Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant growth promotion in the absence of physical contact with plants via volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this article, we review the recent progess made by research into the interactions between PGPR VOCs and plants, focusing on VOC emission by PGPR strains in plants. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms by which these bacterial VOCs elicit ISR. We provide an overview of recent progress in the elucidation of PGPR VOC interactions from studies utilizing transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses. By monitoring defense gene expression patterns, performing 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and studying defense signaling null mutants, salicylic acid and ethylene have been found to be key players in plant signaling pathways involved in the ISR response. Bacterial VOCs also confer induced systemic tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought and heavy metals. A review of current analytical approaches for PGPR volatile profiling is also provided with needed future developments emphasized. To assess potential utilization of PGPR VOCs for crop plants, volatile suspensions have been applied to pepper and cucumber roots and found to be effective at protecting plants against plant pathogens and insect pests in the field. Taken together, these studies provide further insight into the biological and ecological potential of PGPR VOCs for enhancing plant self-immunity and/or adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses in modern agriculture.
PGPR; ISR; IST; Volatile organic compounds; Headspace
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in RF/6A cells cultured in vitro, and to investigate the association between the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins. RF/6A cells were cultured in vitro and treated with AGEs and non-glycated albumin control at various concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/l) for 24 h. The expression of the VEGF protein was detected by ELISA, and western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of HIF-1α protein. The expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins was significantly higher in the AGE group compared with the non-glycated control group (all P<0.05). With the increase in concentration of AGEs, the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF protein increased and reached a maximum at 200 mg/l AGE, then decreased at 400 and 800 mg/l. However this effect was not observed in the non-glycated control groups. There was a positive correlation between the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF (P<0.05). AGEs induced the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins in RF/6A cells in a concentration-dependent manner. AGEs may upregulate the expression of VEGF protein by increasing the levels of HIF-1α protein, demonstrating the potential role of HIF-1α-targeted therapy in neovascularization.
hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; vascular endothelial growth factor; advanced glycation end products; RF/6A cells
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.
The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions.
The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety.
The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model.
The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit.
Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and depression are inversely correlated. This finding has not been convincingly demonstrated in previous research.
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism for silencing transposons and other repetitive elements, and for stable repression of specific transgenes and endogenous genes. Plants can utilize small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to guide de novo DNA methyltransferases for the establishment of sequence-specific DNA methylation. Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified many components involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). These components function in one or more of the following three aspects: biogenesis of siRNAs, production of scaffold RNAs, and the assembly of an effector complex that involves the complementary pairing between the guide siRNAs and nascent scaffold RNAs and which recruits the DNA methyltransferases. Recent studies not only unveiled new molecular players and novel interactions, but also suggested spatial and temporal segregation of the RdDM process within the nucleus.
Many eukaryotic genomes encode cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). Sense and antisense transcripts may form double-stranded RNAs that are processed by the RNA interference machinery into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A few so-called nat-siRNAs have been reported in plants, mammals, Drosophila, and yeasts. However, many questions remain regarding the features and biogenesis of nat-siRNAs.
Through deep sequencing, we identified more than 17,000 unique siRNAs corresponding to cis-NATs from biotic and abiotic stress-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana and 56,000 from abiotic stress-treated rice. These siRNAs were enriched in the overlapping regions of NATs and exhibited either site-specific or distributed patterns, often with strand bias. Out of 1,439 and 767 cis-NAT pairs identified in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively, 84 and 119 could generate at least 10 siRNAs per million reads from the overlapping regions. Among them, 16 cis-NAT pairs from Arabidopsis and 34 from rice gave rise to nat-siRNAs exclusively in the overlap regions. Genetic analysis showed that the overlapping double-stranded RNAs could be processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) and/or DCL3. The DCL3-dependent nat-siRNAs were also dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) and plant-specific RNA polymerase IV (PolIV), whereas only a fraction of DCL1-dependent nat-siRNAs was RDR- and PolIV-dependent. Furthermore, the levels of some nat-siRNAs were regulated by specific biotic or abiotic stress conditions in Arabidopsis and rice.
Our results suggest that nat-siRNAs display distinct distribution patterns and are generated by DCL1 and/or DCL3. Our analysis further supported the existence of nat-siRNAs in plants and advanced our understanding of their characteristics.
