Chronic inflammation has been regarded as an important mechanism in carcinogenesis. Inflammation-associated genetic variants have been highly associated with cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a pro-inflammation factor, have been suggested to alter the risk of multiple tumors, but the findings of various studies are not consistent.
A literature search through February 2013 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases. We used odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% to assess the strength of the association between the COX-2-765G>C polymorphism and cancer risk in a random-effect model. We also assessed heterogeneity and publication bias.
In total, 65 articles with 29,487 cancer cases and 39,212 non-cancer controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95% CIs) in the co-dominant model (GC vs. GG) was 1.11 (1.02–1.22), and in the dominant model ((CC+GC) vs. GG), the pooled OR was 1.12 (1.02–1.23). In the subgroup analysis, stratified by cancer type and race, significant associations were found between the-765 C allele and higher risk for gastric cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and cancer in the Asian population.
In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population.
In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT).
In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism.
HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional.
Horizontal gene transfer; Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp; Bacteria; Fungi
A Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) was constructed and its bioactivity was studied. The modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) was fused with the anchor protein (AGα1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant strain harboring the fusion gene bmace-AGα1 was induced to display BmAChE on the P. pastoris cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays revealed that the BmAChE was successfully displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115. The enzyme activity of the displayed BmAChE was detected by the Ellman method at 787.7 U/g (wet cell weight). In addition, bioactivity of the displayed BmAChE was verified by inhibition tests conducted with eserine, and with carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. The displayed BmAChE had an IC50 of 4.17×10−8 M and was highly sensitive to eserine and five carbamate pesticides, as well as seven organophosphorus pesticides. Results suggest that the displayed BmAChE had good bioactivity.
Endothelial activation, which is characterized by upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and consequent monocyte recruitment to the arterial intima are etiologic factors in atherosclerosis. Redox-active transition metal ions, such as copper and iron, may play an important role in endothelial activation by stimulating redox-sensitive cell signaling pathways. We have shown previously that copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) inhibits LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo. Here, we investigated whether TTM can inhibit atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE−/−) mice. We found that 10-week treatment of apoE−/− mice with TTM (33–66 ppm in the diet) reduced serum levels of the copper-containing protein, ceruloplasmin, by 47%, and serum iron by 26%. Tissue levels of “bioavailable” copper, assessed by the copper-to-molybdenum ratio, decreased by 80% in aorta and heart, whereas iron levels of these tissues were not affected by TTM treatment. Furthermore, TTM significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesion development in whole aorta by 25% and descending aorta by 45% compared to non-TTM treated apoE−/− mice. This anti-atherogenic effect of TTM was accompanied by several anti-inflammatory effects, i.e., significantly decreased serum levels of soluble vascular cell and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1); reduced aortic gene expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines; and significantly less aortic accumulation of M1 type macrophages. In contrast, serum levels of oxidized LDL were not reduced by TTM. These data indicate that TTM inhibits atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice by reducing bioavailable copper and vascular inflammation, not by altering iron homeostasis or reducing oxidative stress.
tetrathiomolybdate; endothelial activation; copper chelation; atherosclerosis; vascular inflammation
Krukenberg tumor originated from stomach in female patients is common in clinical practice, but it is still uncertain whether surgical resection of ovarian metastases could improve the outcome. Some studies suggested that a certain group of patients could benefit from the resection of ovarian metastases. However, conclusions were different between studies and there was no data to illustrate if certain molecular markers were associated with patients’ survival. In this study, we analyzed the effects of resection of ovarian metastases, and investigated prognostic factors in 133 patients with ovarian metastases originated from stomach. Furthermore, we examined the expression of some cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers or related molecules in 64 ovarian metastases specimens and analyzed the correlation between these molecules and patients’ survival. We found that the median overall survival (mOS) of all 133 patients was 16 months, and “gastrectomy” and “without ascites” were two independent prognostic factors associated with longer survival. The mOS of the patients with gastrectomy was longer than that of patients had not undergone gastrectomy (19 vs. 9 months, p = 0.048). Patients without ascites survived longer than those with ascites (mOS: 21 vs. 13 months, p = 0.008). We also found that Sox2, CD44 or CD133 positive expression in ovarian metastases were risk factors correlated with poor survival, and Sox2 expression was an independent prognostic indicator. These results suggested that ovarian metastasectomy might help to prolong the survivor of some patients with Krukenberg tumor originated from stomach. Patients without ascites, and with resected or resectable primary gastric cancer lesion could get benefit from and be potential candidate for surgical treatment. The expression of Sox2 might serve as a prognostic indicator for predicting patients’ survival and be helpful for selecting patients in future.
