In the title molecule, C18H13Cl2F3N4O2, the intramolecular distance between the centroids of the benzene and pyridine rings is 3.953 (3) Å, and the trifluoromethyl group is rotationally disordered over two orientations in a 0.678 (19):0.322 (19) ratio. The crystal packing exhibits weak intermolecular C—H⋯F interactions.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs).
METHODS: Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery.
RESULTS: The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P < 0.001) and Wexner fecal incontinence scores (P = 0.002) after the successful healing of complex RVFs or RUFs. There was no significant difference in SF-36 QOL scores between the initial healing group and irrigation-suction-assisted healing group.
CONCLUSION: Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs.
Rectovaginal fistula; Rectourethral fistula; Gracilis muscle; Quality of life; Therapeutic irrigation
Copper in serum supports angiogenesis and inhibits replication of wild type HSV-1. Copper chelation is currently being investigated as an anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic agent in patients diagnosed with cancer. Herpes simplex virus derived oncolytic viruses (oHSVs) are being evaluated for safety and efficacy in patients, but several host barriers limit their efficacy. Here, we tested if copper inhibits oHSV infection and replication and if copper chelation would augment therapeutic efficacy of oHSV.
Subcutaneous and intracranial tumor bearing mice were treated with oHSV ± ATN-224 to evaluate tumor burden and survival. Virus replication and cell killing was measured in the presence or absence of the copper chelating agent ATN-224 and in the presence or absence of copper in vitro. Micro-vessel density and changes in perfusion were evaluated by immuno-histochemistry and DCE-MRI. Serum stability of oHSV was measured in mice fed with ATN-224. Tumor bearing mice were injected intravenously with oHSV; tumor burden and amount of virus in tumor tissue was evaluated.
Combination of systemic ATN-224 and oHSV significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged animal survival. Immunohistochemistry and DCE-MRI imaging confirmed that ATN-224 reduced oHSV-induced blood vessel density and vascular leakage. Copper at physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited oHSV replication and glioma cell killing and this effect was rescued by ATN-224. ATN-224 increased serum stability of oHSV and enhanced the efficacy of systemic delivery.
This study shows that combining ATN-224 with oHSV, significantly increased serum stability of oHSV and greatly enhanced its replication and antitumor efficacy.
Glioblastoma (GBM); Oncolytic Virus (OV); Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1); ATN-224; Copper ions (Copper)
Impairment of visual function has been detected in the early stage of diabetes but the underlying neural mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Morphological and functional alterations of retinal ganglion cells, the final output neurons of the vertebrate retina, are thought to be the major cause of visual defects in diabetes but direct evidence to support this notion is limited. In this study we investigated functional changes of retinal ganglion cells in a type 1-like diabetic mouse model. Our results demonstrated that the spontaneous spiking activity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells was increased in streptozotocin-diabetic mice after 3 to 4 months of diabetes. At this stage of diabetes, no apoptotic signals or cell loss were detected in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, suggesting that the functional alterations in ganglion cells occur prior to massive ganglion cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the increased activity of ON-type ganglion cells was mainly a result of reduced inhibitory signaling to the cells in diabetes. This novel mechanism provides insight into how visual function is impaired in diabetic retinopathy.
Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that can develop from a variety of causes. The aim of the work is to analyze the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the prevalence of various etiologies in children, who present to the emergency department (ED) with rhabdomyolysis.
During a 6-year study period, we retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CK) levels greater than 1000IU/L. We analyzed the clinical spectrum and evaluated the potential risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF).
Thirty-seven patients (mean age = 10.2 ± 5.5 years), including 26 males and 11 females, were enrolled in the study. Two of the most common presented symptoms in these 37 patients were muscle pain and muscle weakness (83.8% and 73%, respectively). Dark urine was reported in only 5.4% of the patients. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0- to 9-year age group was presumed infection, and the leading cause in the 10- to 18-year age group was trauma and exercise. The incidence of ARF associated with rhabdomyolysis was 8.1 % and no child needed for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We did not identify any reliable predictors of ARF or need for RRT.
The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in younger age is different from that of teenager group. However, the prognosis of rhabdomyolysis was good with appropriate management.
