The incretin hormone GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) promotes pancreatic β-cell function by potentiating insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation. Recently, a combined analysis of several genome-wide association studies (Meta-analysis of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits Consortium [MAGIC]) showed association to postprandial insulin at the GIP receptor (GIPR) locus. Here we explored mechanisms that could explain the protective effects of GIP on islet function.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Associations of GIPR rs10423928 with metabolic and anthropometric phenotypes in both nondiabetic (N = 53,730) and type 2 diabetic individuals (N = 2,731) were explored by combining data from 11 studies. Insulin secretion was measured both in vivo in nondiabetic subjects and in vitro in islets from cadaver donors. Insulin secretion was also measured in response to exogenous GIP. The in vitro measurements included protein and gene expression as well as measurements of β-cell viability and proliferation.
The A allele of GIPR rs10423928 was associated with impaired glucose- and GIP-stimulated insulin secretion and a decrease in BMI, lean body mass, and waist circumference. The decrease in BMI almost completely neutralized the effect of impaired insulin secretion on risk of type 2 diabetes. Expression of GIPR mRNA was decreased in human islets from carriers of the A allele or patients with type 2 diabetes. GIP stimulated osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression. OPN expression was lower in carriers of the A allele. Both GIP and OPN prevented cytokine-induced reduction in cell viability (apoptosis). In addition, OPN stimulated cell proliferation in insulin-secreting cells.
These findings support β-cell proliferative and antiapoptotic roles for GIP in addition to its action as an incretin hormone. Identification of a link between GIP and OPN may shed new light on the role of GIP in preservation of functional β-cell mass in humans.
National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
To assess the efficacy of a daily, self-administered 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults.
Treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary TB treated with a single 8-month regimen and followed in a prospective epidemiological study.
Two hundred and sixty-five HIV-infected and 26 non-HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with 2 months of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol and pyrazinamide followed by 6 months of daily INH + RMP. Median follow-up was 17.8 months. Ninety-five per cent of the HIV-infected and all of the non-HIV-infected patients who had sputum examined were sputum culture negative after 2 months of treatment. Twenty-two HIV-infected and no non-HIV-infected patients died during treatment. Relapse rates were 8.4% (5.9 per 100 person-years of observation [PYO], 95%CI 3.2–8.6) among HIV-infected patients and 4.5% (2.1/100 PYO, 95%CI 0–7.8) for non-HIV-infected patients. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 37% of the HIV-infected patients; most were minor and self-limiting.
An 8-month RMP-containing regimen was well tolerated and effective in the treatment of HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary TB. Relapse rates were similar to those reported with 6-month short-course regimens in HIV-infected individuals. Decisions about the duration of anti-tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected adults must balance programme resources and the likelihood of poor compliance with longer regimens with the potential for a modest decrease in relapses with longer treatment.
tuberculosis; HIV; AIDS; rifampicin; relapse; RFLP
The polarized molecules predominately distributing at hepatocyte canalicular surface play a vital role in disclosing the process of bile formation and etiopathogenisis of cholestatic live diseases. Therefore, it is important to find novel polarized molecules on hepatocyte canalicular membrane. In the present study, canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) isolated from rat hepatocyte by density gradient centrifugation were used as immunogens to produce hybridoma and 46 strains of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CMVs were obtained. With a series of morphological assay methods, including immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscope, the antigens recognized by canalicular mAb1 (CM1) and canalicular mAb2 (CM2) were confirmed to predominately distribute at hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Transport activity assay revealed that CM2 could inhibit ATP-dependent E217βG uptake of rat hepatocyte CMVs. Meanwhile, Western blotting analysis showed that the molecular mass of CM2 antigen was approximately 110kDa, which was much less than Mr 180kDa of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) involved in glucuronide transport. These data indicated that CM2 antigen might be a potential novel molecule participating in glucuronide transport on the hepatocyte canalicular membrane.
hepatocyte canalicular membrane; glucuronide transport; canalicular mAb2 (CM2); hybridoma technique.
Pituicytoma is a rare primary tumour of the neurohypophysis or infundibulum, which masquerades as a pituitary adenoma. We present a pituicytoma case in a 45-year-old female presenting as a focal lesion of the neurohypophysis. This case report reviews the clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological features of this rare tumour in order to understand it better.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of first-pass whole nodule perfusion imaging in the differentiation of benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). 77 patients with non-calcified SPNs (46 malignant, 22 benign and 9 active inflammatory) underwent first-pass perfusion imaging with a 64-detector row CT scanner. Perfusion, peak enhancement intensity (PEI), time to peak (TTP) and blood volume (BV) were measured and statistically compared among different groups. Mean perfusion, PEI and BV for benign SPNs were significantly lower than those for malignant nodules (p<0.05) and active infections (p<0.05), but the differences were not statistically significant between malignant tumours and active infections (p>0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that SPNs with perfusion greater than 30.6 ml min–1 ml–1, PEI higher than 23.3 HU or BV larger than 12.2 ml per 100 g were more likely to be malignant. In conclusion, first-pass perfusion imaging with 64-detector row CT is a feasible way of assessing whole nodule perfusion and helpful in differentiating benign from malignant SPNs.