A large number of studies have been conducted to explore the mechanism of Back-Shu and Front-Mu points. While several lines of evidence addressed the acupuncture information of Shu acupoints and Mu acupoints gathering in the spinal cord, whether the convergence is extended to the high centre still remains unclear. The study selected gastric Mu points (RN12) and gastric Shu points (BL21) regulating gastric motility and its central neural mechanisms as the breakthrough point, using the technique of immunochemistry, nuclei lesion, electrophysiology, and nerve transection. Here, we report that gastric motility regulation of gastric Shu and Mu acupoints and their synergistic effect and the signals induced by electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of acupoints RN12 and RN12 gather in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), increasing the levels of gastrointestinal hormones in the DVC to regulate gastric motility through the vagus. In sum, our data demonstrate an important role of DVC and vagus in the regulation of gastric motility by EA at gastric Shu and Mu points.
Our objective was to determine the secular trend in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Two consecutive population-based surveys for type 2 diabetes were conducted in randomly selected adults aged 35–74 years in Shanghai in 2002–2003 (n = 12,329) and in 2009 (n = 7,423). Diagnosed type 2 diabetes was determined based on self-report, whereas those undiagnosed were identified by measured fasting and postload glucose according to 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria.
Age-standardized prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased from 5.1 and 4.6% in 2002–2003 to 7.4 and 5.2% in 2009. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased with age and was higher among men and in urban residents in both surveys (P < 0.001). Between the two surveys, the increase in the prevalence was more evident in the rural population (P < 0.001) and appeared more rapid in younger birth cohorts (P < 0.05).
Our results suggest that Shanghai has experienced an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes.
Cancer stem cells are regarded as the cause of tumour formation and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, ideal surface markers for stem cells in NPC remain unidentified. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CD133, Nanog and Sox2 in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 and primarily cultured NPC cells using immunofluorescence or flow cytometry. A cell population with a CD133+ phenotype was enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. We demonstrated that CD133+ cells exhibited a strong potential for self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation and a greater potential for in vivo tumour formation in nude mice compared to CD133− cells, although the percentage of CD133+ cells was small. However, the specific marker antigens Nanog and Sox2 were simultaneously expressed in normal cancer stem cells. Our results showed that CD133 can serve as a specific surface marker for nasopharyngeal cancer stem cells.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; cancer stem cells; CD133
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) EGb761 is widely used for cardiovascular prevention. Here, we investigated the effects of GBE on atherosclerotic lesion development in rabbits with a high-fat diet.
Material and methods
Forty New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. The first two were the normal diet group (C) and the high-fat group (HF). The remaining two groups were those who received a high cholesterol diet supplemented with either the standard drug (simvastatin 2 mg/kg/day) or GBE (3 mg/kg/day). At 12 weeks, histopathological and chemical analyses were performed.
Plasma lipid measurement showed that GBE inhibited high-fat diet-induced increase of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 59.1% (0.9 ±0.2 4 mmol/l vs. 2.2 ±0.4 mmol/l), 18.2% (31.1 ±1.4 mmol/l vs. 38.0 ±0.4 mmol/l) and 15% (28.9 ±1.3 mmol/l vs. 34.0±1.0 mmol/l), respectively, at 12 weeks (p < 0.01). The en face Sudan IV-positive lesion area of the aorta in the GBE group (51.7 ±3.1%) was significantly lower compared with that in the HF group (88.2 ±2.2%; p < 0.01). The mean atherosclerotic lesion area of the GBE group was reduced by 53.2% compared with the HF group (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that GBE markedly suppressed high-fat diet-induced upregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) in rabbits (p < 0.01).
