Controlling and preventing aggregation is critical to the development of safe and effective antibody drug products. The studies presented here test the hypothesis that Protein A and Protein G inhibit the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG. The hypothesis is motivated by the enhanced conformational stability of proteins upon ligand binding and the specific binding affinity of Protein A and Protein G to the Fc region of IgG. The aggregation of mixed human IgG from pooled human plasma was induced by agitation alone or in the presence of: (i) Protein A, (ii) Protein G or (iii) a library of 24 peptides derived from the IgG-binding domain of Protein A. Aggregation was assessed by UV spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Additional information on IgG-ligand interactions was obtained using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and competitive binding studies. The results demonstrate that Protein A provides near-complete inhibition of agitation-induced aggregation, while Protein G and two peptides from the peptide library show partial inhibition. The findings indicate that the IgG Protein A binding site is involved in the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG, and suggest a dominant role of colloidal interactions.
protein formulation; biologics; IgG; aggregation; Protein A; Protein G; peptide library
Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins accumulate at microtubule plus ends for various cellular functions but their targeting mechanisms are not fully understood (Akhmanova and Steinmetz 2008 Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9, 309–322.). Here we tested in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans the requirement for plus-end localization of dynactin p150, a protein essential for dynein function. Deletion of the N-terminal microtubule(MT)-binding region of p150 significantly diminishes the microtubule plus-end accumulation of both dynein heavy chain and p150, and causes a partial defect in nuclear distribution. Surprisingly, within the MT-binding region, the basic domain is more critical than the CAP-Gly domain for maintaining plus-end-tracking of p150, as well as for the functions of dynein in nuclear distribution and early endosome movement. Our results show that the basic domain of A. nidulans p150 is important for p150-microtubule interaction both in vivo and in vitro, and the basic amino acids within this domain are crucial for the plus-end accumulation of p150 in wild-type background and for p150-microtubule interaction in the ΔkinA (kinesin-1) background. We suggest that the basic amino acids are required for the electrostatic interaction between p150 and microtubules, which is important for kinesin-1-mediated plus-end targeting of dynactin and dynein in A. nidulans.
microtubule-plus-end-tracking proteins; dynactin; dynein; p150; basic domain; CAP-Gly domain; Aspergillus nidulans
Mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-5 (MEK5), which belongs to a network of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variants in the MEK5 gene promoter were involved in susceptivity of individuals to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present hospital-based case–control study of 737 patients with sporadic CRC and 703 healthy control subjects in a southern Chinese population, the two polymorphisms of MEK5 promoter (i.e., rs7172582C>T and rs3743354T>C) were genotyped by TaqMan assay. There were significant differences between cases and controls in the genotype and allele distribution of the MEK5 gene rs3743354T>C polymorphism. The rs3743354 CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CRC when compared with the TT genotype (adjusted odds ratios [ORs]=0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.77). Compared to the T allele, a significant correlation was detected between the presence of the C allele and decreased risk of CRC (adjusted OR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.61–0.94). The decreased risk of CRC associated with rs3743354 variant genotypes (i.e., CT+CC) was found in the smoker subgroup (adjusted OR=0.63; 95% CI=0.45–0.88). Further, environmental factors, including smoking and drinking, interacted with rs3743354C variant genotypes to reduce CRC risk. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of MEK5 protein in sporadic CRC neoplastic tissues and adjacent normal colorectal epithelium tissues were lower in the carriers of rs3743354 CC genotypes than that in those with rs3743354 TT genotypes or those with rs3743354 TC genotypes. However, no significant association was found between the rs7172582C>T polymorphism and risk of CRC. These data indicate that the rs3743354 polymorphism in the MEK5 promoter may affect the risk of developing CRC.
The 256-slice CT enables the entire brain to be scanned in a single examination. We evaluated the application of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization.