This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between radiographic appearance and epithelial cell proliferations in keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs).
A retrospective radiographic analysis was performed on 284 cases of KCOT to gain insight into the radiographic characteristics. Expression of Ki-67 in 30 of the 284 cases was detected by the labelled streptavidin–biotin (LSAB) method and evaluated by an image analysis system.
The radiographic presentation of KCOT was divided into four types: unilocular, multilocular, multiple and naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). The expression of Ki-67 in NBCCS was significantly different from the solitary and multiple KCOTs (P = 0.018, 0.002). In multilocular KCOTs it was also significantly different from the unilocular and syndrome-associated lesions (P = 0.000). In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the solitary and multiple lesions (P = 0.220).
A high correlation exists in KCOT between its biological behaviour and imaging features. The solitary KCOT seems less biologically aggressive and it should be classified as a cyst rather than a tumour. This means that more than half of KCOTs manifest themselves as ordinary cysts.
keratocystic odontogenic tumour; imaging feature; Ki-67 antigen; immunohistochemistry
Although nanoparticles have tremendous potential for a host of applications, their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in the healthcare and consumer sectors. As regards the central nervous system (CNS), research data on nanoparticle interaction with neurons has provided evidence of both negative and positive effects. Maximal application dosage of nanoparticles in materials to provide applications such as antibacterial and antiviral functions is approximately 0.1–1.0 wt%. This concentration can be converted into a liquid phase release rate (leaching rate) depending upon the host or base materials used. For example, nanoparticulate silver (Ag) or copper oxide (CuO)-filled epoxy resin demonstrates much reduced release of the metal ions (Ag+ or Cu2+) into their surrounding environment unless they are mechanically removed or aggravated. Subsequent to leaching effects and entry into living systems, nanoparticles can also cross through many other barriers, such as skin and the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and may also reach bodily organs. In such cases, their concentration or dosage in body fluids is considered to be well below the maximum drug toxicity test limit (10−5 g ml−1) as determined in artificial cerebrospinal solution. As this is a rapidly evolving area and the use of such materials will continue to mature, so will their exposure to members of society. Hence, neurologists have equal interests in nanoparticle effects (positive functionality and negative toxicity) on human neuronal cells within the CNS, where the current research in this field will be highlighted and reviewed.
nanoparticles; central nervous system; functionality; toxicity
Effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) have been investigated in human leukemia cells (U937, Jurkat, and HL-60) as well as in primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in relation to apoptosis and cell signaling events. Exposure of cells to PEITC resulted in pronounced increase in the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, cleavage/degradation of PARP, and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. These events were accompanied by the caspase-independent downregulation of Mcl-1, inactivation of Akt, as well as activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002 significantly enhanced PEITC-induced apoptosis. Conversely, enforced activation of Akt by a constitutively active Akt construct markedly abrogated PEITC-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, caspase activation, and apoptosis, and also interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological or genetically (e.g., siRNA) attenuated PEITC-induced apoptosis. Finally, administration of PEITC markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in U937 xenograft model in association with inactivation of Akt, activation of JNK, as well as downregulation of Mcl-1. Taken together, these findings represent a novel mechanism by which agents targeting Akt/JNK/Mcl-1 pathway potentiate PEITC lethality in transformed and primary human leukemia cells and inhibitory activity of tumor growth of U937 xenograft model.
phenethyl isothiocyanate; Akt; JNK; apoptosis; leukemia; xenograft
The purpose of this article is to report 20 cases of ossifying fibroma involving the jaw bone and to review the literature of this lesion. All the cases had adequate radiographs and clinical information. Varying shapes of the lesion including cystic lesion and mixed density lesion are presented, including two massive expansile lesions, which measured more than 10 cm.
ossifying fibroma; plain X-ray; jaw bone; mandible; bone neoplasm
Fenofibrate has been widely used for the treatment of dyslipidaemia with a long history. Species differences of its metabolism were reported, but its metabolites in rodent have not been fully investigated.Urine and plasma samples were collected before and after oral dosages of fenofibrate in Sprague–Dawley rats. Urine samples were subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) analysis, and projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was used for the identification of metabolites.New metabolites in urine and plasma were also studied by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The metabolism pathway was studied in rat hepatocytes. Synthesized and purchased authentic compounds were used for metabolite identification by LC-MS/MS.Five ever-reported metabolites were identified and another four new ones were found. Among these new metabolites, fenofibric acid taurine and reduced fenofibric acid taurine indicate new phase II conjugation pathway of fenofibrate.