The type B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB receptor) is an important neurotransmitter receptor in the midbrain auditory structure, the inferior colliculus (IC). A functional GABAB receptor is a heterodimer consisting of two subunits, GABABR1 and GABABR2. Western blotting and immunohistochemical experiments were conducted to examine the expression of the two subunits over the IC including its central nucleus, dorsal cortex, and external cortex (ICc, ICd, and ICx). Results revealed that the two subunits existed in both cell bodies and the neuropil throughout the IC. The two subunits had similar regional distributions over the IC. The combined level of cell body and neuropil labeling was higher in the ICd than the other two subdivisions. Labeling in the ICc and ICx was stronger in the dorsal than the ventral regions. In spite of regional differences, no defined boundaries were formed between different areas. For both subunits, the regional distribution of immunoreactivity in the neuropil was parallel to that of combined immunoreactivity in the neuropil and cell bodies. The density of labeled cell bodies tended to be higher but sizes of cell bodies tended to be smaller in the ICd than in the other subdivisions. No systematic regional changes were found in the level of cell body immunoreactivity, except that GABABR2-immunoreactive cell bodies in the ICd had slightly higher optic density (OD) than in other regions. Elongated cell bodies existed throughout the IC. Many labeled cell bodies along the outline of the IC were oriented in parallel to the outline. No strong tendency of orientation was found in labeled cell bodies in ICc. Regional distributions of the subunits in ICc correlated well with inputs to this subdivision. Our finding regarding the contrast in the level of neuropil immunoreactivity among different subdivisions is consistent with the fact that the GABAB receptor has different pre- and postsynaptic functions in different IC regions.
hearing; auditory system; auditory midbrain; GABA; GABAB receptor; GABABR1 subunit; GABABR2 subunit; inhibition
We report here that des-methyl, des-amino pateamine A (DMDA-PatA), a structurally simplified analogue of the marine natural product pateamine A, has potent antiproliferative activity against a wide variety of human cancer cell lines while showing relatively low cytotoxicity against nonproliferating, quiescent human fibroblasts. DMDA-PatA retains almost full in vitro potency in P-glycoprotein-overexpressing MES-SA/D×5-R×1 human uterine sarcoma cells that are significantly resistant to paclitaxel, suggesting that DMDA-PatA is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux. Treatment of proliferating cells with DMDA-PatA leads to rapid shutdown of DNA synthesis in the S phase of the cell cycle. Cell-free studies show that DMDA-PatA directly inhibits DNA polymerases α and γ in vitro albeit at concentrations considerably higher than those that inhibit cell proliferation. DMDA-PatA shows potent anticancer activity in several human cancer xenograft models in nude mice, including significant regressions observed in the LOX and MDA-MB-435 melanoma models. DMDA-PatA thus represents a promising natural product-based anticancer agent that warrants further investigation.
Volatile emissions from the commercial growth promoting soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03) are effective in augmenting short-term growth, photosynthetic capacity and salt tolerance in Petri-dish grown arabidopsis seedlings. In contrast, the impact sustained GB03 volatile exposure on plant growth and development has yet to be examined. here is provided physical and physiological data establishing that bacterial volatiles induce long-term growth promotion, elevated photosynthetic capacity and iron accumulation, as well as delayed albeit higher seed count compared with water-treated control plants. Plants were grown unrestricted in double Magenta boxes containing solid MS media for up to twelve weeks with GB03 volatiles introduced in separate containers within the chamber so that plant bacterial interactions were only by air-borne transmission. These results establish that GB03 volatiles induce sustained beneficial effects on Arabidopsis growth including robust and extended vegetative growth followed by elevated seed set.
Bacillus subtilis (GB03); photosynthetic efficiency; plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); seed set; volatile organic compound (VOCs)
In prostate cancer bearing host, regulatory T cells restrain activity of tumor antigen specific T cells. Since B7:CD28 interactions are needed for both function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and the CD8+ effective T cells, targeting this pathway may help to overcome the immunotherapy barriers.
The anti-B7−1/B7−2 mAbs were administrated to a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer (TRAMP) ectopically expressing SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in different tumor development stages for prevention and therapy of prostate cancer. The treatment was also tested in treating transplanted MC38 colon adenocarcinoma in mice.
Here we showed that short-term administration of anti-B7−1/B7−2 mAbs in TRAMP mice leads to significant inhibited primary tumor growth and the size of metastatic lesions. The treatment is effective to inhibit MC38 colon cancer growth. Correspondingly, this treatment results in a transient reduction of Treg in both thymus and the periphery. In vivo cytotoxicity assay revealed TAg-specific CTL effectors in anti-B7 treated, but not control IgG-treated TRAMP mice.
