from the cultures of E. goetzii. The new compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic analyses. The anticancer effects of trichothecenes 1–10 were examined in the HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines using an MTT assay. Trichothecinol A (10) significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 value of 0.006 µM, which was comparable to the cytotoxic activity of the positive control, paclitaxel, indicating that trichothecinol A (10) represents a potential anticancer agent.
Graphical Abstract
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13659-014-0051-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4328002  PMID: 25633363
Engleromyces goetzii; Trichothecene; Engleromycone; Cuparane; Infuscol; Mycotoxin
5.  Identification and Cytotoxic Activities of Two New Trichothecenes and a New Cuparane-Type Sesquiterpenoid from the Cultures of the Mushroom Engleromyces goetzii 
Engleromyces goetzii is a traditional medicinal mushroom that is widely used to treat infection, inflammation and cancer in Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China. Two new trichothecenes, engleromycones A and B (1 and 2), one new cuparane-type sesquiterpenoid named infuscol F (11), eight known trichothecene analogs, sambucinol (3), 3-deoxysambucinol (4), trichothecolone (5), trichodermol (6), 8-deoxytrichothecin (7), trichothecin (8), trichothecinol B (9) and trichothecinol A (10), and one known cyclopentanoid sesquiterpene cyclonerodiol (12) were isolated from the cultures of E. goetzii. The new compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic analyses. The anticancer effects of trichothecenes 1–10 were examined in the HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines using an MTT assay. Trichothecinol A (10) significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 value of 0.006 µM, which was comparable to the cytotoxic activity of the positive control, paclitaxel, indicating that trichothecinol A (10) represents a potential anticancer agent.
Graphical Abstract
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13659-014-0051-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4328002  PMID: 25633363
Engleromyces goetzii; Trichothecene; Engleromycone; Cuparane; Infuscol; Mycotoxin
6.  Prognostic implications of estrogen receptor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma 
AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to identify new prognostic markers for this malignancy.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated ER1 and VEGF-A expression in 78 GBC and 78 cholelithiasis (CS) tissues. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between ER1 and VEGF-A expression and patients’ prognosis. Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: ER1 and VEGF-A expression was significantly higher in GBC compared with CS (47/78 vs 28/78, P < 0.05; 51/78 vs 33/78, P < 0.05). ER1 expression was correlated with gender (P < 0.05) and VEGF-A expression was correlated with tumor differentiation in GBC patients (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, age and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were factors associated with GBC prognosis (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference between the expression of ER1 or VEGF-A and overall survival, the high expression of ER1 combined with VEGF-A predicted a poor prognosis for GBC patients (16.30 ± 1.87 vs 24.97 ± 2.09, log-rank P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for GBC patients (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A is a potential prognostic marker for GBC patients. Clinical detection of ER1 and VEGF-A in surgically resected GBC tissues would provide an important reference for decision-making of postoperative treatment programs.
PMCID: PMC4306169  PMID: 25632198
Gallbladder carcinoma; Estrogen receptor 1; Vascular endothelial growth factor A
7.  Effectiveness of immune therapy combined with chemotherapy on the immune function and recurrence rate of cervical cancer 
The aim of this study was to compare the immune function of patients with cervical cancer and the cancer recurrence rate in patients treated with biological immune therapy combined with chemotherapy or with chemotherapy only. A total of 79 postoperative patients with cervical cancer participated in the present study. They were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group were treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. Patients in the experimental group were treated with dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer (DC-CIK) cells combined with cisplatin chemotherapy. The CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD56+ and CD4+CD25+ cell ratios in peripheral blood, and the expression levels of perforin, granzyme B (GraB) and CD107a of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in all patients prior to and following treatment were observed. The changes of immune function and recurrence rate between these two groups prior to and following treatment were compared. Prior to treatment, the lymphocyte ratio had no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Following treatment, the lymphocyte ratio in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The positive expression levels of perforin, GraB and CD107a of PBMCs in the experimental group following treatment were significantly higher than those prior to treatment and those of the control group (P<0.05). The cumulative recurrence rate in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, in postoperative patients with cervical cancer, treatment with DC-CIK cells combined with cisplatin chemotherapy significantly improved the immune function, reduced the recurrence rate and prolonged the survival time of the patients.