Rhabdomyolysis; Emergency department; Children
TAT (a 13-mer derived from the HIV-1 Tat protein) linked cell-permeable peptides deliver plasma membrane impermeable cargos into the cell. We investigated the effect of a TAT linked intracellular third loop (IC3) of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) type B receptor on ET-1 activation of ERK. The effect of this peptide on ERK activation was determined in ETB receptor cDNA transfected CHO cells and in ETA and ETB expressing human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMC) obtained from a normal and a bone morphogenetic protein-2 receptor (BMPR2), exon 1–8 deletion subject, with pulmonary hypertension. In the CHO cells the peptide, at optimum 10uM concentration, suppressed ET-1 activation. In the normal hPASMC, the peptide marginally enhanced ET-1 activation of ERK. However, it markedly enhanced the ET-1 activation of ERK in the BMP2R hPASMC. While the effective concentration for ET-1 activation of ERK remained unchanged in the BMP2R hPASMC, the number of ETB receptors declined by 2/3. These data point to the IC3 peptide as having variable receptor interactive effects with both signal repressive and enhancing capabilities. Peptides that can alter ET-1 signal capabilities are potentially important in the study and treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
drug delivery; G-protein coupled receptor; peptide; signal transduction and modulators (activation / inhibition); endothelin; endothelin receptors
The Paeonia root, with or without bark, are considered vital traditional Chinese medicine materials; the examples are those of Bai Shao, Chi Shao, and Dan Pi. In this study, we examine 24 genes and their expressions involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin and its derivatives, which are active compounds of the Paeonia root, in Paeonia lactiflora and P. suffruticosa, as well as other related plants, Punica granatum, Rhus radicans, and Coriaria nepalensis. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes have functional diversity, and analysis of the transcriptional level shows paeoniflorin and gallic acid biosynthesis-related genes exhibit different transcription profiles in flowers, carpels, bark-free roots, and bark of P. lactiflora. The correlation analysis of gene expression and active compound contents support the idea that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase and phosphomevalonate kinase in the mevalonate pathway and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate dehydrogenase in shikimate biosynthesis are potentially closely related to the accumulation of paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin. Coupling gene diversity with chemical analysis, we show that paeoniflorin and its derived aromatic amino acids are predominant in bark.
Paeonia; bark; orthologs; gene expression; paeoniflorin; and gallic acid
Previous studies by our group have demonstrated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of αv integrin to assess temporal and spatial changes in peripheral and myocardial angiogenesis. In this study we validate the reproducibility, accuracy, and applicability of a new semi-automated non-invasive approach for serial quantitative evaluation of targeted microSPECT-CT images of peripheral angiogenesis in wild-type and eNOS-deficient mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia.
Mice (n=15) underwent surgical ligation of the right femoral artery to induce unilateral hindlimb ischemia. One week post ligation, a 99mTc-labeled cyclic-RGD peptide targeted at αv integrin (NC100692, n=10) or a 99mTc-labeled negative control (AH-111744, n=5) was injected and 60-min later in vivo microSPECT-CT images were acquired. Mice were euthanized, tissue from proximal and distal hindlimb was excised for gamma well counting (GWC) of radiotracer activity, and ischemic-to-nonischemic (I/N) ratio calculated. MicroSPECT-CT images were analyzed using a new semi-automated approach which applies complex VOIs derived from segmentation of the microCT onto microSPECT images to calculate I/N activity ratios for the proximal and distal hindlimb. Studies were reprocessed for determination of intra- and inter-observer variability.
To compare 3D VOI analysis with traditional manual 2D ROI analysis of maximium intensity projection images, microSPECT images were summed onto a single anterior-posterior projection. Rectangular ROIs were manually drawn and I/N ratio calculated.
Our new 3D analysis approach was applied to additional groups of mice (eNOS-/-, n=5; wild-type, n=3) imaged before, 1 and 4 weeks after femoral artery resection.
