Recent work in k-t BLAST and undersampled projection angiography has emphasized the value of using training data sets obtained during the acquisition of a series of images. These techniques have used iterative algorithms guided by the training set information to reconstruct time frames sampled at well below the Nyquist limit. We present here a simple non-iterative unfiltered backprojection algorithm that incorporates the idea of a composite image consisting of portions or all of the acquired data to constrain the backprojection process. This significantly reduces streak artifacts and increases the overall SNR, permitting decreased numbers of projections to be used when acquiring each image in the image time series. For undersampled 2D projection imaging applications, such as cine phase contrast (PC) angiography, our results suggest that the angular undersampling factor, relative to Nyquist requirements, can be increased from the present factor of 4 to about 100 while increasing SNR per individual time frame. Results are presented for a contrast-enhanced PR HYPR TRICKS acquisition in a volunteer using an angular undersampling factor of 75 and a TRICKS temporal undersampling factor of 3 for an overall undersampling factor of 225.
time resolved MRI; constrained backprojection; undersampled data; ultra-fast imaging; acceleration factors
Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with breast, lung and melanoma systemic cancers. The anti-αV integrin monoclonal antibody intetumumab binds cell surface proteins important for adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis in the metastatic cascade. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-metastatic effect of intetumumab in a hematogenous breast cancer brain metastasis model. Female nude rats received intra-carotid infusion of human brain-seeking metastatic breast cancer cells (231BR-HER2) and were randomly assigned into 4 groups: 1) control; 2) intetumumab mixed with cells in vitro 5 min before infusion without further treatment; 3) intetumumab intravenously 4 h before and weekly after cell infusion; 4) intetumumab intravenously weekly starting 7 d after cell infusion. Brain metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunnett’s test. Survival times were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All control rats with brain tissue available for histology (9 of 11 rats) developed multiple brain metastases (median=14). Intetumumab treatment either in vitro prior to cell infusion or intravenous before or after cell infusion prevented metastasis formation on MRI and decreased the number of metastases on histology (median=2, p=0.0055), including 30% of animals without detectable tumors at the end of the study. The overall survival was improved by intetumumab compared to controls (median 77+ versus 52 d, p=0.0277). Our results suggest that breast cancer patients at risk of metastases might benefit from early intetumumab treatment.
integrin; intetumumab; breast cancer; brain metastasis; MRI
The aim of the current study was to determine whether the FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr polymorphism is a predisposition factor for subtypes of RA defined by disease severity and production of autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCPs) in Taiwanese RA patients. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr were compared between 562 normal healthy controls and 640 RA patients as stratified by clinical parameters and autoantibodies. Significant enrichment of 187-Ile allele was observed in RA patients positive for anti-CCP antibodies as compared with the anti-CCP negative RA patients (P=0.001, OR 1.652 (95% CI 1.210–2.257)) or as compared with the normal controls (P =0.005, OR 1.348 (95% CI 1.092–1.664)). In addition, 187-Ile allele was found to be enriched in RA patients positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) compared to the RF negative RA patients (P=0.024, OR 1.562 (95% CI 1.059–2.303)). Furthermore, the homozygotes were enriched in destructive male RA patients (P =0.035; OR 2.038 (95% CI 1.046–3.973)) and the 187-Ile allele was associated with early-onset of RA in Taiwanese patients (P=0.045, OR 1.548 (95% CI 1.007–2.379)). Thus, FcγRIIb SNP 187-Ile/Thr may influence the RA phenotypes in Taiwanese RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; anti-CCP antibody; FcγR; polymorphism
We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application.
In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CIPaddick), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1–1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CIPaddick. The measurements of MCI in head–neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice.
The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CIPaddick are also provided.
The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose–volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.
To investigate the toxic effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), a corneal penetration enhancer in topical ophthalmic formulations, on DNA in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEs), and to investigate whether the effect induced by EDTA can be inhibited by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA).
Cells were exposed to EDTA in concentrations ranging from 0.00001 to 0.01% for 60 min, or 30 min high molecular weight HA pretreatment followed by EDTA treatment. The cell viability was measured by the MTT test. Cell apoptosis was determined with annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The DNA single- and double-strand breaks of HCEs were examined by alkaline comet assay and by immunofluorescence microscope detection of the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate.