PMCID: PMC4316956  PMID: 25667679
dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cell; cisplatin; cervical cancer; immune function; recurrence rate
8.  Effects of an 11-nm DMSA-coated iron nanoparticle on the gene expression profile of two human cell lines, THP-1 and HepG2 
Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) have attracted increasing attention over the past two decades owing to their promising application as biomedical agents. However, to ensure safe application, their potential nanotoxicity should be carefully and thoroughly evaluated. Studies on the effects of FeNPs on cells at the transcriptomic level will be helpful for identifying any potential nanotoxicity of FeNPs and providing valuable mechanistic insights into various FeNPs-induced nanotoxicities.
This study investigated the effects of an 11-nm dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticle on the gene expression profiles of two human cell lines, THP-1 and HepG2. It was found that the expression of hundreds of genes was significantly changed by a 24-h treatment with the nanoparticles at two doses, 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL, in the two cell types. By identifying the differentially expressed genes and annotating their functions, this study characterized the general and cell-specific effects of the nanoparticles on two cell types at the gene, biological process and pathway levels. At these doses, the overall effects of the nanoparticle on the THP-1 cells were the induction of various responses and repression of protein translation, but in the HepG2 cells, the main effects were the promotion of cell metabolism, growth and mobility. In combination with a previous study, this study also characterized the common genes, biological processes and pathways affected by the nanoparticle in two human and mouse cell lines and identified Id3 as a nanotoxicity biomarker of the nanoparticle.
The studied FeNPs exerted significant effects on the gene expression profiles of human cells. These effects were highly dependent on the innate biological functions of cells, i.e., the cell types. However, cells can also show some cell type-independent effects such as repression of Id3 expression. Id3 can be used as a nanotoxicity biomarker for iron nanoparticles.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12951-014-0063-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4304128  PMID: 25595381
Iron nanoparticle; Gene expression profile; THP-1; HepG2
9.  Quantitative Detection of Circulating Nucleophosmin Mutations DNA in the Plasma of Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia 
Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify the copies of circulating nucleophosmin (NPM) mutations DNA in the plasma of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to explore the association of circulating NPM mutation levels with clinical characteristics.
Design and Methods: The presence of NPM mutations in 100 Chinese patients newly diagnosed with AML were identified by RT-PCR and sequencing analysis. Copies of circulating NPM mutation A (NPM mut.A) DNA in the plasma of mutation-positive cases were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the association of circulating NPM mutation levels and clinical characteristics was analyzed.
Results: NPM mutations were identified in 37 of the 100 patients and all cases were NPM mut.A. The circulating NPM mut.A levels ranged from 0.35×108 copies/ml to 6.0×108 copies/ml in the 37 mutation-positive cases. The medium and quartile M (P25, P75) of the circulating NPM mut.A levels in patients classified as M2, M4 and M5 morphological subtypes were 1.35×108 (0.76×108, 1.91×108) copies/ml, 1.81×108 (1.47×108, 2.2×108) copies/ml and 2.50×108 (2.42×108, 3.05×108) copies/ml, respectively. Circulating NPM mut.A levels were significantly higher in patients with the M5 subtype of AML compared to patients with the M2 and M4 subtypes (p=0.000, p=0.046). In addition, circulating NPM mut.A copies were significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count, platelet count and bone marrow blast percentage (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that circulating NPM mutations DNA assay serves as a complementary to the routine investigative protocol of NPM-mutated leukemia.
PMCID: PMC4278871  PMID: 25552914
nucleophosmin; mutation; acute myeloid leukemia; circulating DNA; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
10.  An Accurate, Flexible and Small Optical Fiber Sensor: A Novel Technological Breakthrough for Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Blood Flow Data In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114794.
Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86) was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of –0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of −0.839, P<0.05). The novel fiber sensor can thus obtain in vivo blood pressure data accurately, stably, and in real time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain partially real-time vascular rheology information and may thus enable the early diagnosis of blood rheology disorders and diseases.
PMCID: PMC4281125  PMID: 25551384
11.  Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c Mice 
Toxicology  2013;314(0):10.1016/j.tox.2013.10.006.
Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72 hr following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse.
PMCID: PMC3862031  PMID: 24172597
hair dyes; pyrogallol; 5-Amino-o-cresol; chemical hypersensitivity; lymph node subpopulations
12.  Resveratrol Possesses Protective Effects in a Pristane-Induced Lupus Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114792.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies. To date, no therapy has been found to satisfactorily treat SLE. SIRT1 deficiency results in the development of an autoimmune syndrome in mice, including a high titer of anti-nuclear antibody in serum, immunoglobulin deposition in the kidney, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. Resveratrol is an activator of SIRT1 and possesses anti-inflammation and immune-regulatory properties.
To evaluate the preventative effects of resveratrol on a pristane-induced lupus animal model and assess its putative immune modulation effects.
BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of pristane on day 1 and then various doses of resveratrol were given to the mice daily starting on day 2 and continuing for seven months. The autoantibodies in serum and supernatants were measured. Single cells isolated from spleen, isolated CD4+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells were cultured with or without resveratrol in vitro and assessed by flow cytometry.
Resveratrol attenuated proteinuria, immunoglobuin depositon in kidney, and glomerulonephritis as well as IgG1 and IgG2a in serum in pristane-induced lupus mice. Resveratrol also suppressed CD69 and CD71 expression on CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+ T cell proliferation, induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis, and decreased CD4 IFNγ+ Th1 cells and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells in vitro. In vitro antibody production and proliferation of B cells were also inhibited.
Resveratrol possesses protective effects in pristane-induced lupus mice and may represent a novel approach for the management of SLE.
PMCID: PMC4263676  PMID: 25501752
13.  Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of bone lymphomas: focus on the clinical significance of multifocal bone involvement by primary bone large B-cell lymphomas 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):900.
Malignant bone lymphoma can be classified as primary (PBL) or secondary (SBL) bone lymphoma. However, the clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors of PBL versus SBL have not yet been well defined. Whether lymphoma with multifocal bone involvement should be considered as stage IV PBL or SBL still remain controversial throughout the literature.
In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 127 patients with bone lymphoma diagnosed from1998 to 2013 at the Moffitt Cancer Center. Patients were classified as PBL (81 cases) and SBL (46 cases) using the 2013 WHO Classification of Bone/Soft Tissue Tumors and PBL patients were further subdivided into: 1) PBL with unifocal bone disease (uPBL, 46 cases), 2) PBL with multifocal bone involvement (mPBL, 35 cases). Patient characteristics, survival, and prognostic factors were analyzed.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most common histological subtype in all three groups (37/46 of uPBL, 23/35 of mPBL, 23/46 of SBL). B symptoms, lymph node involvement, and bone marrow involvement were found to be more common in mPB-DLBCL and SB-DLBCL groups than in the uPB-DLBCL group. Femur was found to be the most common affected site in uPB-DLBCL patients, while spine was most commonly involved in the other two groups. Survival analysis indicated that uPBL-DLBCL patients had a significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). We also found by univariate analysis that multifocality, and stage IV were significantly poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS in PBL patients. Using multivariate analysis, multifocality remained an independent prognostic factor for both PFS and OS (P = 0.0117, RR: 3.789, 95% CI: 1.275-11.256).
Overall, our results suggest that mPBL is more similar to SBL in characteristics and survival rather than uPBL, and thus should be better classified and treated as SBL.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-900) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4265495  PMID: 25465716
Primary bone lymphoma (PBL); Secondary bone lymphoma (SBL); Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); Clinico-pathological characteristics; Prognostic factors; Multifocal bone involvement/multifocality
14.  Genome Architecture and Its Roles in Human Copy Number Variation 
Genomics & Informatics  2014;12(4):136-144.
