To provide evidence for the selection of an optimal cross-sectional reconstruction mode in spectral CT imaging of the abdomen, we compared the monochromatic images with polychromatic images.
Three phase-enhanced CT scans of the abdomen were recorded using the spectral imaging technique on 100 patients. Images were reconstructed using two modes: polychromatic and 70 keV monochromatic. The following variables were then compared: contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidney and pancreas, and the noise. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences between the two sets of images. Three experienced doctors graded the quality of the images with a five-point scale. The image quality scores were compared with a non-parametric rank sum test.
Compared with polychromatic images, the 70 keV monochromatic mode images yielded significantly greater tissue-to-fat CNR and lower noise (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The image quality of the 70 keV monochromatic mode showed significantly better results than the polychromatic mode (p<0.001).
In abdominal spectral CT imaging, 70 keV monochromatic mode reconstruction images were better than those reconstructed using the polychromatic mode. The monochromatic mode may become the routine reconstruction mode for cross-sectional images.
Epilepsy; Seizure; Intracranial electrodes; Epilepsy surgery; Epileptogenic zone; Cortical localization
The importance of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in angiogenesis is unclear and contradictory. Here we show that inhibition of extracellular TG2 protein crosslinking or downregulation of TG2 expression leads to inhibition of angiogenesis in cell culture, the aorta ring assay and in vivo models. In a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture model, inhibition of extracellular TG2 activity can halt the progression of angiogenesis, even when introduced after tubule formation has commenced and after addition of excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In both cases, this leads to a significant reduction in tubule branching. Knockdown of TG2 by short hairpin (shRNA) results in inhibition of HUVEC migration and tubule formation, which can be restored by add back of wt TG2, but not by the transamidation-defective but GTP-binding mutant W241A. TG2 inhibition results in inhibition of fibronectin deposition in HUVEC monocultures with a parallel reduction in matrix-bound VEGFA, leading to a reduction in phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) at Tyr1214 and its downstream effectors Akt and ERK1/2, and importantly its association with β1 integrin. We propose a mechanism for the involvement of matrix-bound VEGFA in angiogenesis that is dependent on extracellular TG2-related activity.
tissue transglutaminase; angiogenesis; crosslinking; tubule and VEGF
A clearer definition of the molecular determinants that drive the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) is urgently needed. Efforts to map recurrent somatic deletions in the tumor genome, especially homozygous deletions (HODs), have provided important positional information in the search for cancer-causing genes. Analyzing HODs in the tumors of 244 patients from two independent cohorts and 22 PCa xenografts using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, herein we report the identification of CHD1, a chromatin remodeler, as one of the most frequently homozygously deleted genes in PCa, second only to PTEN in this regard. The HODs observed in CHD1, including deletions affecting only internal exons of CHD1, were found to completely extinguish the expression of mRNA of this gene in PCa xenografts. Loss of this chromatin remodeler in clinical specimens is significantly associated with an increased number of additional chromosomal deletions, both hemi- and homozygous, especially on 2q, 5q and 6q. Together with the deletions observed in HEK293 cells stably transfected with CHD1 small hairpin RNA, these data suggest a causal relationship. Downregulation of Chd1 in mouse prostate epithelial cells caused dramatic morphological changes indicative of increased invasiveness, but did not result in transformation. Indicating a new role of CHD1, these findings collectively suggest that distinct CHD1-associated alterations of genomic structure evolve during and are required for the development of PCa.
CHD1; homozygous deletion; prostate cancer
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a tumor suppressor originally identified in acute promyelocytic leukemia and implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple forms of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the PML protein undergoes ubiquitination-mediated degradation facilitated by an E3 ligase UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1), which is commonly upregulated in various human malignancies. Furthermore, UHRF1 negatively regulates PML protein accumulation in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), HEK 293 cells and cancer cells. Knockdown of UHRF1 upregulates whereas ectopic overexpression of UHRF1 downregulates protein abundance of endogenous or exogenous PML, doing so through its binding to the N-terminus of PML. Overexpression of wild-type UHRF1 shortens PML protein half-life and promotes PML polyubiquitination, whereas deletion of the RING domain or coexpression of the dominant-negative E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2D2, attenuates this modification to PML. Finally, knockdown of UHRF1 prolongs PML half-life and increases PML protein accumulation, yet inhibits cell migration and in vitro capillary tube formation, whereas co-knockdown of PML compromises this inhibitory effect. These findings suggest that UHRF1 promotes the turnover of PML protein, and thus targeting UHRF1 to restore PML-mediated tumor suppression represents a promising, novel, anticancer strategy.