EDTA exhibited no adverse effect on cell viability and did not induce cell apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than 0.01%. However, a significant increase of DNA single- and double-strand breaks was observed in a dose-dependent manner with all the concentrations of EDTA tested in HCEs. In addition, EDTA treatment led to elevated ROS generation. Moreover, 30 min preincubation with high molecular weight HA significantly decreased EDTA-induced ROS generation and DNA damage.
EDTA could induce DNA damage in HCEs, probably through oxidative stress. Furthermore, high molecular weight HA was an effective protective agent that had antioxidant properties and decreased DNA damage induced by EDTA.
hyaluronan; EDTA; DNA damage; ROS; corneal epithelial cell
The glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys with a high-solvent content such as soft magnetic Fe-based and Al-based alloys is usually limited due to strong formation of the solvent-based solid solution phase. Herein, we report that the GFA of soft magnetic Fe-based alloys (with >70 at.% Fe to ensure large saturation magnetization) could be dramatically improved by doping with only 0.3 at.% Cu which has a positive enthalpy of mixing with Fe. It was found that an appropriate Cu addition could enhance the liquid phase stability and crystallization resistance by destabilizing the α-Fe nano-clusters due to the necessity to redistribute the Cu atoms. However, excessive Cu doping would stimulate nucleation of the α-Fe nano-clusters due to the repulsive nature between the Fe and Cu atoms, thus deteriorating the GFA. Our findings provide new insights into understanding of glass formation in general.
We demonstrated how to comprehensively translate the existing and updated scientific evidence on genomic discovery, tumour phenotype, clinical features, and conventional risk factors in association with breast cancer to facilitate individually tailored screening for breast cancer.
We proposed an individual-risk-score-based approach that translates state-of-the-art scientific evidence into the initiators and promoters affecting onset and subsequent progression of breast tumour underpinning a novel multi-variable three-state temporal natural history model. We applied such a quantitative approach to a population-based Taiwanese women periodical screening cohort.
Risk prediction for pre-clinical detectable and clinical-detected breast cancer was made by the two risk scores to stratify the underlying population to assess the optimal age to begin screening and the inter-screening interval for each category and to ascertain which high-risk group requires an alternative image technique. The risk-score-based approach significantly reduced the interval cancer rate as a percentage of the expected rate in the absence of screening by 30% and also reduced 8.2% false positive cases compared with triennial universal screening.
We developed a novel quantitative approach following the principle of translational research to provide a roadmap with state-of-the-art genomic discovery and clinical parameters to facilitate individually tailored breast cancer screening.
translational research; individually tailored breast cancer screening; multi-state multi-variable model; breast cancer
Meta-analyses were conducted to characterize patterns of mutation incidence in non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Nine genes with the most complete published mutation coincidence data were evaluated. One meta-analysis generated a ‘mutMap’ to visually represent mutation coincidence by ethnicity (Western/Asian) and histology (adenocarcinoma [ADC] or squamous cell carcinoma). Another meta-analysis evaluated incidence of individual mutations. Extended analyses explored incidence of EGFR and KRAS mutations by ethnicity, histology, and smoking status.
Genes evaluated were TP53, EGFR, KRAS, LKB1, EML4-ALK, PTEN, BRAF, PIK3CA, and ErbB2. The mutMap highlighted mutation coincidences occurring in ≥5% of patients, including TP53 with KRAS or EGFR mutations in patients with ADC, and TP53 with LKB1 mutation in Western patients. TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene overall. Frequencies of TP53, EGFR, KRAS, LKB1, PTEN, and BRAF mutations were influenced by histology and/or ethnicity. Although EGFR mutations were most frequent in patients with ADC and never/light smokers from Asia, and KRAS mutations were most frequent in patients with ADC and ever/heavy smokers from Western countries, both were detected outside these subgroups.