Thirty-nine cases of Moyamoya disease were evaluated before and after surgical revascularization with 256-slice CT. Whole-brain perfusion images and dynamic 3D CT angiographic images generated from perfusion source data were obtained in all patients. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP) and mean transit time (MTT) of one hemisphere in the region of middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution and contralateral mirroring areas were measured. Relative CTP values (rCBF, rCBV, rTTP, rMTT) were also obtained. Differences in pre- and post- operation perfusion CT values were assessed with paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test.
Preoperative CBF, MTT and TTP of potential surgical side were significantly different from those of contralateral side (P<0.01 for all). All graft patencies were displayed using the 3D-CTA images. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.01 for all). Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT and rTTP values of the surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05 for all).
The 256-slice whole-brain CTP can be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgery and the 3D-CTA is useful for assessing the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and graft patencies.
Notch signaling is essential for proper lens development, however the specific requirements of individual Notch receptors have not been investigated. Here we report the lens phenotypes of Notch2 conditionally mutant mice, which exhibited severe microphthalmia, reduced pupillary openings, disrupted fiber cell morphology, eventual loss of the anterior epithelium, fiber cell dysgenesis, denucleation defects, and cataracts. Notch2 mutants also had persistent lens stalks as early as E11.5, and aberrant DNA synthesis in the fiber cell compartment by E14.5. Gene expression analyses showed that upon loss of Notch2, there were elevated levels of the cell cycle regulators Cdkn1a (p21Cip1), Ccnd2 (CyclinD2), and Trp63 (p63) that negatively regulates Wnt signaling, plus down-regulation of Cdh1 (E-Cadherin). Removal of Notch2 also resulted in an increased proportion of fiber cells, as was found in Rbpj and Jag1 conditional mutant lenses. However, Notch2 is not required for AEL proliferation, suggesting that a different receptor regulates this process. We found that Notch2 normally blocks lens progenitor cell death. Overall, we conclude that Notch2-mediated signaling regulates lens morphogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle withdrawal, and secondary fiber cell differentiation.
Notch2; Lens fiber cell differentiation; Lens development; Jag1; p21Cip1
Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an oncofetal protein that has been demonstrated to be a useful diagnostic immunomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Its expression in mesenchymal tumors of the liver, particularly undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) and mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), has not been investigated. In this study, a total of 24 UESs and 18 MHs were immunohistochemically stained for GPC3 expression. The results showed cytoplasmic staining for GPC3 in 14 (58%) UESs, of which 6 exhibited diffuse immunoreactivity and the remaining 8 showed focal positivity. The patients with GPC3-positive UES tended to be younger (mean 18 years; median 11 years) than those with GPC3-negative tumors (mean 39.4 years; median 27 years), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .06). Eight MHs also exhibited GPC3 immunoreactivity (44%; 4 diffuse and 4 focal). Positive staining in all 8 cases was primarily seen in entrapped nonlesional hepatocytes with a canalicular and cytoplasmic staining pattern. In only 4 cases (22%) was GPC3 immunoreactivity also observed in the mesenchymal component. The patients with positive staining also tended to be younger (mean 2.6 years; median 1.1 years) compared with those with negative staining (mean 16.3 years; median 4.5 years), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .15). Our data demonstrate that GPC3 is expressed in a subset of UES and MH of the liver. Caution should thus be exercised when evaluating a GPC3-expressing hepatic neoplasm, particularly on a needle biopsy when the differential diagnosis includes poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoblastoma.
Glypican-3; Liver; Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma; Mesenchymal hamartoma; Immunohistochemistry
Hashimoto's encephalopathy is considered as a treatable dementia, but it is often misdiagnosed. We investigated cognitive impairment and the MRI pathology of Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients.
The study comprised eight patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy, 16 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease and 24 healthy subjects. A neuropsychological battery included assessments of memory, language, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability. Cranial MRI was obtained from all Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients.
Hashimoto's encephalopathy and mild Alzheimer’s disease showed cognitive impairments in episodic memory, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability, but naming ability was unaffected in Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The MRI of Hashimoto's encephalopathy showed leukoencephalopathy-like type or limbic encephalitis-like type; the lesions did not affect the temporal cortex which plays a role in naming ability.