UHRF1; PML; ubiquitination; cell migration; capillary tube formation
: Haemophilic pseudotumour (HP) is an extremely rare lesion. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of maxillary bone HPs and introduce the key points to differentiate HP from the mimicking entities in the region.
: We retrospectively reviewed three paediatric patients with histology-proven HPs arising from the maxillary bone. All three patients underwent CT and/or MRI. Combined with six previously reported cases in the literature, the imaging features were comprehensively analysed.
: All HPs showed a well-demarcated, multilobulated expansile osteolytic lesion in the maxillary bone. On non-enhanced CT, HPs appeared of mixed density relative to grey matter. The lesions appeared to have markedly heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images, with septa-like enhancement following the administration of contrast material, which corresponded to blood products in various stages of evolution. The lesions caused cortical thinning and even focal disappearance and multiple bone septa were identified within the involved maxillary bone. Some HPs were associated with radiated periosteal proliferation, which can easily be misdiagnosed as a malignant bone tumour.
: A high index of suspicion for HP and a familiarity with imaging findings may help to accurately diagnose this rare entity.
Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson’s disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson’s and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–10 Hz), high alpha (10.5–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (31–50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents – at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold – to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20–25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive and motor effects of vestibular stimulation, and noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation may provide an additional non-invasive means for neuromodulation of functional brain networks.
The high frequency of recurrence and poor survival rate of bladder cancer demand exploration of novel strategies. Gene therapy via adenovirus has shown promising potential for the treatment of tumors. We constructed a bladder cancer-specific adenovirus carrying E1A-androgen receptor (AR) under the control of UPII promoter and prostate stem cell antigen enhancer (PSCAE), designated as Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A-AR, and investigated its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A-AR could be selectively replicated in bladder tumor cell lines (5637, BIU87, EJ and T24) when compared with control adenovirus Ad/PSCAE/UPII/Luc. However, there was no evidence of cytotoxicity for normal human bladder cell line SV-HUC-1 and hepatoma cell line SMMC7721. AR agonist R1881 could strengthen the oncolytic effect of Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A-AR in bladder cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that intratumoral injection of Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A-AR into established subcutaneous human EJ tumors in nude mice could significantly regress the growth of tumor and markedly prolong survival for tumor-bearing mice; on the other hand, saline-treated tumors continued to grow rapidly. Our studies indicate that Ad/PSCAE/UPII/E1A-AR could effectively treat bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, our findings provide a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of bladder cancer.
adenovirus; androgen receptor; bladder cancer
Immunoreactive (ir) staining of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) was performed in the brains of Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) and greater long-tailed hamsters (Tscherskia triton)—two species that differ remarkably in social behaviors. Social Brandt’s voles had higher densities of OT-ir cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and medial amygdala (MeA) as well as higher densities of AVP-ir cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) compared to solitary greater long-tailed hamsters. In contrast, the hamsters had higher densities of OT-ir cells in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) and LH and higher densities of AVP-ir cells in the MPOA than the voles. OT-ir and AVP-ir fibers were also found in many forebrain areas with subtle species differences. Given the roles of OT and AVP in the regulation of social behaviors in other rodent species, our data support the hypothesis that species-specific patterns of central OT and AVP pathways may underlie species differences in social behaviors. However, despite a higher density of OT-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in females than in males in both species, no other sex differences were found in OT-ir or AVP-ir staining. These data failed to support our prediction that a sexually dimorphic pattern of neuropeptide staining in the brain is more apparent in Brandt’s voles than in greater long-tailed hamsters.
medial preoptic area; anterior hypothalamus; medial amygdala; solitary; social behavior
Objective: (1) To determine the brain connectivity pattern associated with clinical rigidity scores in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and (2) to determine the relation between clinically assessed rigidity and quantitative metrics of motor performance.
