To explore a modified technique for silicone intubation for the repair of canalicular lacerations.
The surgery was performed on 35 eyes in 35 adult patients from October 2007 to September 2009. Using a modified soft probe, silicone tubes were inserted through the lacrimal punctum and left in the bicanaliculi for 3–10 months.
The surgery was performed successfully in all cases. The tubes were removed after 3–10 months (mean 5.3±1.8 months). The mean follow-up time after tube removal was 13.8 months (range, 6–22 months). Lower punctum splitting occurred in one case (2.86%) after the surgery. No other complications associated with the silicone tubes occurred. All the tubes were removed successfully without any difficulty. No iatrogenic injuries occurred during tube removal.
The modified bicanalicular intubation procedure described here is an effective and atraumatic procedure for the management of canalicular lacerations in adults, and it is associated with fewer complications than the traditional sutures of canalicular lacerations.
modified; canalicular laceration; tube intubation
Castleman’s disease (CD) is a relatively rare and benign disorder. Pancreatic localization of CD is even more rare and is usually indistinguishable from pancreatic neoplasms. We report three cases of CD in which pancreas was all involved. One located in the tail of the pancreas, who accepted distal pancreatectomy, and the others in the head accepted enucleation. In addition, we review current data on its pathogenesis, imaging findings, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment.
Castleman’s disease; Pancreas
Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1−/− mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC–MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein–protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1–JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca2+ transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification. Such suppression occurs through protein–protein interaction between TRPV1 and CB1 leading to declines in TRPV1 phosphorylation status. CB1 activation of the GTP binding protein, Gi/o contributes to CB1 mediated TRPV1 dephosphorylation leading to TRPV1 desensitization, declines in TRPV1-induced increases in currents and pro-inflammatory signaling events.
Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC); Currents; Cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1); Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1); Inflammation; Small interfering RNA (siRNA) gene silencing
Genetically encoded catalysts for non-natural chemical reactions will open new routes to sustainable production of chemicals. We designed a unique serine-heme ligated cytochrome “P411” that catalyzes efficient and selective carbene transfers from diazoesters to olefins in intact Escherichia coli cells. The mutation C400S in cytochrome P450BM3 gives a signature ferrous-CO Soret peak at 411 nm, abolishes monooxygenation activity, raises the resting state FeIII/II reduction potential, and significantly improves NAD(P)H-driven cyclopropanation activity.
Takayasu arteritis is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory disease that primarily affects large vessels, such as the aorta and its major branches and the pulmonary and coronary arteries. The non-specific inflammation of involved vessels usually leads to concentric wall thickening, fibrosis and thrombus formation. Diseased arteries become stenotic or occluded, undergo vascular remodelling or develop aneurysms. According to the involvement of arteries, six types of Takayasu arteritis are documented. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the various multidetector CT angiography appearances of Takayasu arteritis and to discuss the differential diagnosis.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease of the retina and the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death and the resultant photoreceptor apoptosis are characteristic of late-stage dry AMD, especially geographic atrophy (GA). Although oxidative stress and inflammation have been associated with GA, the nature and underlying mechanism for RPE cell death remains controversial, which hinders the development of targeted therapy for dry AMD. The purpose of this study is to systematically dissect the mechanism of RPE cell death induced by oxidative stress. Our results show that characteristic features of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation, were not observed during RPE cell death induced by either hydrogen peroxide or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide. Instead, this kind of cell death can be prevented by RIP kinase inhibitors necrostatins but not caspase inhibitor z-VAD, suggesting necrotic feature of RPE cell death. Moreover, ATP depletion, receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) aggregation, nuclear and plasma membrane leakage and breakdown, which are the cardinal features of necrosis, were observed in RPE cells upon oxidative stress. Silencing of RIPK3, a key protein in necrosis, largely prevented oxidative stress-induced RPE death. The necrotic nature of RPE death is consistent with the release of nuclear protein high mobility group protein B1 into the cytoplasm and cell medium, which induces the expression of inflammatory gene TNFα in healthy RPE and THP-1 cells. Interestingly, features of pyroptosis or autophagy were not observed in oxidative stress-treated RPE cells. Our results unequivocally show that necrosis, but not apoptosis, is a major type of cell death in RPE cells in response to oxidative stress. This suggests that preventing oxidative stress-induced necrotic RPE death may be a viable approach for late-stage dry AMD.
cell death; RIPK3; RPE cell; oxidative stress; AMD
A small nose-only exposure chamber was evaluated for inhalation delivery of drug carrier systems (DCSs) to mice for the treatment of lung cancer. The chamber then was used for inhalation delivery of an anticancer drug, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), and small interfering RNA (siRNA) directly to the cancerous lungs of mice.