Except that the naming ability was retained, the impairments in cognitive functions for the Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients were similar to those of Alzheimer’s disease patients. These results were consistent with the MRI findings.
Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the translation process.
A non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and affects the progression and development of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the reversed dipper BP pattern on target-organ damage in Chinese CKD patients are lacking.
A total of 540 CKD patients were enrolled. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), clinical BP, ultrasonographic assessment and other clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between ABPM results and clinical parameters.
A total of 21.9% CKD patients had a reversed dipper BP pattern, 42% of patients had a non-dipper BP pattern and 36.1% of patients had a dipper BP pattern. Patients with reversed dipper BP pattern had the worst renal function and most severe cardiovascular damages among these CKD patients (p<0.05). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated significantly with the rate of decline of nocturnal BP. A reversed dipper BP pattern was an independent factor affecting kidney damage and left ventricular hypertrophy. Age, lower hemoglobin level, higher 24-h systolic BP from ABPM, and higher serum phosphate levels were independent associated with a reversed dipper BP pattern after multivariate logistic regression analyses.
The reversed dipper BP pattern is closely related to severe renal damage and cardiovascular injuries in CKD patients, and special attention should be given to these CKD patients.
To test the effects of adeno-associated virus encoding sFLT01 (AAV5.sFLT01) on the retinal lesions in Ccl2−/−/Cx3cr1−/− mice, a model for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), AAV5.sFLT01 was injected into the subretinal space of the right eyes and the left eye was served as controls. Histology found no retinal toxicity due to the treatment after 3 months. The treated eyes showed lesion arrest compared to lesion progression in the left eyes by fundus monitoring monthly and histological evaluation 3 months after treatment. Retinal ultrastructure showed fewer lipofuscin and better preserved photoreceptors after the treatment. A2E, a major component of lipofuscin, was lower in the treated eyes than in the control eyes. Molecular analysis showed that AAV5.sFLT01 lowered retinal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and iNOS expression, which suggested the involvement of reactive nitrogen species in the retinal lesions of Ccl2−/−/Cx3cr1−/−. We concluded that local delivery of AAV5.sFLT01 can stabilize retinal lesions in Ccl2−/−/Cx3cr1−/− mice. The findings provide further support for the potential beneficial effects of sFLT01 gene therapy for AMD.
soluble VEGF receptor-1; age-related macular degeneration; animal model; Ccl2; Cx3cr1; adeno-associated virus, gene therapy; retina
To determine the cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical management of early pregnancy loss
In the multi-center trial, 652 women with first-trimester pregnancy failure were randomized to medical or surgical management. Analyses of cost, effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and utilities were conducted.
Analysis of data from a multi-center trial
Secondary analysis of a multi-center trial
Cost effective analysis
Cost and effectiveness of competing treatment strategies
Cost analysis of treatment demonstrates an increased cost of $336 for 13% increased efficacy of surgical management. This analysis was sensitive to the probability of extra office visit, cost of visit, and probability of success. When the surgical arm is divided into outpatient manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) versus inpatient electric vacuum aspiration (EVA), there is increased cost of $745 for EVA, but decreased cost of $202 for MVA, compared with medical management. In general, MVA was found to be more cost-effective than medical management. For treatment of incomplete or inevitable abortion, medical management was found to be less costly and more efficacious. Utilities studies demonstrated that a patient would need to prefer surgery 14% less than medication in order for its treatment efficacy to be outweighed by desire to avoid surgery.
Surgical or medical management of early pregnancy failure can be cost effective, depending on the circumstances. Surgery is cost effective and more efficacious when performed in an outpatient setting. For incomplete or inevitable abortion, medical management is cost effective and more efficacious.