Potential molecular pathology segments of NSCLC were identified. Further studies of mutations in NSCLC are warranted to facilitate more specific diagnoses and guide treatment.
geography; histology; lung cancer; mutation coincidence; oncogenes
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, known as favism, is classically manifested by hemolytic anemia in human. More recently, it has been shown that mild G6PD deficiency moderately affects cardiac function, whereas severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice. How G6PD deficiency affects organisms has not been fully elucidated due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans was established by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to delineate the role of G6PD in animal physiology. Upon G6PD RNAi knockdown, G6PD activity was significantly hampered in C. elegans in parallel with increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage. Phenotypically, G6PD-knockdown enhanced germ cell apoptosis (2-fold increase), reduced egg production (65% of mock), and hatching (10% of mock). To determine whether oxidative stress is associated with G6PD knockdown-induced reproduction defects, C. elegans was challenged with a short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The early phase egg production of both mock and G6PD-knockdown C. elegans were significantly affected by H2O2. However, H2O2-induced germ cell apoptosis was more dramatic in mock than that in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. To investigate the signaling pathways involved in defective oogenesis and embryogenesis caused by G6PD knockdown, mutants of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined. Despite the upregulation of CEP-1 (p53), cep-1 mutation did not affect egg production and hatching in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Neither pmk-1 nor mek-1 mutation significantly affected egg production, whereas sek-1 mutation further decreased egg production in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Intriguingly, loss of function of sek-1 or mek-1 dramatically rescued defective hatching (8.3- and 9.6-fold increase, respectively) induced by G6PD knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that G6PD knockdown reduces egg production and hatching in C. elegans, which are possibly associated with enhanced oxidative stress and altered MAPK pathways, respectively.
C. elegans; G6PD; oxidative stress; germ cell apoptosis; embryogenesis; MAPK
Angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) have opposing effects on blood vessels, with Ang-2 being mainly induced during the endothelial barrier breakdown. It is known that spinal cord injury (SCI) induces lasting decreases in Ang-1 levels, underlying endothelial barrier disruption, but the expression of Ang-2 in spinal cord injury has not been studied. We characterized Ang-2 after SCI using a clinically relevant rat model of contusion SCI. We found that SCI induces marked and persistent upregulation of Ang-2 (up to 10 weeks after SCI), which does not reflect well-characterized temporal profile of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) breakdown after SCI, and thus suggests other role(s) for Ang-2 in injured spinal cords. Furthermore, we also found that higher Ang-2 levels were associated with more successful locomotor recovery after SCI, both in SCI rats with markedly better spontaneous motor recovery, and in SCI rats receiving a neuroprotective pharmacological intervention (amiloride), suggesting a beneficial role for Ang-2 in injured spinal cords. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that Ang-2 was not induced in endothelial cells, but in perivascular and non-vascular cells labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2). Therefore, it is unlikely that induction of Ang-2 contributes to vascular dysfunction underlying functional impairment after SCI, but rather that it contributes to the beneficial pro-angiogenic and/or gliogenic processes underlying recovery processes after SCI.
spinal cord injury; Ang-2; Ang-1; angiogenesis; NG2; amiloride; motor recovery
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a common malformation associated with diabetic embryopathy. Maternal hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress inhibits the expression of Pax3, a gene that is essential for neural tube closure, and increases the incidence of NTDs. Because oxidative stress can stimulate AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity, and AMPK can regulate gene transcription, we hypothesised that increased AMPK activity would mediate the adverse effects of maternal hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress on Pax3 expression and NTDs.
Pregnant mice were made transiently hyperglycaemic by glucose injection, or hypoxic by housing in a hypoxic chamber, or were treated with antimycin A to induce oxidative stress, and AMPK activity in the embryos was assayed. The effects of stimulating AMPK activity with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on Pax3 expression and NTDs were determined. Vitamin E or glutathione ethyl ester was used to reduce oxidative stress, and compound C was used to inhibit AMPK activation. Murine embryonic stem cells were employed as an in vitro model to study the effects of oxidative stress on AMPK activity and the effects of AMPK stimulation on Pax3 expression.