Our new semi-automated approach for evaluation of αv integrin targeted microSPECT-CT images demonstrated both a high intra- and inter-observer variability (R2=0.997), and accuracy (R2=0.780) for estimation of relative radiotracer activity relative to GWC. Analysis of serial microSPECT-CT images demonstrated a significant increase in relative NC100692 retention in the ischemic hindlimb of both wild-type and eNOS-deficient mice at 1 week after surgery. There was a significant (∼25%) decrease in radiotracer uptake in eNOS-/- mice relative to wild-type animals, which was not observed at baseline or 4 weeks post ligation.
A new semi-automated analysis of αv integrin targeted microSPECT-CT images provides a non-invasive approach for serial quantitative evaluation of peripheral angiogenesis. The reproducibility and accuracy of this approach allows for quantitative analysis of serial targeted molecular images of lower extremities, has applicability to other targeted SPECT or PET radiotracers, and may have implications for clinical imaging in patients with PAD.
molecular imaging; microSPECT; microCT; peripheral angiogenesis
Background: The aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling such as Ras/MAPK signaling is a frequent event in human cancers. In addition to genetic changes, epigenetic silencing of inhibitors in Ras/MAPK signaling contributes to the activation of Ras/MAPK signaling. Recently, ANXA6 has been shown to interact with Ras-GAP1 and inhibit Ras activation in human breast cancer. However, whether and how it is involved in human cancers remain unknown. Methods: Real-time PCR was used to determine ANXA6 expression in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric carcinomas. Next, we explored the methylation of ANXA6 promoter in cell lines and tumor tissues with methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. We also investigated the function of ANXA6 in gastric cancer cells with colony formation assay and western blotting analysis. Results: ANXA6 was down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric carcinomas. Ectopic ANXA6 expression inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells and the activity of Ras/MAPK signaling. Its expression was restored after pharmaceutical demethylation. ANXA6 promoter was methylated in gastric cancer cell lines (6/6) and primary gastric carcinoma tissues (29/156). Interestingly, the knockdown of oncoprotein Yin Yang 1 (YY1) also restored ANXA6 expression and promoted the demethylation of ANXA6 promoter. However, ANXA6 methylation was not associated with clinical parameters such as differentiation, and TNM staging. Neither Kaplan-Meier Curve nor Cox regression analysis revealed a significant role of ANXA methylation to predict the survival of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: We firstly reported that ANXA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in human cancers and YY1 is important to initiate or maintain ANXA6 promoter methylation in gastric cancer cells. ANXA6 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer cells through the inhibition of Ras/MAPK signaling. ANXA6 methylation is not a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients.
ANXA6; methylation; gastric cancer; Ras signaling
Post-transplant malignancy is the major cause of later death of recipients after liver transplantation. Tumor recurrence after liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the end stage of cirrhosis has been frequently encountered. However, de novo hepatocellular carcinoma originating from the liver allograft has only rarely been reported. Here we reported a case of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma developed 2 years after living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with viral YMDD mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma in a liver graft with recurrent hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with YMDD mutation. Moreover, the de novo cancer first presented as a lung mass with minimal liver involvement and was obscured by a pulmonary fungal infection.
De novo hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatitis B recurrence; YMDD mutation
Metallothionein 2A (MT2A) as a stress protein, plays a protective role in gastric mucosal barrier. Its role in the development of gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. The mechanism of MT2A will be investigated in gastric tumorigenesis.
MT2A expression was detected in 973 gastric specimens. The biological function was determined through ectopic expressing MT2A in vitro and in vivo. The possible downstream effectors of MT2A were investigated in NF-κB signaling. The protein levels of MT2A, IκB-α and p-IκB-α (ser32/36) expression were analyzed in a subset of 258 patients by IHC staining. The prognostic effects of MT2A, status of IκB-α and TNM stage were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.
Decreased MT2A expression was detected in cell lines and primary tumors of GC. In clinical data, loss of MT2A (MT2A + in Normal (n =171, 76.0%); Intestinal metaplasia (n = 118, 50.8%); GC (n = 684. 22.4%, P < 0.001)) was associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.05), and down-regulation of IκB-α expression (P < 0.001). Furthermore, MT2A was the independent prognostic signature segregated from the status of IκB-α and pathological features. In addition, MT2A inhibited cell growth through apoptosis and G2/M arrest, which negatively regulated NF-κB pathway through up-regulation of IκB-α and down-regulation of p-IκB-α and cyclin D1 expression.