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men today. Although virus-based gene therapy is a promising strategy to combat advanced prostate cancer, its current effectiveness is limited partially due to inefficient cellular transduction in vivo. To overcome this obstacle, conditional oncolytic viruses (such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD)) are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal) systemic toxicity due to viral self-replication. In this study, we have analyzed and compared three prostate-specific promoters (PSA, probasin, and MMTV LTR) for their specificity and activity both in vitro and in vivo. Both mice model with xenograft prostate tumor model and canine model were used. The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD) by controlling the adenoviral E1 region. The efficacy and specificity of CRAD on prostate cancer cells were examined in cell culture and animal models.
Smoking is the only modifiable risk factor associated with development, expansion, and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a leading cause of death in the human population. However, the causative link between cigarette smoke and AAA remains to be established. Here we report that, like angiotensin II (AngII), acute infusion of nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, resulted in significantly increased elastin degradation, enlargement of the aorta, aberrant expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and an increased incidence of AAA in ApoE knockout (ApoE−/−) and deficient in both ApoE and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) α1 subunit (ApoE−/−/AMPKα1−/−) mice. Importantly, genetic deletion of AMPKα2 (ApoE−/−/AMPKα2−/−) markedly reduced the increase of maximal aortic diameter and incidence of AAA caused by nicotine or AngII in vivo. Transplantation of bone marrow cells from ApoE−/− mice into ApoE−/−/AMPKα2−/− mice or vice versa did not alter nicotine/AngII-induced AAA formation. Mechanistically, we found that both nicotine and AngII activated AMPK in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and increased the nuclear co-localization of AMPKα2 and AP-2α, a key transcriptional factor essential for MMP2 expression. Biochemical and biological analysis revealed that AMPKα2 directly phosphorylated AP-2α at serine 219 and this phosphorylation increased AP-2α-dependent MMP2 gene expression in VSMC. We conclude that nicotine increases the incidence of AAA in vivo through activation of AMPKα2 and AP-2α. Moreover, our results provide the first demonstration of a causative link between nicotine and AAA in vivo.
Apurinic/apyrmidinic endonuclease (APE1) is an unusual nuclear redox factor in which the redox-active cysteines identified to date, C65 and C93, are surface inaccessible residues whose activities may be influenced by partial unfolding of APE1. To assess the role of the remaining five cysteines in APE1’s redox activity, double cysteine mutants were analyzed excluding C65A, which is redox-inactive as a single mutant. C93A/C99A APE1 was found to be redox-inactive whereas other double cysteine mutants retained the same redox activity as that observed for C93A APE1. To determine whether these three cysteines, C65, C93, and C99, were sufficient for redox activity, all other cysteines were substituted with alanine, and this protein was shown to be fully redox active. Mutants with impaired redox activity failed to stimulate cell proliferation, establishing an important role for APE1’s redox activity in cell growth. Disulfide bond formation upon oxidation of APE1 was analyzed by proteolysis of the protein followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Within 5 min. of exposure to hydrogen peroxide, a single disulfide bond formed between C65 and C138 followed by the formation of three additional disulfide bonds within 15 min.; ten total disulfide bonds formed within one hour. A single mixed-disulfide bond involving C99 of APE1 was observed for the reaction of oxidized APE1 with TRX. Disulfide-bonded species of APE1 or APE1/TRX were further characterized by size exclusion chromatography and found to form large complexes. Taken together, our data suggest that APE1 is a unique redox factor with properties distinct from those of other redox factors.
The use of chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of cancer is an effective therapeutic measure. However, chemoresistance affects the effectiveness of the treatment. AKT overexpression has been observed in chemoresistance. AKT expression in colon cells induced cisplatin resistance. The present study demonstrated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of AKT regulation by cisplatin through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 at the transcriptional level in colon cancer cells. HCT-116 cells treated with cisplatin exhibited increased JAK2 and STAT3 activities. Reducing the expression of JAK2 in colon cancer cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased AKT expression. The present study demonstrated that AKT activation is closely associated with chemoresistance in human tumors. The inhibition of ROS decreased the levels of AKT in colon cancer cell lines. The JAK2/STAT3 pathway was also shown to mediate AKT expression and represents a potential target for overcoming cisplatin resistance in human tumors.
