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author:("Yu, qingpu")
1.  A Distinct Class of Internal Ribosomal Entry Site in Members of the Kobuvirus and Proposed Salivirus and Paraturdivirus Genera of the Picornaviridae 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(3):1468-1486.
The 5′-untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) of picornavirus genomes contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that promotes the end-independent initiation of translation. Picornavirus IRESs are classified into four structurally distinct groups, each with different initiation factor requirements. Here, we identify a fifth IRES class in members of Kobuvirus, Salivirus, and Paraturdivirus genera of Picornaviridae: Aichi virus (AV), bovine kobuvirus (BKV), canine kobuvirus (CKoV), mouse kobuvirus (MKoV), sheep kobuvirus (SKV), salivirus A (SV-A), turdivirus 2 (TV2), and TV3. The 410-nucleotide (nt)-long AV IRES comprises four domains (I to L), including a hairpin (L) that overlaps a Yn-Xm-AUG (pyrimidine tract/spacer/initiation codon) motif. SV-A, CKoV, and MKoV also contain these four domains, whereas BKV, SKV, and TV2/TV3 5′ UTRs contain domains that are related to domain I and equivalent to domains J and K but lack an AV-like domain L. These IRESs are located at different relative positions between a conserved 5′-terminal origin of replication and divergent coding sequences. Elements in these IRESs also occur elsewhere: domain J's apical subdomain, which contains a GNRA tetraloop, matches an element in type 1 IRESs, and eIF4G-binding motifs in domain K and in type 2 IRESs are identical. Other elements are unique, and their presence leads to unique initiation factor requirements. In vitro reconstitution experiments showed that like AV, but in contrast to other currently characterized IRESs, SV-A requires the DExH-box protein DHX29 during initiation, which likely ensures that the initiation codon sequestered in domain L is properly accommodated in the ribosomal mRNA-binding cleft.
doi:10.1128/JVI.05862-11
PMCID: PMC3264332  PMID: 22114340
2.  Common conformational changes induced in type 2 picornavirus IRESs by cognate trans-acting factors 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(11):4851-4865.
Type 2 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and other picornaviruses comprise five major domains H-L. Initiation of translation on these IRESs begins with specific binding of the central domain of initiation factor, eIF4G to the J-K domains, which is stimulated by eIF4A. eIF4G/eIF4A then restructure the region of ribosomal attachment on the IRES and promote recruitment of ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complexes. In addition to canonical translation factors, type 2 IRESs also require IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) that are hypothesized to stabilize the optimal IRES conformation that supports efficient ribosomal recruitment: the EMCV IRES is stimulated by pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), whereas the FMDV IRES requires PTB and ITAF45. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of ITAFs on the conformations of EMCV and FMDV IRESs by comparing their influence on hydroxyl radical cleavage of these IRESs from the central domain of eIF4G. The observed changes in cleavage patterns suggest that cognate ITAFs promote similar conformational changes that are consistent with adoption by the IRESs of comparable, more compact structures, in which domain J undergoes local conformational changes and is brought into closer proximity to the base of domain I.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr045
PMCID: PMC3113573  PMID: 21306989
3.  Position of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF1A on the 40S ribosomal subunit mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(15):5167-5182.
The universally conserved eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF), eIF1A, plays multiple roles throughout initiation: it stimulates eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAiMet attachment to 40S ribosomal subunits, scanning, start codon selection and subunit joining. Its bacterial ortholog IF1 consists of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domain, whereas eIF1A additionally contains a helical subdomain, N-terminal tail (NTT) and C-terminal tail (CTT). The NTT and CTT both enhance ribosomal recruitment of eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAiMet, but have opposite effects on the stringency of start codon selection: the CTT increases, whereas the NTT decreases it. Here, we determined the position of eIF1A on the 40S subunit by directed hydroxyl radical cleavage. eIF1A's OB domain binds in the A site, similar to IF1, whereas the helical subdomain contacts the head, forming a bridge over the mRNA channel. The NTT and CTT both thread under Met-tRNAiMet reaching into the P-site. The NTT threads closer to the mRNA channel. In the proposed model, the NTT does not clash with either mRNA or Met-tRNAiMet, consistent with its suggested role in promoting the ‘closed’ conformation of ribosomal complexes upon start codon recognition. In contrast, eIF1A-CTT appears to interfere with the P-site tRNA-head interaction in the ‘closed’ complex and is likely ejected from the P-site upon start codon recognition.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp519
PMCID: PMC2731904  PMID: 19561193

Results 1-3 (3)