MT2A might play a tumor suppressive activity through inhibiting NF-κB signaling and may be a prognostic biomarker and potential target for individual therapy of GC patients.
Metallothionein 2A; NF-κB signaling; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; TNM stage
The current Shigella sonnei pandemic involves geographically associated, multidrug-resistant clones. This study has demonstrated that S. sonnei phylogeny can be accurately defined with limited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By typing 6 informative SNPs using a high-resolution melting (HRM) assay, major S. sonnei lineages/sublineages can be identified as defined by whole-genome variation.
To compare the value of ultrasonography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM).
Eighty non-DM and 40 DM patients with electromyography-confirmed CTS were assessed and underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the wrists. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) of the median nerve were measured at the carpal tunnel outlet (D) and wrist crease (W).
The 80 non-DM and 40 DM patients had 81 and 59 CTS-hands, respectively. The CSA_D and CSA_W were significantly larger in the CTS-hands and DM-CTS-hands compared to the normal control (p < 0.001). However, there is no difference of CSA_D and CSA_W between DM and non-DM CTS patients. Receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curve analysis revealed that CSA_W ≥13 mm2 was the most powerful predictor of CTS in DM (area under curve [AUC] = 0.72; sensitivity 72.9%, specificity 61.9%) and non-DM (AUC = 0.72; sensitivity 78.5%, specificity 53.2%) patients. The CSA positively correlated with the distal motor latency of the median compound motor action potential (CMAP), distal sensory latency of the median sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), and latency of the median F wave, but negatively correlated with the amplitude of the median CMAP, amplitude of the median SNAP, and sensory NCV of the median nerve. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that CSA_W (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38; p = 0.003) was independently associated with CTS in DM patients and any 1 mm2 increase in CSA_W increased the rate of CTS by 28%.
The CSA of the median nerve at the outlet and wrist crease are significantly larger in CTS hands in both DM and non-DM patients compared to normal hands. The CSA of the median nerve by ultrasonography may be a diagnostic tool for evaluating CTS in DM and non-DM patients.
Carpal tunnel syndrome; Cross-sectional area; Median nerve; Ultrasonography
We studied the relationships among Cx43, CD105, and VEGF in specimens of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with different serum AFP levels with respect to recurrence and metastasis.
Expressions of Cx43, CD105, and VEGF in 234 HCC tissue specimens were examined using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Cx43 mRNA expression was examined in 38 frozen HCC specimens using RT-PCR. Correlations between these expressions and tumor recurrence, metastasis, and prognosis were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses.
Cx43 expression correlated with early tumor recurrence (P = 0.001), disease-free survival (P = 0.026), and overall survival (P = 0.000) in patients with serum AFP < 400 ng/ml, but not in those with serum AFP ≥ 400 μg/L. Cx43 expression is an independent predictor of later recurrence and longer overall survival and is inversely correlated with expression of CD105 and VEGF (P = 0.018 and 0.023, respectively), histological differentiation (P = 0.002), vessel tumor embolism (P = 0.029), and focal number (P = 0.017). Immunohistochemistry showed that Cx43 expression in patients with low AFP was lower in patients with distant metastases than in those with no metastasis or those with liver metastasis. Patients with early recurrence expressed less Cx43 mRNA than did those with no recurrence (χ2 = 9.827, P = 0.002).
Cx43 expression can delay early HCC recurrence, metastasis, and poor prognosis after radical hepatectomy in patients with HBV-related HCC and low AFP.
Carcinoma; Hepatocellular; Hepatitis B; Alpha-fetoprotein; Cx43; VEGF; CD105; Early recurrence; Metastasis; Prognosis
Genome-wide sequencing identified heterozygous, constitutional, Ataxia telangiectaisa mutated (ATM) gene mutations in two kindreds with familial pancreatic cancer. Mutations segregated with disease in both kindreds and tumor analysis demonstrated LOH of the wildtype allele. Sequence analysis of an additional 166 familial pancreatic cancer probands indentified four additional patients with deleterious mutations in the ATM gene, while no deleterious mutations were identified in 190 spouse controls (p=0.046). These results indicate that ATM mutations play an important role in familial pancreatic cancer predisposition.