AKT; reactive oxygen species; chemoresistance; colon cancer
Wt1 encodes a zinc finger nuclear transcriptional factor, which is specifically expressed in testicular Sertoli cells and knockdown of Wt1 in Sertoli cells causes male mice subfertility. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that expression of inhibin-α is significantly reduced in Wt1-deficient Sertoli cells. Luciferase assays using the inhibin-α promoter indicated that the inhibin-α promoter is transactivated by the Wt1 A, and B isoforms (−KTS), but not the C, and D isoforms (+KTS). Analysis of the Wt1 responsive element of the inhibin-α promoter region using site-directed mutagenesis showed that the nucleotides between −58 and −49 are essential for Wt1-dependent transactivation of the inhibin-α promoter. ChIP assays indicated that Wt1 directly interacts with the inhibin-α promoter. In addition, the inhibin-α promoter is activated synergistically by Wt1 and Sf1. Mutation of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of Sf1 (residues 235–238) completely abolished the synergistic action between Wt1 and Sf1, but did not affect the physical interaction between these two proteins, suggesting that other factor(s) may also be involved in the regulation of inhibin-α in Sertoli cells. Further studies demonstrated that β-catenin enhances the synergistic activation of Wt1 and Sf1 on the inhibin-α promoter. Given the fact that inhibin-α, a subunit of inhibin, is known to be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis, this study reveals a new regulatory mechanism of inhibin-α in Sertoli cells and also sheds light on the physiological functions of Wt1 in gonad development and spermatogenesis.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimetastatic effect of multiple antigenic polypeptide (MAP) vaccine based on B-cell epitopes of heparanase (HPSE) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo.
The antiserum against B-cell epitopes of HPSE was isolated, purified and characterized after immunizing white-hair-black-eye (WHBY) rabbit with freshly synthesized MAP vaccine. Tumor-bearing murine models of orthotopic implants using HCC-97H cell line were built in BALB/c nude mice. Anti-MAP polyclonal antibodies induced by MAP vaccine were administrated to the models. The impact on metastasis was assessed, the expressions of VEGF/bFGF in hepatoma tissues and in murine sera were evaluated, and the micro-vessel density (MVD) was counted as well. In addition, the possible impairments of the HPSE MAP vaccine on certain HPSE positive normal organs and blood cells were investigated.
The antiserum was harvested, purified and identified. The antibodies induced by MAP vaccine could specifically react with the dominant epitopes of both precursor protein and large subunit monomer of HPSE, markedly decrease HPSE activity, suppress the expressions of both VEGF and bFGF, and reduce the MVD. Pulmonary metastasis was also attenuated significantly by the anti-MAP polyclonal antibodies. In addition, no obvious impairment could be observed in certain HPSE positive organs and cells.
MAP vaccine based on B-cell epitopes of HPSE is capable of alleviating HCC metastasis in vivo, mainly through inhibiting the HPSE activity and tumor associated angiogenesis, by virtue of the specific anti-MAP polyclonal antibodies. Furthermore, these HPSE-specific antibodies do not cause obvious abnormalities on certain HPSE positive blood cells and organs. Our study provides theoretical evidences for the clinical use of the synthesized MAP vaccine based on B-cell epitopes of HPSE in preventing HCC metastasis.