Metabolomics; metabolites; metabolism pathway; fenofibrate; rat
Plexiform neurofibroma (PN) is a rare benign tumor and a special subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Though the incidence is low, giant PN of the craniomaxillofacial region could result in severe hemifacial hypertrophy which is known as a typical manifestation of NF1 in young children. Here, we retrospectively reported a giant plexiform neurofibroma with hemorrhage in the cranio-maxillofacial region detected by CT and MRI. In addition, a brief review of the relevant literature is presented.
Plexiform neurofibroma; Hemorrhage; CT; MR
Background: European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life (QOL) questionnaire (QLQ-C30) has been used frequently and many language versions have been developed, including the simplified Chinese version. It is important to study psychometric properties of the simplified Chinese version from the clinical standpoint.
Patients and methods: The simplified Chinese version of the QLQ-C30 was used in a longitudinal study of 600 patients with five types of cancer: lung, breast, head and neck, colorectal, and stomach. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated by indicators of validity and reliability coefficients such as Cronbach's α and Pearson's correlation coefficient r, standardized response mean (SRM), correlational analysis, t-tests, and structural equation models.
Results: Correlation and structural equation model analyses confirmed good construct validity with root mean square error of approximation 0.054, standardized root mean square residual 0.037, non-normed fit index 0.972, and comparative fit index 0.980. The α coefficients for all domains are >0.7 except for cognitive functioning (0.49). The test–retest reliability coefficients for most domains are >0.80 except for appetite loss (0.77) and diarrhea (0.75). The QOL score changes after treatments were of statistical significance with higher or moderate SRM in most domains.
Conclusion: The simplified Chinese version of QLQ-C30 has good validity, reliability, and responsiveness and can be used to measure QOL for Chinese cancer patients.
quality of life; QLICP-GM; structural equation model; standardized response mean; psychometric properties
To describe the clinical features of and genetic locus associated with autosomal‐dominant macular dystrophy (MCDR5) in a large Greek family.
26 members of a single family underwent clinical examinations and venepuncture. A genomewide linkage scan using 400 microsatellite markers distributed with an average spacing of 10 cM throughout the human genome.
14 members of the study family exhibited clinical features of the disease including decreased central vision and macular abnormalities in the posterior pole of the retina. Analysis of loci known to be associated with macular dystrophy did not show positive linkage. A genomewide linkage scan showed linkage to chromosome 19q, with a two‐point maximum LOD score of 5.809 at θ = 0 between the disease and marker locus D19S412. On the basis of recombination events, the disease interval was localised between markers D19S420 and D19S540 on chromosome 19q, at a span of about 3.8 cM, in an area known to contain 120 known genes/transcripts. Eleven of these genes/transcripts were sequenced, and no disease‐causing mutation was identified.
This study describes a new locus on 19q associated with autosomal‐dominant macular dystrophy, designated as MCDR5. Additional study of other family members will be necessary to further narrow the interval and identify the responsible gene. The study of MCDR5 will aid in elucidation of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms for this and other macular diseases, including age‐related macular degeneration.
The functional consequences of missense variants are often difficult to predict. This becomes especially relevant when DNA sequence changes are used to determine a diagnosis or prognosis. To analyze the consequences of twelve missense variants in patients with mild forms of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), we employed site-directed mutagenesis of ATM cDNA followed by stable transfections into a single A-T cell line to isolate the effects of each allele on the cellular phenotype. After induction of the transfected cells with CdCl2, we monitored for successful ATM transcription and subsequently assessed: 1) intracellular ATM protein levels, 2) ionizing radiation (IR)-induced ATM kinase activity, and 3) cellular radiosensitivity. We then calculated SIFT and PolyPhen scores for the missense changes. Nine variants produced little or no correction of the A-T cellular phenotype and were interpreted to be ATM mutations; SIFT/PolyPhen scores supported this. Three variants corrected the cellular phenotype, suggesting that they represented benign variants or polymorphisms. SIFT and PolyPhen scores supported the functional analyses for one of these variants (c.1709T>C); the other two were predicted to be “not tolerated” (c.6188G>A, and c.6325T>G) and were classified as “operationally neutral”. Genotype/phenotype relationships were compared: three deleterious missense variants were associated with an increased risk of cancer (c.6679C>T, c.7271T>G and c.8494C>T). In situ mutagenesis represents an effective experimental approach for distinguishing deleterious missense mutations from benign or “operationally neutral” missense variants.
missense mutations; mutagenesis; ATM; cancer risk
To introduce, implement, and assess an iterative modification to the active deformational image segmentation method as applied to cervical cancer tumors.