ATM; predisposition; familial; pancreas; cancer
Previous studies have shown that intracoronary (IC) nitroprusside (NTP) injection is a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of no-reflow (NR) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The present study tested the hypothesis that, on the basis of thrombus aspiration for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the selective IC administration of a fixed dose of NTP (100 μg) plus tirofiban is a safe and superior treatment method compared with the IC administration of tirofiban alone for the prevention of NR during primary PCI. A total of 162 consecutive patients with STEMI, who underwent primary PCI within 12 h of onset, were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, IC administration of a fixed dose of NTP (100 μg) plus tirofiban (10 μg/kg) and group B, IC administration of tirofiban (10 μg/kg) alone (n=80 and n=82, respectively). The drugs were selectively injected into the infarct-related artery (IRA) via a thrombus aspiration catheter advanced into the IRA. The primary end-point was post-procedural corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (CTFC). The proportion of complete (>70%) ST-segment resolution (STR); the TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) 2–3 ratio following PCI; the peak value of creatine kinase (CK)-MB; the TIMI flow grade; the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after 6 months of follow-up were observed as the secondary end-points. There were no significant differences in the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics between the two groups. Compared with group B, group A had i) a lower CTFC (23±7 versus 29±11, P=0.000); ii) a higher proportion of complete STR (72.5 versus 55.9%, P=0.040); iii) an enhanced TMPG 2–3 ratio (71.3 versus 53.7%, P=0.030) and iv) a lower peak CK-MB value (170±56 versus 210±48 U/l, P=0.010). There were no statistically significant differences in the final TIMI grade-3 flow between the two groups (92.5 versus 91.5% for groups A and B, respectively; P=0.956). The LVEF at 6 months was higher in group A than group B (63±9 versus 53±11%, respectively; P=0.001); however, the incidence of MACEs was not statistically different between the two groups, although there was a trend indicating improvement in group A (log rank χ2=0.953, P=0.489). The selective IC administration of a fixed dose of NTP (100 μg) plus tirofiban via a thrombus aspiration catheter advanced into the IRA is a safe and superior treatment method compared with tirofiban alone in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. This novel therapeutic strategy improves the myocardial level perfusion, in addition to reducing the infarct size. Furthermore, it may improve the postoperative clinical prognosis following PCI.
thrombus aspiration; tirofiban; no-reflow; ST elevation myocardial infarction; nitroprusside
Here we present a database, WikiCell, as a portal for a unified view of the human transcriptome. At present, WikiCell consists of Expressed Sequenced Tags (ESTs), and users can access, curate, and submit database data by interactive mode, and also can browse, query, upload, and download sequences. Researchers can utilize the transcriptome model based on a human taxonomy graph. The sequences in each model are sorted by attributes such as physiological and pathological samples. The Genbank EST data format are conserved. Gene information is provided, including housekeeping genes, taxonomy location, and gene ontology (GO) description. We believe that WikiCell provides a useful resource for defining expression pattern and tissue differentiation based on human taxonomy mode. It can be accessed at http://www.wikicell.org/.
The GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system activates the production of secondary metabolites including phenazines crucial for biological control activity in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84. To better understand the role of the Gac system on phenazine regulation, transcriptomic analyses were conducted by comparing the wild-type strain to a gacA mutant. RNA-seq analysis identified 771 genes under GacA control, including many novel genes. Consistent with previous findings, phenazine biosynthetic genes were significantly downregulated in a gacA mutant. The transcript abundances of phenazine regulatory genes such as phzI, phzR, iopA, iopB, rpoS, and pip also were reduced. Moreover, the transcript abundance of three noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) including rsmX, rsmY, and rsmZ was significantly decreased by gacA mutation consistent with the presence of consensus GacA-binding sites associated with their promoters. Our results also demonstrated that constitutive expression of rsmZ from a non-gac regulated promoter resulted in complete restoration of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) and phenazine production as well as the expression of other gac-dependent secondary metabolites in gac mutants. The role of RsmA and RsmE in phenazine production also was investigated. Overexpression of rsmE, but not rsmA, resulted in decreased AHL and phenazine production in P. chlororaphis, and only a mutation in rsmE bypassed the requirement for GacA in phenazine gene expression. In contrast, constitutive expression of the phzI/phzR quorum sensing system did not rescue phenazine production in the gacA mutant, indicating the direct posttranscriptional control by Gac on the phenazine biosynthetic genes. On the basis of these results, we propose a model to illustrate the hierarchic role of phenazine regulators modulated by Gac in the control of phenazine production. The transcriptomic analysis also was used to identify additional genes regulated by GacA that may contribute to the biological control capability of strain 30-84.
