A noninvasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection that uses [15N]urea as a tracer has been established. The principle the test is based on is the strong urease activity of H. pylori. After oral ingestion, [15N]urea is broken down into ammonia and carbon dioxide by H. pylori urease in the stomach. The ammonia is absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine. The amount of [15N]urea, reflecting the magnitude of H. pylori infection, is evaluated by measuring the abundance and excretion rate of 15N in ammonia in the urine. Thirty-six patients were examined in our study. The 15N excretion rates in urine ammonia of patients who were H. pylori positive were significantly higher than those of H. pylori-negative patients (P less than 0.05). Twenty-three patients were H. pylori positive by Gram stain and culture. The sensitivity of the 15NH4 excretion test compared with these techniques was 96%, and no false positives were obtained. The 15NH4+ excretion rates of 13 H. pylori-negative subjects were all in the normal range (less than 0.3%). This method is a simple, precise, highly sensitive, noninvasive, nonradioactive test. It could be used for diagnosis as well as for the followup of patients receiving H. pylori eradication therapy, especially children and pregnant women. It could also be used in epidemiological investigation of H. pylori infection in a general population.
The tumor suppressor p53 has an important role in inducing cell-intrinsic responses to DNA damage, including cellular senescence or apoptosis, which act to thwart tumor development. It has been shown, however, that senescent or dying cells are capable of eliciting inflammatory responses, which can have pro-tumorigenic effects. Whether DNA damage-induced p53 activity can contribute to senescence- or apoptosis-associated pro-tumorigenic inflammation is unknown. Recently, we generated a p53 knock-out rat via homologous recombination in rat embryonic stem cells. Here we show that in a rat model of inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis, heterozygous deficiency of p53 resulted in attenuated inflammatory responses and ameliorated hepatic cirrhosis and tumorigenesis. Chronic administration of hepatocarcinogenic compound, diethylnitrosamine, led to persistent DNA damage and sustained induction of p53 protein in the wild-type livers, and much less induction in p53 heterozygous livers. Sustained p53 activation subsequent to DNA damage was accompanied by apoptotic rather than senescent hepatic injury, which gave rise to the hepatic inflammatory responses. In contrast, the non-hepatocarcinogenic agent, carbon tetrachloride, failed to induce p53, and caused a similar degree of chronic hepatic inflammation and cirrhosis in wild type and p53 heterozygous rats. These results suggest that although p53 is usually regarded as a tumor suppressor, its constant activation can promote pro-tumorigenic inflammation, especially in livers exposed to agents that inflict lasting mutagenic DNA damage.
DNA damage; p53; inflammation; cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma
Unlike other serine proteases that are zymogens, the single-chain form of tissue plasminogen activator (sc-tPA) exhibits an intrinsic activity similar to that of its cleaved two-chain form (tc-tPA), especially in the presence of fibrin. In the central nervous system tPA controls brain functions and dysfunctions through its proteolytic activity. We demonstrated here, both in vitro and in vivo, that the intrinsic activity of sc-tPA selectively modulates N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling as compared with tc-tPA. Thus, sc-tPA enhances NMDAR-mediated calcium influx, Erk(½) activation and neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons, excitotoxicity in the striatum and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA-1 network. As the first demonstration of a differential function for sc-tPA and tc-tPA, this finding opens a new area of investigations on tPA functions in the absence of its allosteric regulator, fibrin.
tissue plasminogen activator; protease; zymogen; neurotoxicity; long-term potentiation
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the technical success rates and clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided nose tube drainage of mediastinal abscesses and a nasojejunum feeding tube in post-operative gastro-oesophageal anastomotic leakage (GEAL).