Materials and Methods
A comparison by Jaccard similarity (JS) between this active deformational method and manual segmentation was performed on tumors of various sizes across pre-radiation, three weeks post-radiation, and six weeks post-radiation using a General Linear Mixed Model across 121 studies from 52 patients with stage IIB-IV cervical cancers.
The deformable segmentation method produced promising levels of agreement including JS factors of 0.71 ± 0.11 in the pre-radiation studies. The analysis illustrated a rate of improvement in JS with increasing tumor volume that differed between the pre-radiation and six-weeks post-radiation stage (p=0.0474). In the large pre-radiated tumors each additional cm3 of volume was associated with an increase or improvement in JS of 0.0008 (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.0014). In the smaller post-radiation tumors, each additional cm3 of volume was associated with a more robust improvement in JS of 0.0046 (95% CI: 0.0009, 0.0082).
Agreement was strongly affected by tumor volume, and its performance was most impacted across volume in the later stages of radiation therapy. The deformation based segmentation method appears to demonstrate utility for delineating cervical cancer tumors, particularly in the earliest stages of radiation treatment where agreement is greatest.
Active Deformational Model; Volumetric Changes; Cervical Cancer; Radiation Therapy; Image Segmentation; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Abnormal hypermethylation of CpG islands associated with tumor suppressor genes can lead to transcriptional silencing in neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter methylation and expression of E-cadherin gene in gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA).
A nested MSP approach, immunohistochemistry method and RT-PCR were used respectively to examine the methylation status of the 5' CpG island of E-cadherin, its protein expression and mRNA expression in tumors and corresponding normal tissues.
E-cadherin was methylated in 63 of 92 (68.5%) tumor specimens, which was significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). Methylation frequencies of stage III and IV tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in stage I and II tumor tissues (P = 0.01). Methylation status of poor differentiation group was significantly higher than moderate and poor-moderate differentiation groups (P < 0.01). By immunostaining 51 of 92 tumor tisssues demonstrated heterogeneous, positive immunostaining of tumor tissues (44.6%), significantly different from matched normal tissues (P < 0.001). Positive immunostaining of stage III and IV tumor tissues was significantly lower than stage I and II tumor tissues (P < 0.01). Poor differentiation group was also significantly lower than moderate and poor-moderate differentiation groups (P < 0.05). 80 percent of tumor tissues with E-cadherin gene methylated showed inactivated mRNA expression.
High methylation status of the 5' CpG island of E-cadherin gene may be one of the mechanisms in the development of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma.
E-cadherin; methylation; gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma
Fascin, an actin‐binding protein, is usually expressed at a low level in normal epithelium, but is markedly up regulated in several types of carcinomas. Reports on fascin expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and precancerous lesions remain rare.
To show the roles of fascin in the progression from normal epithelium to invasive ESCC.
Fascin expression in 102 sections embedded in paraffin wax, including samples of normal mucosa (n = 20), dysplasia (n = 10), ESCC (n = 62) and special sections (n = 10) of a full‐length mucosa layer from the distant margin to the cancer focus of the excised oesophagus, and 49 fresh specimens of ESCC was analysed by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction. Fascin expression in ESCC cell lines was also investigated.
In the immunohistochemical study, the positive rate of fascin was significantly higher in the tumour tissue than in the normal epithelium (p = 0.020), but no significant difference was shown between ESCC and dysplasia (p = 1.000). Immunostaining for fascin was only apparent in the basal layer of the normal epithelium. However, in the dysplasia, positive staining was observed in most of the heterogeneous cells from the basal layer to the granular layer of the epithelium. Fascin expression was seen to increase progressively from the normal epithelium to invasive ESCC. Up regulation of fascin was observed in 87.76% (43/49) and 77.55% (38/49) of the specimens, respectively, using western blot and real‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction assays; 80% (4/5) of ESCC cell lines also expressed fascin at a high level. Furthermore, overexpression of fascin was markedly correlated with cell proliferation and lymph node metastasis.
These findings suggested that fascin was associated with the transformation and development of ESCC and implicated the potential of fascin as a novel biomarker that would allow the tumour to be identified at an early stage in high‐risk individuals.