Biological control; Gac; phenazine; posttranscriptional regulation; Pseudomonas; two-component signal transduction
Host immune peptides, including cathelicidins, have been reported to possess anticancer properties. We previously reported that LL-37, the only cathelicidin in humans, suppresses the development of colon cancer. In this study, the potential anticancer effect of FK-16, a fragment of LL-37 corresponding to residues 17 to 32, on cultured colon cancer cells was evaluated. FK-16 induced a unique pattern of cell death, marked by concurrent activation of caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy. The former was mediated by the nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG whereas the latter was characterized by enhanced expression of LC3-I/II, Atg5 and Atg7 and increased formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes. Knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7 attenuated the cytotoxicity of FK-16, indicating FK-16-induced autophagy was pro-death in nature. Mechanistically, FK-16 activated nuclear p53 to upregulate Bax and downregulate Bcl-2. Knockdown of p53, genetic ablation of Bax, or overexpression of Bcl-2 reversed FK-16-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, abolition of AIF/EndoG-dependent apoptosis enhanced FK-16-induced autophagy while abolition of autophagy augmented FK-16-induced AIF−/EndoG-dependent apoptosis. Collectively, FK-16 induces caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy through the common p53-Bcl-2/Bax cascade in colon cancer cells. Our study also uncovered previously unknown reciprocal regulation between these two cell death pathways.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether long-term use of anticoagulants in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) influences renal function.
In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the records of 2023 patients who attended our institution for treatment of CKD between January 2001 and September 2012. Inclusion criteria were having been under review for three months or more, age older than 60 years, permanent AF, a CHADS2 score > 2, and National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative CKD stage 3–5. Sixty-one patients fulfilled these criteria, and were divided into those receiving antiplatelet anticoagulation (group A) and those receiving warfarin (group B). The results of laboratory investigations and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were recorded at months 3, 6, 12, and 18 from treatment initiation. We also recorded the occurrence of serious cardiovascular and neurological events, significant bleeding, and survival beyond 12 years.
Of the 61 patients enrolled, 35 were in group A and 26 were in group B. The mean international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.95 ± 1.01 (goal < 3.0). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, we found that patients in group B had a higher estimated GFR (6.06 ± 2.36 mL per minute, P = 0.01). Over a 12-year observation period, group B patients had significantly (P = 0.013) better survival than group A, with an adjusted hazard ratio for mortality of 0.318 (P = 0.022).
Warfarin therapy may delay deterioration in renal function and improve survival of elderly patients with CKD and AF.
aged; atrial fibrillation; chronic kidney disease; vitamin K antagonists; warfarin
The whitefly Bemisa tabaci is a species complex of more than 31 cryptic species which include some of the most destructive invasive pests of crops worldwide. Among them, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean have invaded many countries and displaced the native whitefly species. The successful invasion of the two species is largely due to their wide range of host plants, high resistance to insecticides and remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses. However, the molecular differences between invasive and indigenous whiteflies remain largely unknown.
Here the global transcriptional difference between the two invasive whitefly species (MEAM1, MED) and one indigenous whitefly species (Asia II 3) were analyzed using the Illumina sequencing. Our analysis indicated that 2,422 genes between MEAM1 and MED; 3,073 genes between MEAM1 and Asia II 3; and 3,644 genes between MED and Asia II 3 were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the differently expressed genes between the invasive and indigenous whiteflies were significantly enriched in the term of ‘oxidoreductase activity’. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that carbohydrate, amino acid and glycerolipid metabolisms were more active in MEAM1 and MED than in Asia II 3, which may contribute to their differences in biological characteristics. Our analysis also illustrated that the majority of genes involved in ‘drug metabolic pathway’ were expressed at a higher level in MEAM1 and MED than in Asia II 3. Taken together, these results revealed that the genes related to basic metabolism and detoxification were expressed at an elevated level in the invasive whiteflies, which might be responsible for their higher resistance to insecticides and environmental stresses.
