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1.  Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training 
Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel.
We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts.
Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment.
Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate.
The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury.
PMCID: PMC4060587  PMID: 24999847
Chemical; biological; radiological; nuclear (CBRN) ensembles; Core temperature; Heart rate; Law enforcement; Thermoregulatory model
4.  Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians 
Diabetologia  2011;55(4):981-995.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3296006  PMID: 22109280
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
5.  CTAD as a universal anticoagulant 
The feasibility of CTAD (a mixture of citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole) as a new anticoagulant for medical laboratory use was studied prospectively. Whole blood anticoagulated with CTAD exhibited results very similar to those of blood anticoagulated with EDTA on complete blood count and automated white cell differential except for a slight decrease in platelet count and mean platelet volume. Chemistry test data for plasma obtained from CTAD whole blood were close to those obtained for matched sera. Among coagulation tests, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentrations were close to those obtained with citrate plasma. Based on the results, CTAD was judged to be a good candidate as a new anticoagulant.
PMCID: PMC2548379  PMID: 18924886
6.  Transfer of antibody against Borrelia duttonii from mother to young in ddY mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(10):4147-4152.
The route of transfer of anti-Borrelia duttonii antibody subclasses from mother to young and their role in protection against borrelial challenge infection in ddY mice were investigated. Offspring from infected and noninfected mice were segregated and nursed by noninfected or infected mothers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of antibodies of the cross-suckled offspring revealed that anti-B. duttonii immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) is transferred exclusively in milk and that IgG2a is transferred mainly in milk but also slightly through the yolk sac route. On the other hand, IgG3 is transferred mainly through the yolk sac route but also slightly in milk, whereas IgG2b is transferred through both routes but to a lesser extent. Anti-borrelial IgM was not detected in any offspring. The protective role of transferred IgG subclasses was examined by challenge infection with B. duttonii. Offspring from noninfected mice fed by infected mothers had IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3 at challenge and were completely protected against the challenge infection. On the other hand, offspring from infected mice fed by noninfected mothers had only IgG3, and 8 of 10 were completely protected from challenge infection whereas the other 2 contracted slight and transient spirochetemia. These findings suggested that anti-borrelial IgG3 alone has considerable protective activity and that IgG1, IgG2a, or both, either by themselves or together with IgG3, have a complete protective activity against borrelial infection.
PMCID: PMC281137  PMID: 8406804
7.  The cardioprotective effect of gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester during coronary reperfusion in canine hearts. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1991;104(4):805-810.
1. The cardioprotective effect of gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester was investigated on ischaemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial damage in anaesthetized dogs. 2. Open chest anaesthetized dogs were divided into four groups: 2 h occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD); 2 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion; 2 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion with administration of gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (10 mg kg-1 just before reperfusion); 2 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion with administration of GSH (the reduced form of glutathione, 10 mg kg-1 just before reperfusion). 3. After occlusion or reperfusion, heart mitochondria were prepared from the normal area and the occluded or the reperfused area, and mitochondrial function (rate of oxygen consumption in State III, and respiratory control index) was measured polarographically. 4. Mitochondrial GSH and GSSG (the oxidized form of glutathione) concentrations, and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were measured. 5. Two h of LAD occlusion induced mitochondrial dysfunction with depletion of mitochondrial GSH concentration. One h of reperfusion after 2 h LAD occlusion induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction associated with a marked depletion of mitochondrial GSH concentration. 6. gamma-Glutamylcysteine ethyl ester reduced mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion of mitochondrial GSH concentration after 2 h LAD occlusion and 1 h reperfusion. In contrast, GSH did not prevent depletion of mitochondrial GSH concentration and mitochondrial dysfunction after 2 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion. 7. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase did not change significantly in each group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1908817  PMID: 1810596
8.  Treponema pallidum specific IgM haemagglutination test for serodiagnosis of syphilis. 
The Treponema pallidum specific IgM haemagglutination (TP-IgM-HA) test uses erythrocytes sensitised with antiserum to human IgM to separate IgM from IgG in serum. Specific antitreponemal IgM captured in this way is detected by adding a second reagent comprising erythrocytes sensitised with T pallidum antigen. Eighty two serum samples from 82 patients with untreated syphilis, 521 samples from 73 patients with treated syphilis, and 1872 samples from people who did not have syphilis were examined by the 19S(IgM)-TPHA (T pallidum haemagglutination), IgM-FTA-ABS (fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed), TP-IgM-ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and TP-IgM-HA tests for the presence of 19S(IgM) antibodies specific to treponemes. The sensitivity of the TP-IgM-HA test was 97.6% and the specificity was 99.7%. We also traced IgM specific to treponemes in untreated patients with primary syphilis by four different tests. The TP-IgM-HA test results clearly reflected the effect of the treatment.
PMCID: PMC1046382  PMID: 6394097
10.  Complete nucleotide sequence of the E. coli glutathione synthetase gsh-II. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1984;12(24):9299-9307.
The nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA, 1,478 bp in length coding for glutathione synthetase (GSH-II) of E. coli B has been determined. Amino acid and nucleotide sequence analyses have assigned the open reading frame for GSH-II, starting with the ATG near its 5' terminus. The molecular weight calculated from the predicted amino acid sequence is 35,559 daltons, being in good agreement with that of a GSH-II subunit estimated by the SDS-PAGE method. Several signal sequences conserved in the promoter regions of E. coli were found in the non-coding regions of the gsh-II gene. They include the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, the Pribnow box and the sequence conserved in the "-35 region" with a preferable spacing from each other for an efficient transcription. Downstream from the termination codon, the inverted repeat sequences were present, followed by 6 successive T's. These structural features found in the non-coding regions have suggested to be involved in regulatory functions for the gsh-II gene expression.
PMCID: PMC320462  PMID: 6393055

Results 1-10 (10)