Maternal hyperglycaemia stimulated AMPK activity, and stimulation of AMPK with AICAR inhibited Pax3 expression (in vivo and in vitro) and increased NTDs (in vivo). Stimulation of AMPK by hyperglycaemia, hypoxia or antimycin A was inhibited by antioxidants. The AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked the effects of hyperglycaemia or AA on Pax3 expression and NTDs.
Stimulation of AMPK in embryos during a diabetic pregnancy mediates the effects of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress to disturb the expression of the critical Pax3 gene, thereby causing NTDs.
AMP-activated kinase; Diabetic embryopathy; Diabetic pregnancy; Neural tube defect; Pax3; Oxidative stress
Expanding the availability, utilization and coverage of HIV testing services is a critical step towards primary prevention and successful delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zimbabwe. We used data from the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2005–2006) to examine the coverage and correlates of recent HIV testing (HIV testing, <24 months preceding the survey) among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults. We estimated the relative contribution of HIV testing in both the antenatal care (ANC) setting and non-ANC settings. Uptake of recent HIV testing was 14.4% among women and 11.1% among men, with HIV testing in ANC accounting for 42.3% and 10.3% of all recent testing among women and men, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, recent pregnancies and being aware of ART were independent correlates after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. HIV testing in ANC was an important contributor to HIV testing coverage in Zimbabwe by reaching not only pregnant women but also their partners.
HIV testing; adult; screening; antenatal care; coverage; PMTCT; Zimbabwe; Africa
The family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) is responsible for the altered glycosylation in cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate the clinical significance of two isoforms, GalNAc-T6 and -T3, and their correlation with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse GalNAc-T6 and -T3 expressions in 70 clinicopathologically characterised pancreatic cancer cases.
Positive expressions of GalNAc-T6 and -T3 were immunohistochemically identified in 51% (36 of 70) and in 77% (54 of 70) of patients, respectively. A close relationship was noted between GalNAc-T6 positive expression and pathological well/moderate differentiated type (P=0.001), small tumour size (P=0.044), absence of vascular invasion (P=0.009), and low stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer systems (P=0.043). The expression of GalNAc-T3 significantly correlated with good differentiation (P=0.001), but not with other clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that GalNAc-T6 expression was an independent prognosis indicator for the disease, whereas GalNAc-T3 expression had no impact on clinical outcome, even though 33 of 36 GalNAc-T6-positive cases also had a positive expression of GalNAc-T3 (P=0.001, r=0.356).
Both GalNAc-T6 and -T3 expressions correlated significantly with tumour differentiation, whereas only GalNAc-T6 expression predicted prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
pancreatic cancer; GalNAc-T6; GalNAc-T3; prognosis; metastasis
We report the case of a patient diagnosed as having cluster-tic syndrome as the initial manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). The patient’s headache bouts improved after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, steroids, and beta-interferon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed a pontine demyelinating lesion involving the area of the trigeminal root inlet and main sensory nucleus. Neurophysiological studies correlated well with MRI lesions. The association between cluster-tic syndrome and MS is an exception, and the mechanism of the pain is still unknown; therefore, this case might suggest a pathophysiological relationship between the trigeminal main sensory nucleus and cluster-tic syndrome.
To improve understanding of TRPV4-associated axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy phenotypes and their debated pathologic mechanism.
A total of 17 CMT2C phenotypic families with vocal cord and diaphragmatic involvement and 36 clinically undifferentiated CMT2 subjects underwent sequencing analysis of the coding region of TRPV4. Functional studies of mutant proteins were performed using transiently transfected cells for TRPV4 subcellular localization, basal and stimulated Ca2+ channel analysis, and cell viability assay with or without channel blockade.
Two TRPV4 mutations R232C and R316H from 17 CMT2C families were identified in the ankyrin repeat domains. The R316H is a novel de novo mutation found in a patient with CMT2C phenotype. The family with R232C mutation had individuals with and without vocal cord and diaphragm involvement. Both mutant TRPV4 proteins had normal subcellular localization in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Cells transfected with R232C and R316H displayed increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and reversible cell death by the TRPV channel antagonist, ruthenium red.