From January 2006 to June 2011, 18 cases of post-operative GEAL with mediastinal abscesses after oesophagectomy with intrathoracic oesophagogastric anastomotic procedures for oesophageal and cardiac carcinoma were treated by insertion of a nose drainage tube and nasojejunum feeding tube under fluoroscopic guidance. We evaluated the feasibility of two-tube insertion to facilitate leakage site closure and complete resolution of the abscess, and the patients’ nutritional benefit was also evaluated by checking the serum albumin level between pre- and post-enteral feeding via the feeding tube.
The two tubes were placed successfully under fluoroscopic guidance in 18 patients (100%). The procedure time for two-tube insertion ranged from 20 to 40 min (mean 30 min). 17 patients (94%) achieved leakage site closure after two-tube insertion and had a good tolerance of two tubes in the nasal cavity. The serum albumin level was significant, increased from pre-enteral feeding (2.49±0.42 g dl−1) to the post-enteral feeding (3.58±0.47 g dl−1) via the feeding tube (p<0.001). The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 49 months (mean 19 months).
The insertion of nose tube drainage and a nasojejunum feeding tube under fluoroscopic guidance is safe, and it provides effective relief from mediastinal abscesses in GEAL after oesophagectomy. Moreover, our findings indicate that two-tube insertion may be used as a selective procedure to treat mediastinal abscesses in post-operative GEAL.
Advances in knowledge
Directive drainage of mediastinal abscesses in post-operative GEAL may be an effective treatment.
We compared and evaluated the differences between two models for treating bilateral breast cancer (BBC): (i) dose–volume-based intensity-modulated radiation treatment (DV plan), and (ii) dose–volume-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy with generalised equivalent uniform dose-based optimisation (DV-gEUD plan).
The quality and performance of the DV plan and DV-gEUD plan using the Pinnacle3® system (Philips, Fitchburg, WI) were evaluated and compared in 10 patients with stage T2–T4 BBC. The plans were delivered on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA) equipped with a Millennium 120 leaf multileaf collimator (Varian Medical Systems). The parameters analysed included the conformity index, homogeneity index, tumour control probability of the planning target volume (PTV), the volumes V20 Gy and V30 Gy of the organs at risk (OAR, including the heart and lungs), mean dose and the normal tissue complication probability.
Both plans met the requirements for the coverage of PTV with similar conformity and homogeneity indices. However, the DV-gEUD plan had the advantage of dose sparing for OAR: the mean doses of the heart and lungs, lung V20
Gy, and heart V30
Gy in the DV-gEUD plan were lower than those in the DV plan (p<0.05).
A better result can be obtained by starting with a DV-generated plan and then improving it by adding gEUD-based improvements to reduce the number of iterations and to improve the optimum dose distribution.
Advances to knowledge
The DV-gEUD plan provided superior dosimetric results for treating BBC in terms of PTV coverage and OAR sparing than the DV plan, without sacrificing the homogeneity of dose distribution in the PTV.
The current-induced motion of magnetic domain walls (DWs) confined to nanostructures is of great interest for fundamental studies as well as for technological applications in spintronic devices. Here, we present magnetic images showing the depinning properties of pulse-current-driven domain walls in well-shaped Permalloy nanowires obtained using photoemission electron microscopy combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In the vicinity of the threshold current density (Jth = 4.2 × 1011 A.m−2) for the DW motion, discontinuous DW depinning and motion have been observed as a sequence of “Barkhausen jumps”. A one-dimensional analytical model with a piecewise parabolic pinning potential has been introduced to reproduce the DW hopping between two nearest neighbour sites, which reveals the dynamical nature of the current-driven DW motion in the depinning regime.
We analyzed a new hypomorphic mouse model containing a targeted intronic insertion of a neomycin cassette within the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) locus. Mice with two hypomorphic (mTORΔ/Δ) alleles are viable but express mTOR at approximately 25% of wild type levels. These animals demonstrate reduced mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity and exhibit an approximate 20% increase in median survival. While mTORΔ/Δ mice are smaller than wild type mice, these animals do not demonstrate any alterations in normalized food intake, glucose homeostasis or metabolic rate. Consistent with their increased lifespan, mTORΔ/Δ mice exhibited a reduction in a number of aging tissue biomarkers. Functional assessment suggested that as mTORΔ/Δ mice age, they exhibit a marked functional preservation in many but not all organ systems. Thus, in a mammalian model, while reducing mTOR expression markedly increases overall lifespan, it affects the age-dependent decline in tissue and organ function in a segmental fashion.
Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. In focal medically refractory epilepsies, successful surgical treatment largely depends on the identification of epileptogenic zone. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500 Hz, which can be recorded with EEG, may be novel markers of the epileptogenic zone. This review discusses the clinical importance of HFOs as markers of epileptogenicity and their application in different types of epilepsies. HFOs are clearly linked to the seizure onset zone, and the surgical removal of regions generating them correlates with a seizure free post-surgical outcome. Moreover, HFOs reflect the seizure-generating capability of the underlying tissue, since they are more frequent after the reduction of antiepileptic drugs. They can be successfully used in pediatric epilepsies such as epileptic spasms and help to understand the generation of this specific type of seizures. While mostly recorded on intracranial EEGs, new studies suggest that identification of HFOs on scalp EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) is possible as well. Thus not only patients with refractory epilepsies and invasive recordings but all patients might profit from the analysis of HFOs. Despite these promising results, the analysis of HFOs is not a routine clinical procedure; most results are derived from relatively small cohorts of patients and many aspects are not yet fully understood. Thus the review concludes that even if HFOs are promising biomarkers of epileptic tissue, there are still uncertainties about mechanisms of generation, methods of analysis, and clinical applicability. Large multicenter prospective studies are needed prior to widespread clinical application.
Epilepsy; Ripple; Fast ripple; EEG; Seizure; Infantile spasms
The aim of the current study was to determine whether the FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr polymorphism is a predisposition factor for subtypes of RA defined by disease severity and production of autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCPs) in Taiwanese RA patients. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr were compared between 562 normal healthy controls and 640 RA patients as stratified by clinical parameters and autoantibodies. Significant enrichment of 187-Ile allele was observed in RA patients positive for anti-CCP antibodies as compared with the anti-CCP negative RA patients (P=0.001, OR 1.652 (95% CI 1.210–2.257)) or as compared with the normal controls (P =0.005, OR 1.348 (95% CI 1.092–1.664)). In addition, 187-Ile allele was found to be enriched in RA patients positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) compared to the RF negative RA patients (P=0.024, OR 1.562 (95% CI 1.059–2.303)). Furthermore, the homozygotes were enriched in destructive male RA patients (P =0.035; OR 2.038 (95% CI 1.046–3.973)) and the 187-Ile allele was associated with early-onset of RA in Taiwanese patients (P=0.045, OR 1.548 (95% CI 1.007–2.379)). Thus, FcγRIIb SNP 187-Ile/Thr may influence the RA phenotypes in Taiwanese RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; anti-CCP antibody; FcγR; polymorphism
The Notch pathway is functionally important in breast cancer. Notch-1 has been reported to maintain an estrogen-independent phenotype in estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer cells. Notch-4 expression correlates with Ki67. Notch-4 also plays a key role in breast cancer stem-like cells. Estrogen-independent breast cancer cell lines have higher Notch activity than estrogen-dependent lines. Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) overexpression is common in endocrine-resistant breast cancers and promotes tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant growth in breast cancer cell lines. We tested whether PKCα overexpression affects Notch activity and whether Notch signaling contributes to endocrine resistance in PKCα-overexpressing breast cancer cells.Analysis of published microarray data from ERα+ breast carcinomas shows that PKCα expression correlates strongly with Notch-4. Real-time reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry on archival specimens confirmed this finding. In a PKCα-overexpressing, TAM-resistant T47D model, PKCα selectively increases Notch-4, but not Notch-1, expression in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by activator protein-1 (AP-1) occupancy of the Notch-4 promoter. Notch-4 knockdown inhibits estrogen-independent growth of PKCα-overexpressing T47D cells, whereas Notch-4IC expression stimulates it. Gene expression profiling shows that multiple genes and pathways associated with endocrine resistance are induced in Notch-4IC- and PKCα-expressing T47D cells. In PKCα-overexpressing T47D xenografts, an orally active γ-secretase inhibitor at clinically relevant doses significantly decreased estrogen-independent tumor growth, alone and in combination with TAM. In conclusion, PKCα overexpression induces Notch-4 through AP-1. Notch-4 promotes estrogen-independent, TAM-resistant growth and activates multiple pathways connected with endocrine resistance and chemoresistance. Notch inhibitors should be clinically evaluated in PKCα- and Notch-4-overexpressing, endocrine-resistant breast cancers.