The extensive comparison of MEAM1, MED and Asia II 3 gene expression may serve as an invaluable resource for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological differences and the whitefly invasion.
The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1) was modified by replacing its third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail with the corresponding regions from the bradykinin B2 receptor. Transgenic mice were produced that overexpress this mutated receptor (AB3T). Considerably less collagen content in the intact aorta and in primary aortic smooth muscle (aSMCs) cultures was observed in the transgenic mice. On the other hand, elastin content remained unchanged as measured by western blot, and insoluble amino acid quantitation. The contraction of isolated aortas also remained unaltered. The aSMCs derived from the transgenic mice showed a reduction in angiotensin II responsive type I collagen production. In aSMCs from transgenic mice, the cascade of Akt to the mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) to p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) was not angiotensin II activated, while in the aSMCs from wild type mice the cascade was angiotensin II activated. Angiotensin activation of Smad2 and Stat3 was also reduced in the AB3T aSMCs. However, no change in the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on type I collagen production was observed. Also, the activation of ERK and JNK and G protein linked signaling remained unaltered in response to angiotensin II. Akt and PI3K activation inhibitors blocked angiotensin II stimulated type I collagen expression in WT aSMCs, whereas ERK inhibitor had no such effect. Our results point to an Akt/ mTOR/ p70S6K regulation of collagen production by angiotensin II with participation of Smad2 and Stat3 cascades in this process.
Angiotensin II; type I collagen; elastin; Akt; transgenic mice
Photoaging is cumulative damage to skin, caused by chronic, repeated solar radiation exposure. Its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood at the level of global gene expression.
This study set out to uncover genes and functional modules involved in photoaging at the level of transcription, with the use of skin samples from Chinese women.
Using the Illumina microarray platform, we compared the genome-wide expression profiles of 21 pairs of sun-exposed pre-auricular and sun-protected post-auricular skin samples from northern Chinese women.
With microarray analysis, 1,621 significantly regulated genes due to photoaging were identified from skin samples. These genes were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with both the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation databases. As revealed by the functional analyses, the up-regulated functional modules in sun-exposed pre-auricular skin were related to various cellular activities in regulation of the skin homeostasis (e.g., the KEGG pathways TGF-beta signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction), whereas the down-regulated functional modules were mostly metabolic-related. Additionally, five selected genes (HOXA5, LEPR, CLDN5, LAMC3, and CGA) identified as differentially-expressed were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR).
Our findings suggest that disruption of skin homeostasis and down-regulation of skin metabolism may play important roles in the process of photoaging.
The Akt signaling pathway controls several cellular functions in the cardiovascular system; however, its role in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we show that the genetic ablation of Akt1 on an apolipoprotein E knockout background (ApoE−/−Akt1−/−) increases aortic lesion expansion and promotes coronary atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, lesion formation is due to enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory genes and endothelial cell and macrophage apoptosis. Bone marrow transfer experiments suggest that macrophages from ApoE−/−Akt1−/− donors were not sufficient to worsen atherogenesis when transferred to ApoE−/− recipients suggesting that lesion expansion in the ApoE−/− Akt1−/ strain may be of vascular origin. In the vessel wall, the loss of Akt1 increases inflammatory mediators and reduces eNOS phosphorylation suggesting that Akt1 exerts vascular protection against atherogenesis. The presence of coronary lesions in ApoE−/−/Akt1−/− mice provides a new model for studying the mechanisms of acute coronary syndrome in humans.
More information is needed about genetic factors that initiate development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs)—the most common precursors of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We show that >99% of the earliest stage, lowest-grade, PanIN-1 lesions contain mutations in KRAS, p16/CDKN2A, GNAS, or BRAF. These findings could improve our understanding the development and progression of these pre-malignant lesions.
Pancreatic cancer; tumorigenesis; transformation; neoplasm