Background: Rigidity, the resistance to passive movement, is exacerbated in PD by asking the subject to move the contralateral limb, implying that rigidity involves a distributed brain network. Rigidity mainly affects subjects when they attempt to move; yet the relation between clinical rigidity scores and quantitative aspects of motor performance are unknown.
Methods: Ten clinically diagnosed PD patients (off-medication) and 10 controls were recruited to perform an fMRI squeeze-bulb tracking task that included both visually guided and internally guided features. The direct functional connectivity between anatomically defined regions of interest was assessed with Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). Tracking performance was assessed by fitting Linear Dynamical System (LDS) models to the motor performance, and was compared to the clinical rigidity scores. A cross-validated Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method was used to determine the brain connectivity network that best predicted clinical rigidity scores.
Results: The damping ratio of the LDS models significantly correlated with clinical rigidity scores (p = 0.014). An fMRI connectivity network in subcortical and primary and premotor cortical regions accurately predicted clinical rigidity scores (p < 10−5).
Conclusion: A widely distributed cortical/subcortical network is associated with rigidity observed in PD patients, which reinforces the importance of altered functional connectivity in the pathophysiology of PD. PD subjects with higher rigidity scores tend to have less overshoot in their tracking performance, and damping ratio may represent a robust, quantitative marker of the motoric effects of increasing rigidity.
Parkinson’s disease; rigidity; fMRI; damping ratio; linear dynamical system; LASSO regression
We aim to report on the usefulness of a voxel-based morphometric MRI postprocessing technique in detecting subtle epileptogenic structural lesion. The MRI post-processing technique was implemented in a morphometric analysis program (MAP), in a 30-year-old male with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and negative MRI. MAP gray-white matter junction file facilitated the identification of a suspicious structural lesion in the right frontal opercular area. The electrophysiological data by simultaneously recorded stereo-EEG and MEG confirmed the epileptogenicity of the underlying subtle structural lesion. The patient underwent a limited right frontal opercular resection, which completely included the area detected by MAP. Surgical pathology revealed focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIb. Postoperatively the patient has been seizure-free for 2 years. This study demonstrates that MAP has promise in increasing the diagnostic yield of MRI reading in challenging patients with “non-lesional” MRIs. The clinical relevance and epileptogenicity of MAP abnormalities in patients with epilepsy have not been investigated systematically; therefore it is important to confirm their pertinence by performing electrophysiological recordings. When confirmed to be epileptogenic, such MAP abnormalities may reflect an underlying subtle cortical dysplasia whose complete resection can lead to seizure-free outcome.
epilepsy; MRI-negative; voxel-based morphometric MRI post-processing; magnetoencephalography; MEG; stereo-EEG; focal cortical dysplasia
A critical goal in transplantation is the achievement of donor-specific tolerance, minimizing the use of immunosuppressants. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen (Ag) presenting cells (APCs) with capability to promote immunity or tolerance. The immune-regulatory properties of DCs have been exploited for generation of tolerogenic/immunosuppressive (IS) DCs that, when transfer systemically, prolong allograft survival in murine models. Surprisingly, the in vivo mechanisms of therapies based on (donor- or recipient-derived) ISDCs in transplantation remain unknown, given that previous studies investigated their effects in vitro, or ex vivo after transplantation. Since once injected, ISDCs are short-lived and transfer Ag to recipient APCs, we assessed the role of recipient DCs by depleting them at the time of ISDC-therapy in a mouse model of cardiac transplantation. The results indicate that, contrary to the accepted paradigm, systemically administered ISDCs reduce the allo-response and prolong allograft survival, not by themselves, but through conventional DCs (cDCs) of the recipient. These findings raise doubts on the advantages of the currently used ISDC-therapies, since the immune-regulatory properties of the injected ISDC do not seem to be functionally relevant in vivo, and the quiescent/pro-tolerogenic status of cDCs may be compromised in patients with end-stage diseases that require transplantation.
Dendritic cells; Dendritic cell therapies; Transplantation; Immunosuppression; Tolerance
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A total of 112 patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or a positive digital rectal examination were evaluated using three-dimensional greyscale transrectal ultrasound (3D-GS TRUS) and three-dimensional power Doppler sonography (3D-PDS). Target biopsies were obtained together with 12 core systematic biopsies. Pathological results were correlated with the imaging data.