Besides single-nucleotide variants in the human genome, large-scale genomic variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs), are being increasingly discovered as a genetic source of human diversity and the pathogenic factors of diseases. Recent experimental findings have shed light on the links between different genome architectures and CNV mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize various genomic features and discuss their contributions to CNV formation. Genomic repeats, including both low-copy and high-copy repeats, play important roles in CNV instability, which was initially known as DNA recombination events. Furthermore, it has been found that human genomic repeats can also induce DNA replication errors and consequently result in CNV mutations. Some recent studies showed that DNA replication timing, which reflects the high-order information of genomic organization, is involved in human CNV mutations. Our review highlights that genome architecture, from DNA sequence to high-order genomic organization, is an important molecular factor in CNV mutagenesis and human genomic instability.
PMCID: PMC4330246
DNA copy number variations; DNA replication; genetic recombination; genomic instability
15.  Nanoclusters Synthesized by Synchrotron Radiolysis in Concert with Wet Chemistry 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7199.
Wet chemical reduction of metal ions, a common strategy for synthesizing metal nanoparticles, strongly depends on the electric potential of the metal, and its applications to late transition metal clusters have been limited to special cases. Here, we describe copper nanoclusters grown by synchrotron radiolysis in concert with wet chemistry. The local structure of copper aggregates grown by reducing Cu(II) pentanedionate using synchrotron x-ray beam was studied in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of the XANES and EXAFS spectra, compared with DFT calculations and full-potential non-muffin-tin multiple scattering calculations, identified the nanocluster as Cu13 with icosahedral symmetry. The novel “charged” nanoclusters tightly bound to electron-donating amido molecules, which formed as a result of photo-induced deprotonation of ligand amines, were stabilized by irradiation. Monodispersive deposition of nanoclusters was enabled by controlling the type and density of “monomers”, in remarkable contrast to the conventional growth of metallic nanoparticles.
PMCID: PMC4244621  PMID: 25425181
16.  Potential therapeutic mechanism of genistein in breast cancer involves inhibition of cell cycle regulation 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2014;11(3):1820-1826.
Genistein can prevent tumorigenesis and reduce the incidence of diseases that are dependent upon estrogen. Previous research, however, has shown that genistein can also increase the risk of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein in breast cancer and to determine whether genistein produces a therapeutic effect or promotes the development of breast cancer. Gene microarray data obtained from three samples treated with alcohol (control group), three samples treated with 3 μmol/l genistein and three samples treated with 10 μmol/l genistein for 48 h, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional enrichment in the two genistein groups was performed. The interaction networks of the DEGs were constructed and the overlapping network was extracted. Finally, the functions and pathways of the DEGs in the overlapping network were enriched. In total, 224 DEGs coexisted in the two genistein groups, and the most significant function of these was the cell cycle. The number and the fold change of expression values of the DEGs in the 10 μmol/l genistein group were significantly higher compared with that of the 3 μmol/l genistein group. The most significant function and pathway of the DEGs in the overlapping network was the cell cycle involving several genes, including GLIPR1, CDC20, BUB1, MCM2 and CCNB1. Thus, genistein stimulation resulted in gene expression changes in breast cancer cell lines and discrepancies increased with higher doses of genistein. The DEGs were most significantly associated with cell cycle regulation.
PMCID: PMC4270317  PMID: 25385471
genistein; breast cancer; differentially expressed genes; cell cycle
17.  miR-21 improves the neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6718.
The expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-21, have been reported to change in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that they may influence the pathophysiological process in brain injury. To analyze the potential effect of miR-21 on neurological function after TBI, we employed the fluid percussion injury rat model and manipulated the expression level of miR-21 in brain using intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-21 agomir or antagomir. We found that upregulation of miR-21 level in brain conferred a better neurological outcome after TBI by improving long-term neurological function, alleviating brain edema and decreasing lesion volume. To further investigate the mechanism underlying this protective effect, we evaluated the impact of miR-21 on apoptosis and angiogenesis in brain after TBI. We found that miR-21 inhibited apoptosis and promoted angiogenesis through regulating the expression of apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related molecules. In addition, the expression of PTEN, a miR-21 target gene, was inhibited and Akt signaling was activated in the procedure. Taken together, these data indicate that miR-21 could be a potential therapeutic target for interventions after TBI.