Thus, our study revealed that GBE prevented atherosclerosis progress through modulating plasma lipid, suppressing atherosclerotic lesion development, and attenuating the expression of Cx43 protein.
atherosclerosis; Ginkgo biloba extract; connexin 43; plasma lipid; high-fat diet
Schistosomiasis transmission is typically focal. Understanding spatial variations of Schistosoma infections and their associated factors is important to help to invent site-specific intervention strategies.
A five-year longitudinal study was carried out prospectively in 12 natural villages, Guichi district of Anhui province. A GIS-based spatial analysis was conducted to identify geographic distribution patterns of schistosomiasis infections at the household scale.
The results of the spatial autocorrelation analysis for 2005 showed that there were significant spatial clusters of human infections at the household level, and these results were in agreement with that of the spatial scan statistic. As prevalence of infections in humans decreased over the course of control, the spatial distribution of these infections became less heterogeneous.
The findings imply that it may be necessary to re-assess risk factors of S. japonicum transmission over the course of control and to adjust accordingly control measures in the communities.
Schistosomiasis; Intervention; Geographical information system; Spatial-temporal distribution; Spatial autocorrelation analysis; Spatial scan statistic; Schistosoma japonicum
Anopiophora glabripennis (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a destructive woodborer, attacking many species of deciduous hardwood trees. Apriona swainsoni (Hope) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a woodborer of Sophora japonica L. (Angiospermae: Fabaceae). Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of both Cerambycid species in China. Kairomones for two populations of D. helophoroides that parasitize A. glabripennis and A. swainsoni respectively were studied. Based on identification and quantification of volatiles from larval frass produced by A. glabripennis and A. swainsoni, monoterpenes were selected to test their kairomonal activity to both populations of D. helophoroides adults using a Y-tube olfactometer. The results indicated that (S)-(-)-limonene served as a kairomone for the population of D. helophoroides parasitized A. glabripennis. α-pinene, (IR)-(+)-αpinene and (+)-β-pinene were attractive to the population of D. helophoroides parasitized A. swainsoni. The results provide information about the co-evolution of D. helophoroides, its host, and host-food trees.
kairomone; olfactory response; parasitoid; tritrophic interactions; woodborer
DJ-1 can induce the tumor cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating PTEN in many malignant tumors, and correlated to prognostic significance. However, the tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1 in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the DJ-1 the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data including patient survival.
The expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in SSCCs (52) and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (42) was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data was analyzed.
DJ-1 was detected mainly in SSCCs (88.5%) and less frequently in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (21.0%). PTEN expression was detected in 46.2% of SSCCs and in 90.5% of adjacent non-cancerous tissues. DJ-1 expression was linked to nodal status (P = 0.009), a highly significant association of DJ-1 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 88.0% versus 53.9%; P = 0.007; log rank test) was demonstrated.
Our data suggested that DJ-1 over-expression was linked to nodal status, and might be an independent prognostic marker for patients with SSCC.
DJ-1; PTEN; Tumorigenesis; Supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma; Overall survival
The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in formation of glucuronide, methyl and sulphate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1–30 μM quercetin, 3′- or 4′-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3′-sulphate; or 20–100 μM EGCG, 4″-O-methyl-EGCG and 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to co-incubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3′-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4′-O-methyl-quercetin and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC50 values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0 and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20–100 μM), quercetin-3′-O-sulphate (10–30 μM) and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20–100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC50 value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20–60 μM) and 4″-O-methyl-EGCG (20–100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3′-O-methyl-quercetin and 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG on adhesion molecule expression were not related to either inhibition of NF-κB activation or their antioxidant reducing capacity. Our data indicate that flavonoid metabolites have different biological and antioxidant properties than their parent compounds, and suggest that data from in vitro studies using non-metabolites of flavonoids are of limited relevance in vivo.