The uniformity of particle delivery across the ports of the exposure chamber and stability of the DCS (liposomes) during continuous aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer were examined. The mean produced particle size by number was approximately 130 nm, and the mass median diameter was approximately 270 nm. The system was then used to deliver DCS containing doxorubicin (DOX) and ASO or siRNA targeted to multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) mRNA as suppressors of cancer cell resistance. The retention of the drug in the lungs and the effect on tumor size were compared after inhalation delivery and intravenous injection in a nu/nu mouse model of lung cancer.
The aerosol mass across the four inhalation ports had a coefficient of variation of less than 12%, and approximately 1.4% of the nebulized mass was available for inhalation at each port. The mean size of 130 nm of liposomal DCS did not change significantly during continuous 60-min aerosolization. For inhalation delivery of DCS with DOX+ASO/siRNA, the amount of drugs available for inhalation was lower compared with intravenous injection of DOX; however, the observed lung dose and the retention time were significantly higher. The delivery of DOX+ASO/siRNA via inhalation resulted in tumor volume reduction of more than 90%, whereas only about 40% reduction was achieved after intravenous injection of DOX.
The investigated exposure system is suitable for inhalation delivery of complex DCS, and its use to deliver DCS containing anticancer drugs and resistance suppressors via inhalation offered a superior method for lung cancer treatment in mice compared with intravenous injections.
lung cancer; inhalation; exposure; nose-only chamber; drug carrier systems; liposomes; pump and nonpump resistance
Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: “Integrating living and physical systems.”
The objective of this study was to pool the lymph node metastasis rate (LNMR) in patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer (TOC) and to determine which node level should be included when undergoing radiation therapy.
Qualified studies were identified on Medline, Embase, CBM and the Cochrane Library through to the end of April 2011. Pooled estimates of LNMR were obtained through a random-effect model. Possible effect modifiers which might lead to the statistical heterogeneity were identified through meta-regression, and further subgroup analyses of factors influencing LNMR were performed.
45 observational studies with a total of 18 415 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of LNMR in upper, middle and lower TOC were 30.7%, 16.8% and 11.0% cervical, 42.0%, 21.1% and 10.5% upper mediastinal, 12.9%, 28.1% and 19.6% middle mediastinal, 2.6%, 7.8% and 23.0% lower mediastinal, and 9%, 21.4% and 39.9% abdominal, respectively. Lymph node metastasis most frequently happened to paratracheal, paraoesophageal, perigastric 106recR and station 7. The most obvious difference (≥15%) of LNMR between two-field and three-field lymphatic dissection occurred in cervical, paratracheal, 106recR and 108.
Through the meta-analysis, more useful information was obtained about clinical target volume (CTV) delineation of TOC patients treated with radiotherapy. However, our study is predominantly a description of squamous carcinoma and the results may not be valid for adenocarcinoma.
The failure of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increasingly considered as an important factor in the pathological correlates for memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loss of adult-born neurons and abnormalities of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) within the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult hippocampus might contribute to this process. In this study, we showed that amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ42) oligomer triggers senescent phenotype of NSPCs in vitro. Oligomerized Aβ42 induced the production of senescence-associated biomarkers p16 and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in adult mouse hippocampal NSPCs, as well as inhibited cells proliferation and differentiation. In the DG of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, the number of senescent NSPCs was significantly increased and senescence-associated protein p16 was upregulated. Formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2), one of Aβ42 functional receptors, may be involved in NSPCs senescence. The FPR2 antagonist WRW4 significantly inhibited NSPCs senescence induced by Aβ42. In addition, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was involved in NSPCs senescence induced by Aβ42. WRW4 inhibited the accumulation of ROS and the activation of p38 MAPK in NSPCs. Our data suggest that Aβ42 accelerates NSPCs senescence via FPR2-dependent activation of its downstream ROS-p38 MAPK signaling, which limits the function of NSPCs and contributes to failure of neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration of NSPCs senescence response to Aβ42.
Aβ42; adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells; senescence; FPR2; ROS; p38 MAPK
Apoptosis resistance is a hurdle for cancer treatment. HECTD3, a new E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with caspase-8 death effector domains and ubiquitinates caspase-8 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that do not target caspase-8 for degradation but decrease the caspase-8 activation. HECTD3 depletion can sensitize cancer cells to extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In addition, HECTD3 inhibits TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced caspase-8 cleavage in an E3 ligase activity-dependent manner. Mutation of the caspase-8 ubiquitination site at K215 abolishes the HECTD3 protection from TRAIL-induced cleavage. Finally, HECTD3 is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinomas. These findings suggest that caspase-8 ubiquitination by HECTD3 confers cancer cell survival.