Notch; breast cancer; endocrine therapy; PKCα
We have studied a hybrid nanoelectronic system which consists of an AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in close proximity (~70 nm) to an Al superconducting nanofilm. By tuning the current through the Al film, we can change the conductance of the 2DEG and furthermore vary the effective disorder in the Al superconducting film in a controllable way. When a high current is injected into the film, screening which couples the Al film and the 2DEG results in a collapse of anti-symmetric behavior in the current-voltage characteristics, V(I) ~ -V(-I), which holds true in a conventional superconductor. Our results may open a new avenue of experimentally realizing a superconducting diode.
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes is a novel strategy for cardiac regeneration. However, the key determinants involved in this process are unknown.
To assess the efficiency of direct fibroblast reprogramming via viral overexpression of GATA4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT).
Methods and Results
We induced GMT overexpression in murine tail tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) from multiple lines of transgenic mice carrying different cardiomyocyte lineage reporters. We found that the induction of GMT overexpression in TTFs and CFs is inefficient at inducing molecular and electrophysiological phenotypes of mature cardiomyocytes. In addition, transplantation of GMT infected CFs into injured mouse hearts resulted in decreased cell survival with minimal induction of cardiomyocyte genes.
Significant challenges remain in our ability to convert fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells and a greater understanding of cardiovascular epigenetics is needed to increase the translational potential of this strategy.
gene expression; Ca++ channels; cardiac development; myocardial ischemia; myocyte regeneration
The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D-printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12 to 22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over 10-fold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 minutes, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0, and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17, and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6, and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment.
Despite many studies on diet and bladder cancer, there are areas that remain unexplored including meat mutagens, specific vegetable groups, and vitamins from diet.
We conducted a population-based case–control study of bladder cancer in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. A total of 1171 cases were ascertained through hospital pathology records and cancer registries from 2001 to 2004. Overall, 1418 controls were identified from the Department of Motor Vehicles (<65 years) and Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (65–79 years) and were frequency-matched to cases by state, sex, and age (within 5 years). Diet was assessed with a self-administered Diet History Questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Processed meat intake was positively associated with bladder cancer (highest vs lowest quartile OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.00–1.65; Ptrend=0.035), with a stronger association for processed red meat (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.08–1.84; Ptrend=0.024). There were no associations between intake of fruits or vegetables and bladder cancer. We did, however, observe an inverse association with vitamin B12 intake (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61–0.99; P=0.019).
Vitamin B12 from diet may be protective against bladder cancer, whereas consuming processed meat may increase risk.
diet; micronutrients; bladder cancer
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method to produce linear DNA fragments. Here we describe the Tma thermostable DNA ligase-mediated PCR production of circular plasmid (PPCP) and its application in directed evolution via in situ error-prone PCR. In this thermostable DNA ligase-mediated whole-plasmid amplification method, the resultant DNA nick between the 5′ end of the PCR primer and the extended newly synthesized DNA 3′ end of each PCR cycle is ligated by Tma DNA ligase, resulting in circular plasmid DNA product that can be directly transformed. The template plasmid DNA is eliminated by ‘selection marker swapping’ upon transformation. When performed under an error-prone condition with Taq DNA polymerase, PPCP allows one-step construction of mutagenesis libraries based on in situ error-prone PCR so that random mutations are introduced into the target gene without altering the expression vector plasmid. A significant difference between PPCP and previously published methods is that PPCP allows exponential amplification of circular DNA. We used this method to create random mutagenesis libraries of a xylanase gene and two cellulase genes. Screening of these libraries resulted in mutant proteins with desired properties, demonstrating the usefulness of in situ error-prone PPCP for creating random mutagenesis libraries for directed evolution.