PMCID: PMC4208064  PMID: 25342226
18.  Clinical characteristics and current management of hepatitis B and C in China 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(37):13582-13590.
AIM: To describe a population of outpatients in China infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and assess their current management status.
METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study of HBV- and/or HCV-infected patients was conducted from August to November, 2011 in western China. Patients ≥ 18 years of age with HBV and/or HCV infections who visited outpatient departments at 10 hospitals were evaluated, whether treated or not. Data were collected on the day of visit from medical records and patient interviews.
RESULTS: A total 4010 outpatients were analyzed, including 2562 HBV-infected and 1406 HCV-infected and 42 HBV/HCV co-infected patients. The median duration of documented infection was 7.5 years in HBV-infected and 1.8 years in HCV-infected patients. Cirrhosis was the most frequent hepatic complication (12.2%), appearing in one-third of patients within 3 years prior to or at diagnosis. The HCV genotype was determined in only 10% of HCV-infected patients. Biopsy data were only available for 54 patients (1.3%). Antiviral medications had been received by 58.2% of patients with HBV infection and 66.6% with HCV infection. Nucleos(t)ide analogs were the major antiviral medications prescribed for HBV-infected patients (most commonly adefovir dipivoxil and lamivudine). Ribavirin + pegylated interferon was prescribed for two-thirds of HCV-infected patients. In the previous 12 mo, around one-fifth patients had been hospitalized due to HBV or HCV infection.
CONCLUSION: This observational, real-life study has identified some gaps between clinical practice and guideline recommendations in China. To achieve better health outcomes, several improvements, such as disease monitoring and optimizing antiviral regimens, should be made to improve disease management.
PMCID: PMC4188910  PMID: 25309089
Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Clinical characteristics; Treatment
19.  The Specific α-Neurexin Interactor Calsyntenin-3 Promotes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapse Development 
Neuron  2013;80(1):10.1016/j.neuron.2013.07.016.
Perturbations of cell surface synapse organizing proteins, particularly α-neurexins, contribute to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. From an unbiased screen, we identify calsyntenin-3 (alcadein-β) as a novel synapse organizing protein unique in binding and recruiting α-neurexins but not β-neurexins. Calsyntenin-3 is present in many pyramidal neurons throughout cortex and hippocampus but is most highly expressed in interneurons. The transmembrane form of calsyntenin-3 can trigger excitatory and inhibitory presynapse differentiation in contacting axons. However, calsyntenin-3 shed ectodomain, which represents about half the calsyntenin-3 pool in brain, suppresses the ability of multiple α-neurexin partners including neuroligin 2 and LRRTM2 to induce presynapse differentiation. Clstn3 −/− mice show reductions in excitatory and inhibitory synapse density by confocal and electron microscopy and corresponding deficits in synaptic transmission. These results identify calsyntenin-3 as an α-neurexin-specific binding partner required for normal functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapse development.
PMCID: PMC3821696  PMID: 24094106
20.  A mouse line for inducible and reversible silencing of specific neurons 
Molecular Brain  2014;7(1):68.
Genetic methods for inducibly and reversibly inhibiting neuronal activity of specific neurons are critical for exploring the functions of neuronal circuits. The engineered human glycine receptor, called ivermectin (IVM)-gated silencing receptor (IVMR), has been shown to possess this ability in vitro.
Here we generated a mouse line, in which the IVMR coding sequence was inserted into the ROSA26 locus downstream of a loxP-flanked STOP cassette. Specific Cre-mediated IVMR expression was revealed by mis-expression of Cre in the striatum and by crossing with several Cre lines. Behavioral alteration was observed in Rosa26-IVMR mice with unilateral striatal Cre expression after systemic administration of IVM, and it could be re-initiated when IVM was applied again. A dramatic reduction in neuron firing was recorded in IVM-treated free moving Rosa26-IVMR;Emx1-Cre mice, and neuronal excitability was reduced within minutes as shown by recording in brain slice.