Transient blockade of B7−1/2 alters the balance between Treg and cancer-reactive T cells to enhance cancer immunotherapy.
regulatory T cells; costimulatory molecule; prostate cancer
The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens development, while mice possessing only a single Fgfr1 allele developed cataracts and microphthalmia. Profound defects were observed in lenses lacking all three Fgfrs. These included lack of fiber cell elongation, abnormal proliferation in prospective lens fiber cells, reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p27kip1 and p57kip2, increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and α-, β- and γ-crystallins. Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly.
apoptosis; cell cycle; FGF receptor; lens development; lens fiber differentiation; redundancy; conditional knockout
It has been demonstrated that the development of NKT cells requires CD1d. The contribution of costimulatory molecules in this process has not been studied. Here we show that in mice with targeted mutations of B7-1/2 and CD28, the TCRβ+α-Galcer/CD1d + (iVα14 NKT) subset is significantly reduced in the thymus, spleen and liver. This is mainly due to decreased cell proliferation; although increased cell death in the thymi of CD28-deficient mice was also observed. Moreover, in the B7-1/2- and CD28-deficient mice, we found a decreased percentage of the CD4−NK1.1+ subset and a correspondingly increased portion of the CD4+NK1.1− subset. In addition, the mice with a targeted mutation of either B7 or CD28 had a reduced susceptibility to Con A induced hepatitis, which is known to be mediated by NKT cells. Our results demonstrate that the development, maturation and function of NKT cell are modulated by the costimulatory pathway and thus expand the horizon of costimulation into NKT, which is widely viewed as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. As such, costimulation may modulate all major branches of cell-mediated immunity, including T cells, NK cells and NKT cells.
The X-linked Foxp3 is a member of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family. Germ-line mutations cause lethal autoimmune diseases in males. Serendipitously, we observed that Foxp3sf/+ heterozygous mice developed cancer at a high rate. The majority of the cancers were mammary carcinomas in which the wild-type Foxp3 allele was inactivated and ErbB2 was over-expressed. Foxp3 bound and repressed the ErbB2 promoter. Deletion, functionally significant somatic mutations and down-regulation of the FOXP3 gene were commonly found in human breast cancer samples and correlated significantly with HER-2 over-expression, regardless of the status of HER-2 amplification. In toto, the data demonstrate that FOXP3 is an X-linked breast cancer suppressor gene and an important regulator of the HER-2/ErbB2 oncogene.
The off-resonance rotating frame technique based on the spin relaxation properties of off-resonance T1ρ can significantly increase the sensitivity of detecting paramagnetic labeling at high magnetic fields. However, the in vivo detectable dimension for labeled cell clusters/tissues in T1ρ -weighted images is limited by the water diffusion-exchange between mesoscopic scale compartments. An experimental investigation of the effect of water diffusion-exchange between compartments on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of paramagnetic agent compartment is presented for in vitro/in vivo models. In these models, the size of paramagnetic agent compartment is comparable to the mean diffusion displacement of water molecules during the long RF pulses that are used to generate the off-resonance rotating frame. The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to qualitatively correlate the effect of water diffusion-exchange with the RF parameters of the long pulse and the rates of water diffusion, (2) to explore the effect of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vitro, and (3) to demonstrate the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vivo. The in vitro models include the water permeable dialysis tubes or water permeable hollow fibers embedded in cross-linked proteins gels. The MWCO of the dialysis tubes was chosen from 0.1 to 15 kDa to control the water diffusion rate. Thin hollow fibers were chosen to provide sub-millimeter scale compartments for the paramagnetic agents. The in vivo model utilized the rat cerebral vasculatures as a paramagnetic agent compartment, and intravascular agents (Gd-DTPA)30-BSA were administrated into the compartment via bolus injections. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement is predominant in the T1ρ -weighted imaging in the presence of water diffusion exchange. The T1ρ contrast has substantially higher sensitivity than the conventional T1 contrast in detecting paramagnetic agents, especially at low paramagnetic agent volumetric fractions, low paramagnetic agent concentrations, and low RF amplitudes. Short pulse duration, short pulse recycle delay and efficient paramagnetic relaxation can reduce the influence of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic enhancement. This study paves the way for the design of off-resonance rotating experiments to detect labeled cell clusters/tissue compartments in vivo at a sub-millimeter scale.
off-resonance rotating frame; paramagnetic relaxation enhancement; diffusion-exchange effect; volumetric coefficient; imaging contrast; rat brain images; gadolinium chelates
The simple method for measuring the rotational correlation time of paramagnetic ion chelates via off-resonance rotating frame technique is challenged in vivo by the magnetization transfer effect. A theoretical model for the spin relaxation of water protons in the presence of paramagnetic ion chelates and magnetization transfer effect is described. This model considers the competitive relaxations of water protons by the paramagnetic relaxation pathway and the magnetization transfer pathway. The influence of magnetization transfer to the total residual z-magnetization has been quantitatively evaluated in the context of magnetization map and various difference magnetization profiles for macromolecule conjugated Gd-DTPA in cross-linked protein gels. The numerical simulations and experimental validations confirm that the rotational correlation time for paramagnetic ion chelates can be measured even in the presence of strong magnetization transfer. This spin relaxation model also provides novel approaches to enhance the detection sensitivity for paramagnetic labeling by suppressing spin relaxations caused by magnetization transfer. The inclusion of the magnetization transfer effect allows us to use the magnetization map as a simulation tool to design efficient paramagnetic labeling targeting at specific tissues, to design experiments running at low RF power depositions, and to optimize the sensitivity for detecting paramagnetic labeling. Thus, the presented method will be a very useful tool for in vivo applications such as molecular imaging via paramagnetic labeling.