In 2004 an aggressive plan was instituted aiming to achieve nationwide transmission control of schistosomiasis by 2015. Here, we report a longitudinal study on the control of schistosomiasis in Anhui province, China. Using a mathematical model, we compared the effects of different control strategies implemented in the study area. During the 5-year study period, a 60.8% reduction in human prevalence was observed from 2005 (7.95%) to 2009 (3.1%), and snail infection decreased from 0.063% in 2005 to zero in 2009. Results of the model agree well with the first 3-year field observations and suggest continuous decrease in human infections in the last 2 years, whereas the last 2-year field observations indicated that human infections appeared to be stable even with continuous control. Our findings showed that the integrated control strategy was effective, and we speculated that other factors besides bovines might contribute to the local transmission of the disease.
A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they have not yet been established for use in the manipulation of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. In this study, we achieved site-specific excision of a target gene at predefined chromosomal sites in the silkworm using a FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system. We first constructed two stable transgenic target silkworm strains that both contain a single copy of the transgene construct comprising a target gene expression cassette flanked by FRT sites. Using pre-blastoderm microinjection of a FLP recombinase helper expression vector, 32 G3 site-specific recombinant transgenic individuals were isolated from five of 143 broods. The average frequency of FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific excision in the two target strains genome was approximately 3.5%. This study shows that it is feasible to achieve site-specific recombination in silkworms using the FLP/FRT system. We conclude that the FLP/FRT system is a useful tool for genome manipulation in the silkworm. Furthermore, this is the first reported use of the FLP/FRT system for the genetic manipulation of a lepidopteran genome and thus provides a useful reference for the establishment of genome manipulation technologies in other lepidopteran species.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly used for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Recently, much progress has been made in studies on the mechanisms of action of the lipid-regulating effect of TCM in animal experiments. Current researches showed that the lipid-regulating effect of TCM may be related to the following actions: (1) inhibiting intestinal absorption of lipids; (2) reducing the biosynthesis of endogenous lipids; (3) increasing the catabolism of lipid, sterol substances in live system; (4) increasing the secretion of sterol substances in live system; (5) regulating transcription factors related to lipid metabolism. This paper provides an overview of the recent advances and discusses their implications in future development of lipid-lowering drugs from TCM.
High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is a non-histone nuclear binding protein that is developmentally regulated. HMGA1 is significantly overexpressed in and associated with high grade and advance stage of prostate cancer (PC). The oncogenic role of HMGA1 is at least mediated through chromosomal instability and structural aberrations. However, regulation of HMGA1 expression is not well understood. Identification of microRNA mediated HMGA1 regulation will provide a promising therapeutic target in treating PC.
In this study, we examined the functional relation between miR-296 and HMGA1 expression in several prostate cancer cell lines and a large prostate cancer cohort. We further examined the oncogenic property of HMGA1 regulated by miR-296.
Here we report that miR-296, a microRNA predicted to target HMGA1, specifically represses HMGA1 expression by promoting degradation and inhibiting HMGA1translation . Repression of HMGA1 by miR-296 is direct and sequence-specific. Importantly, ectopic miR-296 expression significantly reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion, in part through the down-regulation of HMGA1. Examining prostate cancer patient samples, we found an inverse correlation between HMGA1 and miR-296 expression: high levels of HMGA1 were associated with low miR-296 expression and strongly linked to more advanced tumor grade and stage.
Our results indicate miR-296 regulates HMGA1 expression and is associated with PC growth and invasion.
HMGA1; prostate cancer; microRNA
Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown.
We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels.
These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women.
Tiger frog virus (TFV), in the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in China. To explore the cellular entry mechanism of TFV, HepG2 cells were treated with drugs that inhibit the main endocytic pathways. We observed that TFV entry was inhibited by NH4Cl, chloroquine, and bafilomycin, which can all elevate the pH of acidic organelles. In contrast, TFV entry was not influenced by chlorpromazine or overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Esp15, which inhibit the assembly of clathrin-coated pits. These results suggested that TFV entry was not associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but was related to the pH of acidic organelles. Subsequently, we found that endocytosis of TFV was dependent on membrane cholesterol and was inhibited by the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide. Dynamin and actin were also required for TFV entry. In addition, TFV virions colocalized with the cholera toxin subunit B, indicating that TFV enters as caveola-internalized cargo into the Golgi complex. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TFV entry occurs by caveola-mediated endocytosis with a pH-dependent step. This atypical caveola-mediated endocytosis is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 (FV3) by BHK cells, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection in lower vertebrates.