This Rosa26-IVMR mouse line provides a powerful tool for exploring selective circuit functions in freely behaving mice.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13041-014-0068-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4177062  PMID: 25231486
Neuron silencing; Ligand-gated channel; Ivermectin; Rosa26
21.  Effects of vagus nerve stimulation via cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activation on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in canine 
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was a type of disease with high mortality rate and high disability rate. And about 50% of the final area of myocardial infarction after AMI was led by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The I/R injury was a kind of systemic inflammatory response, in which the main performance laid in the release of the large quantity of inflammatory cytokines. The basic experiments, clinical studies and the large scaled epidemiology investigations found that the low functions of vagus nerves had close relevance with the occurrence, development and prognosis of the cardiovascular diseases. This study investigate the effects of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway with with vagus never stimulation I/R injury in canine. Methods: 18 adult mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 6): sham operation group (sham Group), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R group), right vagus nerve stimulation and ischemia/reperfusion group (STM group). The hemodynamic indexes were measured after reperfusion 120 min. Through internal jugular venous blood, serum acetylcholine (Ach), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were detected by ELISA. Alpha 7 subunit Ach acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) expression level was detected with immunohistochemical method. HE staining was used to observe the degree of neutrophil infiltration. Results: After ischemia/reperfusion 120 min, compared with sham group, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, Ach content increased, the expression of α7nAchR protein was significantly reduced in I/R group (P < 0.05). Expression of α7nAchR protein, Ach content, TNF-α and IL-6 level had no significant difference in STM group (P < 0.05). Compared with I/R group, the expression of Ach and α7nAchR protein significantly increased the TNF- and IL-6 levels decreased in STM group (P < 0.05). Compared with the baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 levels significantly increased Ach content decreased in I/R group after ischemia /reperfusion 120 min (P < 0.05). Ach, TNF-α and IL-6 levels had no significant change in sham group and STM group of (P < 0.05). TNF-α and IL-6 were negatively correlated with Ach in I/R group (P < 0.05), and TNF-α, IL-6 were negatively correlated with Ach in group STM (P < 0.05). Massive infiltration of neutrophils were detected in myocardial tissue of I/R group, and a small number of neutrophils infiltration were detected in STM group. Conclusion: Right vagus nerve stimulation could activate anti-inflammatory pathway and inhibit the systemic and local inflammatory reaction to relieve myocardial I/R injury.
PMCID: PMC4211767  PMID: 25356117
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; vagus nerve; acetylcholine
22.  Effects of xuelian injection on cerebral TNF-α, IL-1β and MMP-9 in rats experienced focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion 
Xuelian, as the raw material and also one of the representatives in the ethnodrugs (Uygur drugs) in Xinjiang, playing a role in anti-inflammation, clearing and activating channels and collaterals, improving body immunity, promoting blood circulation and enhancing the metabolism of cells. The aims of present study is to explore the protective effects of Xuelian injection on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was created by the middle cerebral artery embolization (MCAO). The expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukins 1β (IL-1β) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were investigated with immunohistochemistry and HE staining at 24 h of reperfusion following 2 h ischemia in the basal ganglia. The infarct volumes were recorded to evaluate the protective effects of high-dose, low-dose and middle-dose Xuelian injection on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The result indicated the administration of Xuelian injection significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and MMP-9 expression, reduced infarct volume in MCAO rats (P < 0.01). The present study provides in vivo evidence that high-dose Xuelian injection protects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The mechanism is related to the decrease of cerebral levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MMP-9.
PMCID: PMC4211769  PMID: 25356119
Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion; xuelian injection; TNF-α; IL-1β; MMP-9; rats
23.  Manifestations of gastrointestinal plasmablastic lymphoma: A case series with literature review 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(33):11894-11903.