Cancers were detected in 269 biopsy sites from 41 patients. 229 sites of cancer were depicted by 3D-GS TRUS and 213 sites were depicted by 3D-PDS. 30 sites were missed by both 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS. Abnormal prostate images depicted by 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS were associated with lesions with a Gleason score of 6.9 or higher.
The detection rates of prostate cancer were significantly improved with 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS on serum PSA levels >10 ng ml–1 or 20 ng ml–1. 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS may improve the biopsy yield by determining appropriate sites for target and systematic biopsies. The abnormalities detected by 3D ultrasound were associated with moderate- and high-grade prostate cancers. However, based on the number of false-negative TRUS results, the use of systematic prostate biopsies should not be eliminated.
In axial organs of juvenile plants, the phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) rapidly allows cell wall loosening and hence promotes turgor-driven elongation. In this study, we used rye (Secale cereale) coleoptile sections to investigate possible effects of IAA on the proteome of cells. In a first set of experiments, we document that IAA causes organ elongation via promotion of expansion of the rigid outer wall of the outer epidermis. A quantitative comparison of the proteome (membrane-associated proteins), using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), revealed that, within 2 h of auxin treatment, at least 16 protein spots were up- or down-regulated by IAA. These proteins were identified using reverse-phase liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Four of these proteins were detected in the growth-controlling outer epidermis and were further analysed. One epidermal polypeptide, a small Ras-related GTP-binding protein, was rapidly down-regulated by IAA (after 0.5 h of incubation) by −35% compared to the control. Concomitantly, a subunit of the 26S proteasome was up-regulated by IAA (+30% within 1 h). In addition, this protein displayed IAA-mediated post-translational modification. The implications of these rapid auxin effects with respect to signal transduction and IAA-mediated secretion of glycoproteins (osmiophilic nano-particles) into the growth-controlling outer epidermal wall are discussed.
Auxin; epidermis; cell elongation; cell wall; Golgi secretion; proteomics
Telomeres form the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are vital in maintaining genetic integrity. Telomere dysfunction is associated with cancer and several chronic diseases. Patterns of genetic variation across individuals can provide keys to further understanding the evolutionary history of genes. We investigated patterns of differentiation and population structure of 37 telomere maintenance genes among 53 worldwide populations. Data from 898 unrelated individuals were obtained from the genome-wide scan of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) and from 270 unrelated individuals from the International HapMap Project at 716 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. We additionally compared this gene set to HGDP data at 1396 SNPs in 174 innate immunity genes. The majority of the telomere biology genes had low to moderate haplotype diversity (45–85%), high ancestral allele frequencies (>60%) and low differentiation (FST <0.10). Heterozygosity and differentiation were significantly lower in telomere biology genes compared with the innate immunity genes. There was evidence of evolutionary selection in ACD, TERF2IP, NOLA2, POT1 and TNKS in this data set, which was consistent in HapMap 3. TERT had higher than expected levels of haplotype diversity, likely attributable to a lack of linkage disequilibrium, and a potential cancer-associated SNP in this gene, rs2736100, varied substantially in genotype frequency across major continental regions. It is possible that the genes under selection could influence telomere biology diseases. As a group, there appears to be less diversity and differentiation in telomere biology genes than in genes with different functions, possibly due to their critical role in telomere maintenance and chromosomal stability.
telomere; selection; single-nucleotide polymorphism; HGDP; HapMap
In this study, we characterized early biochemical changes associated with sertraline and placebo administration and changes associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD patients received sertraline or placebo in a double-blind 4-week trial; baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks serum samples were profiled using a gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. Intermediates of TCA and urea cycles, fatty acids and intermediates of lipid biosynthesis, amino acids, sugars and gut-derived metabolites were changed after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment. Some of the changes were common to the sertraline- and placebo-treated groups. Changes after 4 weeks of treatment in both groups were more extensive. Pathway analysis in the sertraline group suggested an effect of drug on ABC and solute transporters, fatty acid receptors and transporters, G signaling molecules and regulation of lipid metabolism. Correlation between biochemical changes and treatment outcomes in the sertraline group suggested a strong association with changes in levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), lower BCAAs levels correlated with better treatment outcomes; pathway analysis in this group revealed that methionine and tyrosine correlated with BCAAs. Lower levels of lactic acid, higher levels of TCA/urea cycle intermediates, and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid correlated with better treatment outcomes in placebo group. Results of this study indicate that biochemical changes induced by drug continue to evolve over 4 weeks of treatment and that might explain partially delayed response. Response to drug and response to placebo share common pathways but some pathways are more affected by drug treatment. BCAAs seem to be implicated in mechanisms of recovery from a depressed state following sertraline treatment.
depression; metabotype; metabolomics; pharmacometabolomics; personalized medicine; subclassification of disease
Rapamycin impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that rapamycin significantly increases the expression of gastric ghrelin, which is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether ghrelin contributes to derangements of glucose metabolism induced by rapamycin.