thermostable DNA ligase; directed evolution; amplification of circular plasmids; random mutagenesis libraries; error-prone PCR
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) paradigm suggests that CSCs might have important clinical implications in cancer therapy. Previously, we reported that accumulation efficiency of CSCs is different post low- and high-LET irradiation in 48 h.
Cancer stem cells and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs) were sorted and functionally identified through a variety of assays such as antigen profiles and sphere formation. Inter-conversion between CSCs and NSCCs were in situ visualised. Cancer stem cells proportions were assayed over multiple generations under normal and irradiation surroundings. Supplement and inhibition of TGF-β1, as well as immunofluorescence assay of E-cadherin and Vimentin, were performed.
Surface antigen markers of CSCs and NSCCs exist in an intrinsic homoeostasis state with spontaneous and in situ visualisable inter-conversions, irrespective of prior radiations. Supplement with TGF-β1 accelerates the equilibrium, whereas inhibition of TGF-β signalling disturbs the equilibrium and significantly decreases CSC proportion. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be activated during the process.
Our results indicate that the intrinsic inter-conversion and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and NSCCs exist under normal and irradiation surroundings, and TGF-β might have important roles in the equilibrium through activating EMT.
cancer stem cells; inter-conversion; dynamic equilibrium; radiation; epithelial mesenchymal transition
A method utilizing thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) was developed for assessing the stability of breeder’s oil seed samples based on the formation of polar compounds. The results showed a linear relationship between peroxide value (PV) and the content of polar material in the oxidized oil. Oil samples oxidized very readily on chromarods, even at low temperature, which is a particular advantage for antioxidant screening. At 45 °C, the oil oxidation rate was relatively low, but the relationship between the content of polar material and reaction time was linear. At 65 °C, if the content of polar material was below 50 %, the above relationship was still linear. At different temperatures, the action of tocopherol appeared to vary slightly. For example, at 65 °C, the oxidative stability of the oil sample was determined by the content of tocopherol, especially γ-tocopherol. At 45 and 55 °C, the oxidative stability was determined by both the content of tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Of the tocopherol isomers, γ-tocopherol exhibited the highest antioxidant potency, consistent with the published literature. These results suggest that chromarods provide good media for monitoring oil oxidation for antioxidant screening. A particular advantage is the use of very small oil samples, usually 1–2 μL, and the ability to analyze multiple samples at the same time.
TLC-FID; Polar material; Oxidative stability; Oxidation
N-glycosylation of proteins provides a rich source of information on liver disease progression because majority of serum glycoproteins, with the exception of immunoglobulins, are secreted by the liver. In this report, we present results of an optimized workflow for MALDI-TOF analysis of permethylated N-glycans detached from serum proteins and separated into liver secreted and immunoglobulin fractions. We have compared relative intensities of N-glycans in 23 healthy controls and 23 cirrhosis patients. We were able to detect 82 N-glycans associated primarily with liver secreted glycoproteins, 54 N-glycans in the protein G bound fraction and 52 N-glycans in the fraction bound to protein A. The N-glycan composition of the fractions differed substantially, independent of liver disease. The relative abundance of approximately 53% N-glycans in all fractions was significantly altered in the cirrhotic liver. The removal of immunoglobulins allowed detection of an increase in a series of high mannose and hybrid N-glycans associated with the liver secreted protein fraction.
