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author:("Yang, chaohu")
1.  The expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase 7 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma 
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the urinary system, and has a high frequency of local invasion and distant metastasis. This study assessed the expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. The expression of MMP-7 in CCRCC tissues was significantly higher compared with that in the control group (CG) and TIMP-2 expression in CCRCC, by contrast, was lower compared with that in the CG. The expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-2 in the CCRCC tissues was significantly correlated with the pathological grade and clinical stage. Log-rank analyses indicated that upregulation of MMP-7 and downregulation of TIMP-2 expression may occur during the progression of CCRCC, and Cox multivariate survival rate analysis demonstrated that there was also a positive correlation between the pathological grade, clinical stage, MMP-7 expression and survival rate. Thus, MMP-7 is an independent prognostic factor and MMP-7 and TIMP-2 may serve as useful molecular markers for evaluating prognosis in CCRCC patients.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.859
PMCID: PMC3570258  PMID: 23408109
clear cell renal cell carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinase 7; tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2; prognosis; tissue microarray
2.  Single Endemic Genotype of Measles Virus Continuously Circulating in China for at Least 16 Years 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34401.
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034401
PMCID: PMC3332093  PMID: 22532829
3.  Retrospective seroepidemiology indicated that human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 circulated wildly in central and southern China before large-scale outbreaks from 2008 
Virology Journal  2010;7:300.
Background
Large nationwide outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in China from 2008; most of the cases were in children under 5 years. This study aims to identify the situation of natural human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infections in children before 2008 in China.
Results
Retrospective seroepidemiologic studies of HEV71 and CVA16 were performed with 900 serum samples collected from children ≤5 years of age in 2005. The samples were collected from 6 different geographical areas (Anhui, Guangdong, Hunan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces) in mainland China. Of the 900 samples, 288 were positive for HEV71; the total positive rate was 32.0% and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 1:8.5. Guangdong (43.7% and 1:10.8), Xinjiang (45.4% and 1:11.1), and Yunnan (43.4% and 1:12.0) provinces had relatively high rates of infection, while Heilongjiang province (8.1% and 1:4.9) had the lowest rate of infection. On the other hand, 390 samples were positive for CVA16; the total positive rate was 43.4% and the GMT was 1:9.5. Anhui (62.2% and 1:16.0) and Hunan (61.1% and 1:23.1) had relatively high rates, while Heilongjiang (8.0% and 1:4.6) had the lowest rate. Although there is a geographical difference in HEV71 and CVA16 infections, low neutralizing antibody positive rate and titer of both viruses were found in all 6 provinces.
Conclusions
This report confirmed that HEV71 and CVA16 had wildly circulated in a couple provinces in China before the large-scale outbreaks from 2008. This finding also suggests that public health measures to control the spread of HEV71 and CVA16 should be devised according to the different regional characteristics.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-300
PMCID: PMC2989968  PMID: 21050463
4.  Genomic Analyses of Recombinant Adenovirus Type 11a in China▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(10):3082-3090.
Whole-genome sequencing of human adenovirus type 11 (HAdV-11) strain QS, isolated in China, was conducted, and its sequence was compared with the sequences of strains within the species of HAdVs. The HAdV-11 QS genome contains 34,755 nucleotides. Similar to the other HAdV subgenus B sequences, the HAdV-11 QS genome coded 37 functional proteins and could be divided into four early, two intermediate, and five late transcription regions. The amino acid sequences of the fiber and the hypervariable regions (HVRs) within the hexon gene of HAdV-11 QS were identical to the corresponding sequences of the HAdV-11a strain; further analyses that compared those amino acid sequences with the amino acid sequences of the HAdV species subgenus B:2 strains revealed that the highest degree of homology (>99.2%) existed between HAdV-11 QS and the prototypical HAdV-14 strain, except for a few coding sequences of HVRs within the hexon gene, DNA polymerase, pVI, and pre-terminal protein. This indicate that HAdV-11 strain QS, isolated in China, is a recombinant adenovirus of HAdV-14, and the recombination analyses also confirmed this finding. It is difficult to clarify the time and manner of the recombination, and further investigations are required to determine whether the emergence of recombination between HAdV-11a and HAdV-14 might increase virulence, thereby posing a new global challenge with regard to acute respiratory diseases in the near future.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00282-09
PMCID: PMC2756911  PMID: 19675212
5.  Outbreak of Acute Respiratory Disease in China Caused by B2 Species of Adenovirus Type 11▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;47(3):697-703.