TRPV4 ankyrin domain alterations including a novel de novo mutation cause axonal CMT2. Individuals with the same mutation may have nondistinct CMT2 or have phenotypic CMT2C with vocal cord paresis. Reversible hypercalcemic gain-of-function of mutant TRPV4 instead of loss-of-function appears to be pathologically important. The reversibility of cell death by channel blockade provides an attractive area of investigation in consideration of treatable axonal degeneration.
Dendritic trafficking and translation of BDNF transcripts play a key role in mediating synaptic plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that siRNA-mediated knockdown of translin, an RNA binding protein, impairs KCl-induced dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA in cultured hippocampal neurons. We have now assessed whether translin deletion impairs dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA in hippocampal neurons in vivo. We have found that translin and its partner protein, trax, undergo dendritic translocation in response to treatment with pilocarpine, a pro-convulsant muscarinic agonist that increases dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA in hippocampal neurons. In translin knockout mice, the basal level of dendritic BDNF mRNA is decreased in CA1 pyramidal neurons. However, translin deletion does not block pilocarpine’s ability to increase dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA indicating that the requirement for translin in this process varies with the stimulus employed to drive it. Consistent with this inference, we found that dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA induced by bath application of recombinant BDNF in cultured hippocampal neurons, is not blocked by siRNA-mediated knockdown of translin. Taken together, these in vivo and in vitro findings indicate that dendritic trafficking of BDNF mRNA can be mediated by both translin-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
trax; hippocampus; pilocarpine; CA1 pyramidal neurons; dendritic translation
It is intriguing that some pan-caspase inhibitors such as zVAD-fmk (zVAD) are capable of inducing necrotic cell death in a selected group of cells. As earlier reports from our laboratory have ruled out the original notion that zVAD-induced necrosis in mouse fibrosarcoma L929 cells was autophagic cell death, the main objective of this study was thus to determine the underlying mechanism of this form of cell death. In this study, we provided clear evidence that zVAD-induced necroptosis in L929 cells and such cell death is dependent on autocrine production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) at the transcriptional level. More importantly, we identified that activating protein-1 (AP-1), but not nuclear factor κ-B, is the transcription factor controlling zVAD-induced TNFα transcription. Moreover, zVAD is able to activate AP-1 through activation of two upstream mitogen-activated kinases (MAPKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Finally, we found that protein kinase C is the important upstream signaling molecule in mediating zVAD-induced activation of MAPKs and AP-1, and subsequent autocrine production of TNFα and cell death. Data from this study reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying zVAD-induced necroptosis, an important form of programmed necrotic cell death with increasing understanding of its biological significance in health and diseases.
zVAD-fmk; autocrine production of TNFα; necroptosis; L929 cells; PKC; AP-1
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
Diabetes is a risk factor for MCI and dementia. However, the association between high normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) and dementia has not been studied.
Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the association of dementia and MCI with FBG in an age- and sex-matched sample of 32 dementia patients, 27 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and 31 normal controls (NC). Analyses were repeated for those with normal FBG. Correlations between FBG and cognitive test scores were obtained.
Controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, Hachinski Ischemic Score, MRI stroke, and normalized brain, hippocampal and white matter hyperintensity MRI volumes; higher FBG was associated with dementia vs. aMCI status (OR= 3.13; 95% CI:1.28–7.69). This association remained (OR= 7.75; 95% CI:1.10–55.56) when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. When dementia patients were compared with NC adjusting for age, sex and education a significant association with FBG also was seen (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.09–3.08), but the association was lost when vascular covariates were added to the model. FBG was not associated with aMCI status vs. NC. Higher FBG was correlated with poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test Part B (p=0.003). The percentage of dementia patients with high normal FBG (90%) was significantly higher than that of aMCI patients with high normal FBG (32.9%) (χ2=13.9, p<0.001).