AIM: To investigate osteopontin expression and its association with hepatopathologic changes in BALB/C mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.
METHODS: The schistosomal hepatopathologic mouse model was established by abdominal infection with schistosomal cercaria. Liver samples were obtained from mice sacrificed at 6, 8, 10, 14, and 18 wk after infection. Liver histopathological changes were observed with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining. The expression of osteopontin was determined with immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Correlations of osteopontin expression with other variables (α-SMA, TGF-β1, hepatopathologic features including granuloma formation and degree of liver fibrosis) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Typical schistosomal hepatopathologic changes were induced in the animals. Dynamic changes in the expression of osteopontin were observed at week 6. The expression increased, peaked at week 10 (P < 0.01), and then gradually decreased. Positive correlations between osteopontin expression and α-SMA (r = 0.720, P < 0.01), TGF-β1 (r = 0.905, P < 0.01), granuloma formation (r = 0.875, P < 0.01), and degree of liver fibrosis (r = 0.858, P < 0.01) were also observed.
CONCLUSION: Osteopontin may play an important role in schistosomal hepatopathology and may promote granuloma formation and liver fibrosis through an unexplored mechanism.
Schistosoma japonicum; Granuloma; Liver fibrosis; Osteopontin; BALB/C mice
In vitro and limited in vivo evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidases (NOX-ROS) play an important role in inflammatory responses by enhancing the activity of redox-sensitive cell signaling pathways and transcription factors. Here, we investigated the role of NOX-ROS in TNFα-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, using mice deficient in the gp91phox (NOX2) or p47phox subunits of NADPH oxidase. Age- and body weight-matched C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and gp91phox or p47phox knockout mice were injected i.p. with 50 μg TNFα/kg b.w. or saline vehicle control and sacrificed at various time points up to 24 hrs. Compared to WT mice, gp91phox −/− mice exhibited significantly diminished (P<0.05) TNFα-induced acute inflammatory responses in the lungs but not other tissues, including heart, liver, and kidney, as evidenced by decreased activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, NFκB, and decreased gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNFα, E-selectin, and other cellular adhesion molecules. Similar results were observed in p47phox−/− mice. Interestingly, decreased lung inflammation in knockout mice was accompanied by increased leukocyte infiltration into the lungs compared to other tissues. Our data suggest that phagocytic NOX-ROS signaling plays a critical role in promoting TNFα-induced, NFκB-dependent acute inflammatory responses and tissue injury specifically in the lungs, which is effected by preferential leukocyte infiltration.
NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; redox-sensitive cell signaling; NFκB activation; lung inflammation; leukocyte infiltration
Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.
Polyethylenimine-cyclodextrin-tegafur (PEI-CyD-tegafur) conjugate was synthesized as a novel multifunctional prodrug of tegafur for co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agent tegafur and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid DNA. Conjugation of tegafur to PEI-CyD via chemical linkage was characterized by 1H NMR spectrometry and ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. PEI-CyD-tegafur was able to condense plasmid DNA into complexes of around 150 nm with positive charge at the N/P ratio of 25, in accordance with electron microscopy observation of compact and monodisperse nanoparticles. The results of in vitro experiments showed enhanced cytotoxicity and considerable transfection efficiency in B16F10 cell line. Therefore, PEI-CyD-tegafur may have great potential as a co-delivery system with anti-cancer activity and potential for gene delivery.
Polyethylenimine; β-Cyclodextrin; Tegafur; Co-delivery; Gene therapy
Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865) and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716), were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine) than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b). Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); Glycoprotein E2; Linear B-cell epitope; Multiple epitope vaccine (MEV)