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with limited studies reported. We reviewed the clinical histories and pathology of four patients with GI PBL at our institute and similar case reports published in peer-reviewed journals. In our first case, a 40 year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive male presented with a hemorrhoid-like sensation, and was diagnosed with PBL via biopsy of a rectal mass. The second case involves a 65 year-old healthy male with bloody diarrhea who was found to have PBL in a resected sigmoid mass. The third patient was a 41 year-old male with a history of Crohn’s disease who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. A small intestinal mass (PBL) was removed. The fourth patient was a 65-year-old male who was found PBL after surgical resection of bowel for his florid Crohn’s disease. He later developed secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical outcome was very poor in 3 out of 4 patients as reported in the literature. One patient survived chemotherapy followed by autologous transplant. The prototypical clinical presentation and variations of PBL can help create a more comprehensive differential diagnosis for GI tumors and establish an appropriate therapeutic guideline.
PMCID: PMC4155383  PMID: 25206297
Plasmablastic lymphoma; Undifferentiated carcinoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Diverse clinical manifestation and treatment
24.  Augmenter of liver regeneration ameliorates renal fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy 
Bioscience Reports  2014;34(5):e00135.
Renal fibrosis is a hallmark in CKD (chronic kidney disease) and is strongly correlated to the deterioration of renal function that is characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis and disruption of the normal architecture of the kidney. ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) is a growth factor with biological functions similar to those of HGF (hepatocyte growth factor). In this study, our results indicate that endogenous ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal fibrosis in UUO (unilateral ureteral obstruction) rat model. Moreover, we find that administration of rhALR (recombinant human ALR) significantly alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis and reduces renal-fibrosis-related proteins in UUO rats. Further investigation reveals that rhALR suppresses the up-regulated expression of TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor β1) induced by UUO operation in the obstructed kidney, and inhibits Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation activated by the UUO-induced injury in the animal model. Therefore we suggest that ALR is involved in the progression of renal fibrosis and administration of rhALR protects the kidney against renal fibrosis by inhibition of TGF-β/Smad activity.
PMCID: PMC4155836  PMID: 24844766
augmenter of liver regeneration; renal fibrosis; Smads protein; transforming growth factor-β1; tubular epithelial–mesenchymal transition; ALR, augmenter of liver regeneration; CKD, chronic kidney disease; ECM, extracellular matrix; EMT, epithelial–mesenchymal transition; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IgG, immunoglobulin G; rhALR, recombinant human ALR; RT, reverse transcription; TGF-β, transforming growth factor β; UUO, unilateral ureteral obstruction
25.  Effect of an Inductive Hydrogel Composed of Urinary Bladder Matrix Upon Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury 
Tissue Engineering. Part A  2013;19(17-18):1909-1918.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with no effective clinical treatment. Use of bioactive scaffold materials has been shown to be a promising strategy for tissue regeneration and repair in a number of injury models. Of these scaffold materials, urinary bladder matrix (UBM) derived from porcine bladder tissue, has demonstrated desirable properties for supporting and promoting the growth of neural cells in vitro, suggesting its potential as a scaffold for brain tissue repair in the treatment of TBI. Herein we evaluate the biocompatibility of UBM within brain tissue and the effects of UBM delivery upon functional outcome following TBI. A hydrogel form of UBM was injected into healthy rat brains for 1, 3, and 21 days to examine the tissue response to UBM. Multiple measures of tissue injury, including reactive astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuron degeneration showed that UBM had no deleterious effects on normal brain. Following TBI, the brains were evaluated histologically and behaviorally between sham-operated controls and UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. Application of UBM reduced lesion volume and attenuated trauma-induced myelin disruption. Importantly, UBM treatment resulted in significant neurobehavioral recovery following TBI as demonstrated by improvements in vestibulomotor function; however, no differences in cognitive recovery were observed between the UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. The present study demonstrated that UBM is not only biocompatible within the brain tissue, but also can exert protective effects upon injured brain.
PMCID: PMC3726021  PMID: 23596981

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