Higher FBG was associated with dementia (vs. aMCI) independent of vascular risk factors and MRI indicators of vascular disease, and remained a significant risk factor when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that a high normal level of FBG may be a risk factor for dementia.
dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment; fasting blood glucose; diabetes; hippocampal volume; white matter hyperintensity; magnetic resonance imaging; cognitive performance; vascular risk
Second Generation high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized the genome sequencing applications and will ultimately have great impact on personalized medicine. The increase in capacity of both the AB/Life Technologies SOLiD 4.0 and Illumina HiSeq instrumentation and the ability of the platforms to multiplex samples has led to process innovations impacting many ongoing projects at the HGSC. Applications have ranged from regional and whole exome capture sequencing to the use of whole genome shotgun for deep coverage and determining structural rearrangements. Internal advancements have complemented the higher capacity instrumentation through the implementation of library automation, low DNA input samples, capture hybridization multiplexing and application of read mapping tools such as BFAST and BWA. Development of sample intake procedures, LIMS tracking and defined reporting metrics has enabled NexGen sequencing pipelines that can effectively deliver targeted and whole genome shotgun data for thousands of samples. These technical advancements to the pipeline have allowed us to achieve a rate of ∼1500 libraries/captures per month. To date the center has completed over 5000 exome and regional capture libraries for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), NIMH Autism, Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE-S) and 1000 Genomes Project. Development of these applications and methods will be discussed along with key data metrics, process management and pipeline organization.
The introduction of modern dual-energy CT (DECT) scanners has enabled contrast material to be distinguished at imaging without the need for a separate unenhanced scan. Images of pulmonary parenchymal contrast enhancement obtained using DECT improve the detection of defects, augmenting our ability to detect pulmonary emboli; however, with these advances new pitfalls are also introduced. In this pictorial review, we present the technique, clinical applications and causes and remedies of false results of dual-energy pulmonary parenchymal enhancement defects in pulmonary embolism.
Background and objective
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to postnatal neovascularization, thus promoting wide interest in their therapeutic potential in vascular injury and prevention of their dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (HKa), an activation product of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), inhibits the functions of differentiated endothelial cells including in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. In this study, our results provided the first evidence that HKa is able to target EPCs and inhibits their tube forming capacity.
Methods and results
We determined the effect of HKa on EPCs using a three-dimensional vasculogenesis assay. Upon stimulation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) alone, EPCs formed vacuoles and tubes, and differentiated into capillary-like networks. As detected by gelatinolytic activity assay, VEGF stimulated secretion and activation of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2), but not MMP-9, in the conditioned medium of 3D culture of EPCs. Specific inhibition or gene ablation of MMP-2, but not MMP-9, blocked the vacuole and tube formation by EPCs. Thus, MMP-2 is selectively required for EPC vasculogenesis. In a concentration-dependent manner, HKa significantly inhibited tube formation by EPCs and the conversion of pro-MMP-2 to MMP-2. Moreover, HKa completely blocked the association between pro-MMP- 2 and αvβ3 integrin, and its inhibition of MMP-2 activation was dependent on the presence of αvβ3 integrin. In a purified system, HKa did not directly inhibit MMP-2 activity.
HKa inhibits tube forming capacity of EPCs by suppression of MMP-2 activation, which may constitute a novel link between activation of the KKS and EPC dysfunction.
endothelial progenitor cells; kininogen; matrix metalloproteinase; vasculogenesis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
We have developed PC HYPRFlow, a comprehensive MRA technique that includes a whole-brain CE dynamic series followed by PC velocity-encoding, yielding a time series of high-resolution morphologic angiograms with associated velocity information. In this study, we present velocity data acquired by using the PC component of PC HYPRFlow (PC-VIPR).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ten healthy volunteers (6 women, 4 men) were scanned by using PC HYPRFlow and 2D-PC imaging, immediately followed by velocity measurements by using TCD. Velocity measurements were made in the M1 segments of the MCAs from the PC-VIPR, 2D-PC, and TCD examinations.
PC-VIPR showed approximately 30% lower mean velocity compared with TCD, consistent with other comparisons of TCD with PC-MRA. The correlation with TCD was r = 0.793, and the correlation of PC-VIPR with 2D-PC was r = 0.723.
PC-VIPR is a technique capable of acquiring high-resolution MRA of diagnostic quality with velocity data comparable with TCD and 2D-PC. The combination of velocity information and fast high-resolution whole-brain morphologic angiograms makes PC HYPRFlow an attractive alternative to current MRA methods.