The effects of rapamycin on glucose metabolism were examined in mice receiving ghrelin receptor antagonist or with ghrelin receptor gene deletion. Changes in Glut4, JNK, and pS6 were investigated by immnuofluorescent staining or Western. Related hormones were detected by radioimmuno-assay kits.
Rapamycin impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity not only in normal C57BL/6J mice but also in both obese mice induced by high fat diet and db/db mice. This was accompanied by elevation of plasma acylated ghrelin. Rapamycin significantly increased the levels of plasma acylated ghrelin in normal C57BL/6J mice, high fat diet induced obese mice, and db/db mice. Elevation in plasma acylated ghrelin and derangements of glucose metabolism upon administration of rapamycin was significantly correlated. The deterioration in glucose homeostasis induced by rapamycin was blocked by D-Lys3-GHRP-6, a ghrelin receptor antagonist, or by deletion of ghrelin receptor gene. Ghrelin receptor antagonism and ghrelin receptor gene deletion blocked the up-regulation of JNK activity, and GLUT4 expression and translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle induced by rapamycin.
The current study demonstrates that ghrelin contributes to derangements of glucose metabolism induced by rapamycin via altering the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in muscles.
Ghrelin; glucose metabolism; rapamycin
Graphical models appear well suited for inferring brain connectivity from fMRI data, as they can distinguish between direct and indirect brain connectivity. Nevertheless, biological interpretation requires not only that the multivariate time series are adequately modeled, but also that there is accurate error-control of the inferred edges. The PCfdr algorithm, which was developed by Li and Wang, was to provide a computationally efficient means to control the false discovery rate (FDR) of computed edges asymptotically. The original PCfdr algorithm was unable to accommodate a priori information about connectivity and was designed to infer connectivity from a single subject rather than a group of subjects. Here we extend the original PCfdr algorithm and propose a multisubject, error-rate-controlled brain connectivity modeling approach that allows incorporation of prior knowledge of connectivity. In simulations, we show that the two proposed extensions can still control the FDR around or below a specified threshold. When the proposed approach is applied to fMRI data in a Parkinson's disease study, we find robust group evidence of the disease-related changes, the compensatory changes, and the normalizing effect of L-dopa medication. The proposed method provides a robust, accurate, and practical method for the assessment of brain connectivity patterns from functional neuroimaging data.
enantioselectivity; gold; heterogeneous catalysis; hydroamination; synthetic methods
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) and histiocyte–associated lymphoma (HAL) of mice are difficult to distinguish histologically. Studies of multiple cases initially diagnosed as HS or HAL allowed us to define HS as round, fusiform, or mixed cell types that were F4/80+, Mac–2+, and PAX5−; that lacked markers for other sarcomas; and that had immune receptor genes in germline configuration. Two other subsets had clonal populations of lymphocytes. The first, HAL, featured malignant lymphocytes admixed with large populations of normal–appearing histiocytes. The second appeared to be composites of lymphoma and HS. Several cases suggestive of B myeloid–lineage plasticity were also observed.