N-glycosylation; Mass spectrometry; Serum; Liver disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which consists of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract with unknown etiology. Current evidence suggests that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is prominently linked to the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore, maintaining the intact of epithelium has potential roles in improving pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of IBD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional gene regulators and regulate many biological processes, including embryonal development, cell differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. In this study, we found that miR-200b decreased significantly in inflamed mucosa of IBD, especially for UC, when compared with their adjacent normal tissue. Simultaneously, we also found that the genes of E-cadherin and cyclin D1 were reduced significantly and correlated positively to the miR-200b. In addition, the upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) was inversely correlated to the miR-200b in IBD. To investigate the possible roles of miR-200b in IECs maintaining, we used TGF-β1 to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in IEC-6 initially. After sustained over-expressing miR-200b in IEC-6, the EMT was inhibited significantly that was characterized by downregulation of vimentin and upregulation of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that miR-200b enhanced E-cadherin expression through targeting of ZEB1, which encode transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin. SMAD2 was found to act as a target of miR-200b with direct evidence that miR-200b binding to the 3′ UTR of SAMD2 and the ability of miR-200b to repress SMAD2 protein expression. With SMAD2 depletion, the expression of vimentin decreased correspondingly, which suggested miR-200b might reduce vimentin through regulating the SMAD2. With endogenous over-expression of miR-200b, the proliferation of IEC-6 cells increased significantly by increasing S-phase entry and promoting expression of the protein cyclin D1. Summarily, our study suggested a potential role for mir-200b in maintaining intact of intestinal epithelium through inhibiting EMT and promoting proliferation of IECs.
inflammatory bowel disease; miR-200b; intestinal epithelial cell; transforming growth factor-beta1; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; E-cadherin
Graphene and related materials have come to the forefront of research in electrochemical sensors during recent years due to the promising properties of these nanomaterials. Further applications of these nanomaterials have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity offered by these nanohybrids for the type of molecules requiring lower detection ranges. Here, we report a signal amplification strategy based on magneto-electrochemical immunoassay which combines the advantages of carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide together with electrochemical bursting of magnetic nanoparticles into a large number of metal ions. Sensitive detection was achieved by precisely designing the nanohybrid and correlating the available metal ions with analyte concentration. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method for a new generation herbicide diuron and its analogues up to sub-picomolar concentration in standard water samples. The novel immune-detection platform showed the excellent potential applicability in rapid and sensitive screening of environmental pollutants or toxins in samples.
Kinsenoside is able to improve bone turnover rate in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In vitro analysis shows that kinsenoside antagonizes osteoclast development and bone resorption.
Kinsenoside, the main active compound of the traditional Taiwanese herb Anoectochilus formosanus, has an antiinflammatory effect. This study investigates whether kinsenoside inhibits osteoporosis and osteoclastogenesis.
OVX mice were used to examine the antiosteoporotic activity of kinsenoside. The trabecular bone microarchitecture was assessed by microcomputed tomography. In vitro experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms of the antiosteoporotic effects of kinsenoside.
Microcomputed tomography scanning showed that kinsenoside suppresses bone loss in OVX mice. Kinsenoside decreases plasma CTx concentration. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis also showed that kinsenoside reduces the femoral mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Kinsenoside inhibits osteoclast formation in bone marrow cells (BMs) and RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot was used to analyze osteoclast-associated signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 cells. Results show that kinsenoside does not inhibit IKK phosphorylation but suppresses the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. Kinsenoside significantly inhibits the RANKL induction of IKK activity. Kinsenoside inhibits the RANKL-triggered nuclear translocations of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). RT-PCR was used to analyze osteoclast precursor fusion and resorption-associated gene expression in BMs. Kinsenoside inhibits the expression of cathepsin K (CAK), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, MMP-9, and TRAP.
Kinsenoside inhibits osteoclastogenesis from macrophages by attenuating RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1 activities, which in turn, prevents bone loss from OVX mice.