off-resonance rotating frame; paramagnetic relaxation enhancement; magnetization transfer effect; magnetization map; magnetization profiles; difference magnetization profiles; dynamic of paramagnetic ion chelates
S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SKP1-Cul1-Fbox complex. Overexpression of SKP2 results in cell cycle dysregulation and carcinogenesis; however, the genetic lesions that cause this upregulation are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is an X-linked breast cancer suppressor and an important repressor of the oncogene ERBB2/HER2. Since FOXP3 suppresses tumor growth regardless of whether the tumors overexpress ERBB2/HER2, additional FOXP3 targets may be involved in its tumor suppressor activity. Here, we show that mammary carcinomas from mice heterozygous for a Foxp3 mutation exhibited increased Skp2 expression. Ectopic expression of FOXP3 in mouse mammary cancer cells repressed SKP2 expression with a corresponding increase in p27 and polyploidy. Conversely, siRNA silencing of the FOXP3 gene in human mammary epithelial cells increased SKP2 expression. We also show that Foxp3 directly interacted with and repressed the Skp2 promoter. Moreover, the analysis of over 200 primary breast cancer samples revealed an inverse correlation between FOXP3 and SKP2 levels. Finally, we demonstrated that downregulation of SKP2 was critical for FOXP3-mediated growth inhibition in breast cancer cells that do not overexpress ERBB2/HER2. Our data provide genetic, biochemical, and functional evidence that FOXP3 is a novel transcriptional repressor for the oncogene SKP2.
In response to a lymphopenic cue, T lymphocytes undergo a slow-paced homeostatic proliferation in an attempt to restore T cell cellularity. The molecular interaction that maintains the pace of homeostatic proliferation is unknown. In this study, we report that in lymphopenic CD24-deficient mice, T cells launch a massive proliferation that results in the rapid death of the recipient mice. The dividing T cells have phenotypes similar to those activated by cognate antigens. The rapid homeostatic proliferation is caused by a lack of CD24 on dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, although CD24 expression in T cells is required for optimal homeostatic proliferation in the wild-type (WT) host, mice lacking CD24 on all cell types still mount higher homeostatic proliferation than the WT mice. Thus, a lack of CD24 in the non–T host cells bypassed the requirement for T cell expression of CD24 in homeostatic proliferation in the WT host. Our data demonstrate that CD24 expressed on the DCs limits T cell response to homeostatic cue and prevents fatal damage associated with uncontrolled homeostatic proliferation.
In the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), autoreactive T cells must be activated and clonally expand in the lymphoid organs, and then migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) where they undergo further activation. It is unclear whether the autoreactive T cells further expand in the CNS and if so, what interactions are required for this process. We have demonstrated previously that expression by the host cells of the heat-stable antigen (CD24), which was recently identified as a genetic modifier for MS, is essential for their susceptibility to EAE. Here we show that CD24 is essential for local clonal expansion and persistence of T cells after their migration into the CNS, and that expression of CD24 on either hematopoietic cells or nonhematopoietic antigen-presenting cells in the recipient is sufficient to confer susceptibility to EAE.
costimulatory molecules; autoimmune diseases; central nervous system; multiple sclerosis; clonal expansion
A number of in vitro studies have suggested that costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 and their receptor CD28 can promote clonal deletion, and limited in vivo studies have indicated that CD28 is involved in the clonal deletion of some T cells. However, the significance of B7-mediated clonal deletion in preventing autoimmune diseases has not been studied systematically. Here we report that the perinatal blockade of B7-1 and B7-2 substantially inhibits the clonal deletion of T cells in the thymus and leads to an accumulation of T cells capable of inducing fatal multiorgan inflammation. These results reveal a critical role for costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in deleting pathogenic autoreactive T cells in the thymus. The critical role of B7-1 and B7-2 in T cell clonal deletion may explain, at least in part, the paradoxical increase of autoimmune disease in mice deficient for this family of costimulatory molecules, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule 4, CD28, and B7-2. The strong pathogenicity of the self-reactive T cells supports a central hypothesis in immunology, which is that clonal deletion plays an important role in preventing autoimmune diseases.
autoimmunity; clonal deletion; B7-1 and B7-2; CD28; CTLA-4