histiocytic sarcoma; histiocyte–associated lymphoma; immunohistochemistry; lymphoma; Southern blotting; tissue microarray
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces selective apoptotic death of human cancer cells while sparing normal human cells. Although TRAIL holds great promise as a potential anticancer agent, some tumors develop resistance to TRAIL. Previously, we have shown that the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family member, c-Fos, is an important modulator of apoptosis. Although F- box protein 10 (FBXL10) has been implicated to regulate an AP-1 family protein, c-Jun, its role in mediating apoptotic pathways has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that FBXL10 is a transcriptional repressor of c-Fos and a target gene of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-p65 in human cancers. We demonstrate that FBXL10 is an important anti-apoptotic molecule, which directly binds and represses c-Fos promoter in order for cancer cells to resist TRAIL-induced apoptosis. FBXL10 indirectly regulates c-FLIP(L) levels via c-Fos-dependent pathways. Silencing of FBXL10 sensitizes resistant cells to TRAIL, while, overexpression of FBXL10 represses TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our results indicate that expression of FBXL10 functions via an NF-κB-dependent pathway, and TRAIL or proteasome inhibitors downregulate FBXL10 via inhibiting NF-κB signaling. Taken together, we find a novel functional role for FBXL10 as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and describe a new apoptotic-related pathway that involves NF-κB/FBXL10/c-Fos/c-FLIP. Therefore, silencing FBXL10 can help overcome resistant cancer cells for pro-apoptotic therapies.
c-FLIP; c-Fos; FBXL10; NF-κB; TRAIL; apoptosis
A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding.
Vitex agnus-castus; labdane diterpene; viteagnusin I; flavonoids; opioid activity
To determine the supporting role of a novel foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the treatment of severe retinal detachment in human eyes.
The study examined nine eyes of nine patients. Among the nine eyes, five had suffered penetrating injuries while four had suffered contusions of the eyeball involving large defects of the retina or choroids. A standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy was performed, FCVB was triple-folded and sent into the vitreous cavity; balanced salt solution (BSS) was injected into the capsule to support the retina. Three cardinal axes of nine eyes were examined using MRI at baseline and at the 3-month follow up.
MRI revealed that the signal intensity of the FCVB was similar to the normal vitreous body, with low-signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted image. In three pre-operative silicone oil- or heavy silicone oil-filled eyes, FCVBs were not fully inflated, and eyeball deformation was observed in one eye. Shifts of three cardinal axes of three eyes (horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical) according to MRI, were −4.33, −4.67, and −2.67 mm. In the remaining six eyes, FCVBs were well distributed in the vitreous cavity and evenly supported the retina; the cardinal axes of the eyes were similar to pre-operation. Shifts of three cardinal axes of six eyes were −0.34, −0.34, and −0.34 mm. In a total of nine eyes, shifts of three cardinal axes were −1.67, −1.77, and −1.11 mm. Statistically significant difference showed only between the horizontal axis of nine eyes pre-operatively and post-operatively (P1=0.041, P2=0.058, P3=0.123).
This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MRI to monitor the supporting role of an FCVB in the treatment of severe retinal detachment in human eyes.
FCVB; human eyes; magnetic resonance imaging
The CHAVI002 study was designed to characterize immune responses, particularly HIV-specific T-cell responses, amongst 2 cohorts of HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals. The absence of a clear definition of HESNs has impaired comparison of research within and between such cohorts. This report describes two distinct HESN cohorts and attempts to quantify HIV exposure using a ‘HIV risk index’ (RI) model.
HIV serodiscordant couples (UK; 24, Uganda; 72) and HIV unexposed seronegative (HUSN) controls (UK; 14, Uganda; 26 couples, 3 individuals) completed sexual behavior questionnaires every 3 months over a 9 month period. The two cohorts were heterogeneous, with most HESNs in the UK men who have sex with men (MSM), while all HESNs in Uganda were in heterosexual relationships. Concordance of responses between partners was determined. Each participant’s sexual behavior score (SBS) was estimated based on the number and type of unprotected sex acts carried out in defined time periods. Independent HIV acquisition risk factors (partner plasma viral load, STIs, male circumcision, pregnancy) were integrated with the SBS, generating a RI for each HESN.
96 HIV serodiscordant couples completed 929 SBQs. SBSs remained relatively stable amongst the UK cohort, whilst decreasing from Visit 1 to 2 in the Ugandan cohort. Compared to the Ugandan cohort, SBSs and RIs in the UK cohort were lower at visit 1, and generally higher at later visits. Differences between the cohorts, with lower rates of ART use in Uganda and higher risk per-act sex in the UK, had major impacts on the SBSs and RIs of each cohort. There was one HIV transmission event in the UK cohort.
Employment of a risk quantification model facilitated quantification and comparison of HIV acquisition risk across two disparate HIV serodiscordant couple cohorts.