The bacterial isolate Paracoccus sp. strain FLN-7 hydrolyzes amide pesticides such as diflubenzuron, propanil, chlorpropham, and dimethoate through amide bond cleavage. A gene, ampA, encoding a novel arylamidase that catalyzes the amide bond cleavage in the amide pesticides was cloned from the strain. ampA contains a 1,395-bp open reading frame that encodes a 465-amino-acid protein. AmpA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. AmpA is a homodimer with an isoelectric point of 5.4. AmpA displays maximum enzymatic activity at 40°C and a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0, and it is very stable at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 10.0 and at temperatures up to 50°C. AmpA efficiently hydrolyzes a variety of secondary amine compounds such as propanil, 4-acetaminophenol, propham, chlorpropham, dimethoate, and omethoate. The most suitable substrate is propanil, with Km and kcat values of 29.5 μM and 49.2 s−1, respectively. The benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron) are also hydrolyzed but at low efficiencies. No cofactor is needed for the hydrolysis activity. AmpA shares low identities with reported arylamidases (less than 23%), forms a distinct lineage from closely related arylamidases in the phylogenetic tree, and has different biochemical characteristics and catalytic kinetics with related arylamidases. The results in the present study suggest that AmpA is a good candidate for the study of the mechanism for amide pesticide hydrolysis, genetic engineering of amide herbicide-resistant crops, and bioremediation of amide pesticide-contaminated environments.
A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ∼0.07 N and ∼46.2 Hz was observed. This method provides a cost-effective, recyclable, environment-friendly and simple way to directly split water for hydrogen fuels by scavenging mechanical waste energy forms such as noise or traffic vibration in the environment.
piezoelectric; energy harvesting; hydrogen production; piezoelectrochemical
Mutant p53 protein overexpression has been reported to induce serum antibodies against p53. Various studies assessing the diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody in patients with esophageal cancer remain controversial. This study aims to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody in esophageal cancer.
We systematically searched PubMed and Embase until 31st May 2012, without language restriction. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy). Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC). The PLR and NLR and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed effects model according to the Mantel-Haensed method and random effects model based on the work of Der Simonian and laird, respectively.
Fifteen studies (cases = 1079, controls = 2260) met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Approximately 53.33% (8/15) of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score≥8), which were retrospective case-control studies. The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of serum p53 antibody in the diagnosis of esophageal cancer were PLR 6.95 (95% CI: 4.77–9.51), NLR 0.75 (95%CI: 0.72–0.78) and DOR 9.65 (95%CI: 7.04–13.22). However, we found significant heterogeneity between NLRs.
The current evidence suggests serum p53 antibody has a potential diagnostic value for esophageal cancer. However, its discrimination power is not perfect because of low sensitivity.
These results suggest that s-p53-antibody may be useful for monitoring residual tumor cells and for aiding in the selection of candidates for less invasive treatment procedures because of the high specificity of s-p53-antibody. Further studies may need to identify patterns of multiple biomarkers to further increase the power of EC detection.
AIM: To clarify the role of activated Notch2 in the invasiveness of gastric cancer.
METHODS: To investigate the invasiveness of silencing Notch2 gene expression, we established a Notch2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected cell line using the MKN-45 gastric cancer cell line. After the successful transfection confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, migration and invasion assays were employed to evaluate the aggressiveness of the gastric cancer. RT-PCR and Western blottings were employed to confirm the down-regulation of Notch2 and to evaluate the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), Akt, p-Akt. To confirm the relationship between PI3K-Akt and MMP9, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was used to treat MKN-45 cells.
RESULTS: Notch2 expression was dramatically decreased after Notch2 siRNA transfection (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 11.61% ± 3.85%, P < 0.01 by qRT-PCR). There was also a marked reduction of Notch target gene Hes1 (100.00% ± 4.74% vs 61.61% ± 3.58%, P < 0.05) at the mRNA, indicating an inhibition of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling was also confirmed by the marked reduction of Notch2 intracellular domain at the protein levels (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 65.61% ± 7.58%, P < 0.05). Down-regulation of Notch2 by siRNA enhanced tumor cell invasion (100.00% ± 21.64% vs 162.22% ± 16.84%, P < 0.05) and expression of MMP9 (1.56 fold, P < 0.05), and activated the pro-MMP9 protein to its active form (1.48 fold, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the protein levels of Akt between the two groups (100.00% ± 10.87% vs 96.61% ± 7.33%, P > 0.05), while down-regulation of Notch2 elevated p-Akt expression (100.00% ± 9.87% vs 154.61% ± 13.10%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, p-Akt and MMP9 was down-regulated in response to the inhibitor LY294002 (p-Akt 100.00% ± 8.87% vs 58.27% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05; MMP9 100.00% ± 9.17% vs 50.03% ± 4.88%, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Notch2 may negatively regulate cell invasion by inhibiting the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
Notch2; Stomach; Cancer; Invasion; Epithelial mesenchymal transition; Matrix metallopeptidase 9; RNA interference
Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics.