An outbreak of acute respiratory tract infection occurred in Shanxi Province, China, from March to April 2006. Of the 254 patients affected by this outbreak, 247 patients were students of a senior high school; 1 of these patients died during the outbreak. Serological tests and blood culture revealed no evidence of bacterial infection. The results of direct reverse transcription-PCR or PCR performed with clinical specimens collected from the patients, including the sole patient who died, were positive for human adenoviruses (HAdVs) but negative for influenza virus, measles virus, rubella virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human enteroviruses. These findings were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HAdV immunoglobulin A, the conventional neutralization test, and viral isolation and identification. Sequencing of the entire hexon gene revealed that HdAV type 11a (HAdV-11a) belonging to the B2 species of HAdV was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. However, both the analysis of the phylogenetic relationship and the similarity plot indicated that the sequence of the 3′ end of the hexon gene outside the hypervariable regions the HAdV-11a strain isolated in this outbreak may be a recombinant with the sequence of the HAdV-14 strain of species B2. Although isolates of HAdV species B2 seldom cause respiratory infections, they may pose a new global challenge with regard to acute respiratory diseases; this possibility cannot be overlooked and should be carefully considered. Hence, the need to establish and improve both epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01769-08
PMCID: PMC2650960  PMID: 19109466
6.  Association of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and its severity in Chinese patients 
European Spine Journal  2008;17(7):956-964.
A case–control study was conducted to examine the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 2 of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (BMP-2) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and to investigate whether SNPs of the Ser37Ala (T/G) and the Ser87Ser (A/G) in the BMP-2 gene are associated with genetic susceptibility to OPLL and its severity in Chinese subjects. The Ser87Ser (A/G) SNP has been implicated in bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of OA in women. The Ser37Ala (T/G) SNP is associated with BMD and the rate of bone loss in osteoporosis and osteoporosis fractures. A total of 57 OPLL patients and 135 non-OPLL controls were studied. Radiographs of the cervical spine were analyzed to determine the presence and the severity of OPLL. The association of two SNPs with the occurrence and the extent of OPLL were statistically evaluated. There was a significant association between the Ser37Ala (T/G) polymorphism and the occurrence of OPLL in the cervical spine. However, no significant association was found between the Ser37Ala (T/G) polymorphism and the more number of ossified cervical vertebrae in OPLL patients. There was a significant association between the Ser87Ser (A/G) polymorphism and the more number of ossified cervical vertebrae in OPLL patients. However, there was no statistical difference between the Ser87Ser (A/G) SNP and the occurrence of OPLL in the cervical spine. In addition, the Ser87Ser (A/G) polymorphism in male patients and in female patients showed no statistical difference between cases and controls. The present results demonstrate that BMP-2 Gene is not only a factor associated with the occurrence of OPLL, but also a factor related to more extensive OPLL. The “G” allele in the Ser37Ala (T/G) polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of OPLL, but not more extensive OPLL in the cervical spine. The “G” allele in the Ser87Ser (A/G) polymorphism promotes the extent of OPLL, whereas the “A” allele in the Ser87Ser (A/G) polymorphism restricts ectopic ossification in the cervical spine at least in Chinese subjects.
doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0651-8
PMCID: PMC2443260  PMID: 18389292
OPLL; BMP-2 gene; PCR; Polymorphism; Case–control study

Results 1-6 (6)