Kinsenoside; Osteoclastogenesis; Osteoporosis
Angiogenic factors have an essential role in normal and pathologic angiogenesis. However, the clinical implication of angiogenic factor expression in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains unclear.
In this study, we sought to investigate the prognostic impact of the expression of genes encoding angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Ang-2, the receptor Tie2, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C in the bone marrow (BM) in 208 patients with newly diagnosed primary MDS.
BM Ang-1 expression was significantly higher in MDS patients, especially those with higher-risk subtypes, than in normal controls. With a median follow-up time of 32.9 months, the disease transformed to acute leukaemia more frequently in the patients bearing higher Ang-1 expression than in those with lower expression (31.5% vs 18.6%, P=0.023). The MDS patients with higher Ang-1 expression had shorter overall survival than those with lower expression (median 20.8±4.5 months vs 63.3±17.8 months, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that higher Ang-1 expression was an independent unfavourable prognostic factor for overall survival. There was no impact of the expression of other angiogenic factors on survival.
BM Ang-1 expression may serve as a new biomarker to predict clinical outcome in MDS patients.
angiopoietin; vascular endothelial growth factor; myelodysplastic syndromes; prognosis
Traditionally, the pervaporation of water-solvent mixtures where the solvent is the major component is performed using hydrophilic membranes (such as PVA or zeolites). In the present paper a new type of pervaporation membrane (amorphous perfluorinated polymer, hydrophobic) was studied for separation of water-solvent mixtures. This membrane has high free volume and is inert for all solvents, and has a remarkable mechanical, chemical and thermal stability. The water is transported by solution diffusion model and the separation of solvent is primarily based on molecular sieving (size exclusion) principles. The membrane shows a high stability for operation over a broad range of feed concentrations without swelling; the operating temperature does not have a significant effect on membrane separation performance. Separation factors as high as 349 and 500 for water-ethanol and water-IPA mixtures (2-98 % wt water-solvent) and fluxes of 0.15 and 0.05 kg/m2h, respectively were obtained at 22 °C. The permeance-based selectivities were also calculated, and the selectivity is approximately constant for a wide range of feed concentrations. The pervaporation of more complex (ternary) mixtures of water-ethanol-ethyl acetate showed that this system could be successfully applied for solute separation based on size exclusion.
Background and Purpose
Low brain tissue perfusion due to abnormal venous drainage is thought to be a central mechanism of brain damage in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). In the present study, high-resolution perfusion-weighted imaging (HR-PWI) was used to quantify white matter perfusion abnormalities and correlate these with brain atrophy and clinical variables.
Materials and Methods
Fourteen children (age: 0.8–10.0 years) with unilateral SWS underwent MRI examinations, including HR-PWI. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mean transit time (MTT) in the affected white matter (WM) and in contralateral homotopic WM were measured. Asymmetry index (AI) for each perfusion parameter was correlated with age, brain atrophy, motor and seizure variables as well as IQ.
Increased perfusion was seen in the affected hemisphere in 5 children and decreased perfusion in 9. Brain atrophy was more severe in the low-perfusion group (p=0.01) and was related to both CBF-AI and CBV-AI (r = −0.69, p = 0.007; r = −0.64, p = 0.014, respectively). Older children had lower CBV values on the affected side (r = −0.62, p = 0.02). Longer duration of epilepsy was related to lower CBF (more negative CBF-AI, r=−0.58, p=0.03) and low CBV (r=−0.55, p=0.04) on the affected side. Lower perfusion was associated with more frequent seizures (rCBF-AI: r=−0.56, p=0.04; rCBV-AI: r=−0.63, p=0.02).
Increased perfusion in the affected cerebral WM may indicate an early stage of SWS without severe brain atrophy. Decreased perfusion is associated with frequent seizures, long duration of epilepsy and brain atrophy.
Sturge-Weber syndrome; MRI; perfusion; white matter; epilepsy