In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data.
Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting.
This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.
Adolescent; Internet addiction; Risk factors; China
The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of Taxol and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on angiogenesis and cell apoptosis of SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma cell xenograft-bearing mice. The experiments were continued for 28 days. Animals were treated with 3 mg/kg SC-560 (a COX-1-selective inhibitor) alone, 100 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2-selective inhibitor) alone or SC-560/celecoxib by gavage twice a day, 20 mg/kg Taxol alone intraperitoneally once a week or in combination with SC-560 or celecoxib or SC-560/celecoxib/Taxol for three weeks. The mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The microvessel density (MVD) of ovarian carcinoma was determined by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD34 as the label. The apoptotic index was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The MVD value and apoptotic index in the SC-560/Taxol group were notably inhibited compared with the Taxol group (P<0.001). Moreover, the VEGF mRNA levels, MVD value and apoptotic index in the SC-560/Taxol group were significantly different from the celecoxib/Taxol group (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The present study demonstrated that SC-560 enhances the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects of Taxol and these effects are better than with celecoxib.
ovarian cancer; SC-560; celecoxib; Taxol; vascular endothelial growth factor; microvessel density; cell apoptosis
HOXA9, and MEIS1 have essential oncogenic roles in mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)-rearranged leukaemia. Here we show that they are direct targets of miRNA-196b, a microRNA (miRNA) located adjacent to and co-expressed with HOXA9, in MLL-rearranged leukaemic cells. Forced expression of miR-196b significantly delays MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis in primary bone marrow transplantation through suppressing Hoxa9/Meis1 expression. However, ectopic expression of miR-196b results in more aggressive leukaemic phenotypes and causes much faster leukemogenesis in secondary transplantation than MLL fusion alone, likely through the further repression of Fas expression, a proapoptotic gene downregulated in MLL-rearranged leukaemia. Overexpression of FAS significantly inhibits leukemogenesis and reverses miR-196b-mediated phenotypes. Targeting Hoxa9/Meis1 and Fas by miR-196b is probably also important for normal haematopoiesis. Thus, our results uncover a previously unappreciated miRNA-regulation mechanism by which a single miRNA may target both oncogenes and tumour suppressors, simultaneously, or, sequentially, in tumourigenesis and normal development per cell differentiation, indicating that miRNA regulation is much more complex than previously thought.
β-amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation and caspase activation have been shown to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease neuropathogenesis. Aβ is produced from amyloid precursor protein through proteolytic processing by aspartyl protease β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE). The inhaled anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase activation and increase levels of BACE and Aβ. However, the underlying mechanisms and interventions of the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity remain largely to be determined. The glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) has neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we sought to determine whether 2-DG can reduce caspase-3 activation and the increase in the levels of BACE and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by isoflurane.
H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with saline or 2-DG (5 mM) for one hour followed by a control condition or 2% isoflurane for six hours. The levels of caspase-3 cleavage (activation), BACE, cytosolic calcium, and ROS were determined. Two-way ANOVA analysis was used to assess the interactions of 2-DG and isoflurane on caspase-3 activation, and levels of BACE and ROS.
In H4 human neuroglioma cells 2-DG reduced the caspase-3 activation (477% versus 186%, F = 8.68; # P = 0.019) and the increase in BACE levels (345% versus 123%, F = 42.24; ** P = 0.0002) induced by isoflurane. 2-DG decreased the levels of cytosolic calcium and ROS (100% versus 66%, F = 1.94; * P = 0.014).
These results suggest that 2-DG may decrease oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic calcium levels, thus attenuating isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.