ubiquitination; apoptosis; breast cancer; HECTD3; caspase-8
The present study is the first to show in pancreatic cancer (PC) the growth inhibition and apoptosis by novel MDM2 inhibitors (MI-319 & 219) through reactivation of p53 pathway. Our results highlight two new secondary targets of MDM2 inhibitor ‘SIRT1’ and Ku70. SIRT1 has a role in ageing and cancer and is known to regulate p53 signaling through acetylation. Ku70 is a key component of non-homologous end joining machinery in the DNA damage pathway and is known to regulate apoptosis by blocking Bax entry into mitochondria. Given the growth inhibition and apoptosis by MI-219, MI-319 was accompanied by increase in levels of p53 along with p21WAF1 and the proapoptotic Puma. SiRNA against p21WAF1 abrogated the growth inhibition of PC cells confirming p21WAF1 as a key player downstream of activated p53. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis revealed reduced association of MDM2-p53 interaction in drug exposed PC cells. In combination studies, the inhibitors synergistically augmented anti-tumor effects of therapeutic drug gemcitabine both in terms of cell growth inhibition as well as apoptosis. Surface plasmon resonance studies confirmed strong binding between MI-319 and Ku70 (KD 170 nM). Western blot revealed suppression of SIRT1 and Ku70 with simultaneous upregulation of acetyl-p53 (Lys379) and Bax. Co-Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that MI-319 could disrupt Ku70-Bax and SIRT1-Bax interaction. Further, using wt-p53 xenograft of Capan-2, we found that oral administration of MI-319 at 300 mg/kg for 14 days resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition without any observed toxicity to the animals. No tumor inhibition was found in mut-p53 BxPC-3 xenografts. In light of our results, the inhibitors of MDM2 warrant clinical investigation as new agents for PC treatment.
MDM2 and p53; Small molecule inhibitors; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis; pancreatic cancer
Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and Ang-2 interact in angiogenesis to activate the Tie-2
receptor, which may be involved in new vessel maturation and regression. Mast cells
(MCs) are also involved in formation of new blood vessels and angiogenesis. The
present study was designed to test whether MCs can mediate angiogenesis in myocardial
microvascular endothelial cells (MMVECs). Using a rat MMVEC and MC co-culture system,
we observed that Ang-1 protein levels were very low even though its mRNA levels were
increased by MCs. Interestingly, MCs were able to enhance migration, proliferation,
and capillary-like tube formation, which were associated with suppressed Ang-2
protein expression, but not Tie-2 expression levels. These MCs induced effects that
could be reversed by either tryptase inhibitor [N-tosyl-L-lysine
chloromethyl ketone (TLCK)] or chymase inhibitor
(N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone), with TLCK showing
greater effects. In conclusion, our data indicated that MCs can interrupt neovessel
maturation via suppression of the Ang-2/Tie-2 signaling pathway.
Myocardial microvascular endothelial cells; Mast cell; Angiogenesis; Angiopoietin; Tie-2
To provide evidence for the selection of an optimal cross-sectional reconstruction mode in spectral CT imaging of the abdomen, we compared the monochromatic images with polychromatic images.
Three phase-enhanced CT scans of the abdomen were recorded using the spectral imaging technique on 100 patients. Images were reconstructed using two modes: polychromatic and 70 keV monochromatic. The following variables were then compared: contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidney and pancreas, and the noise. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences between the two sets of images. Three experienced doctors graded the quality of the images with a five-point scale. The image quality scores were compared with a non-parametric rank sum test.
Compared with polychromatic images, the 70 keV monochromatic mode images yielded significantly greater tissue-to-fat CNR and lower noise (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The image quality of the 70 keV monochromatic mode showed significantly better results than the polychromatic mode (p<0.001).
In abdominal spectral CT imaging, 70 keV monochromatic mode reconstruction images were better than those reconstructed using the polychromatic mode. The monochromatic mode may become the routine reconstruction mode for cross-sectional images.
Epilepsy; Seizure; Intracranial electrodes; Epilepsy surgery; Epileptogenic zone; Cortical localization
Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment in ovarian cancer patients, and the evidence of microRNAs involvement in drug resistance has been emerging recently. In this report, we investigated the role of let-7e in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. On the cellular level, let-7e expression was significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780/CP compared with parental A2780 cell and decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780, SKOV3 and ES2 cells treated with cisplatin. Overexpression of let-7e by transfection of agomir could resensitize A2780/CP and reduce the expression of cisplatin-resistant-related proteins enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), whereas let-7e inhibitors increased resistance to cisplatin in parental A2780 cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis showed hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to let-7e in A2780/CP cells, and demethylation treatment with 5-aza-CdR or transfection of pYr-let-7e-shRNA plasmid containing unmethylated let-7e DNA sequence could restore let-7e expression and partly reduce the chemoresistance. In addition, cisplatin combined with let-7e agomirs inhibited the growth of A2780/CP xenograft more effectively than cisplatin alone. Diminished expression of EZH2 and CCND1 and higher cisplatin concentrations in tumor tissue of mice subjected to administration of let-7e agomirs in addition to cisplatin were revealed by immunohistochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7e may act as a promising therapeutic target for improvement of the sensibility to cisplatin in EOC.
let-7e; cisplatin; epithelial ovarian cancer; methylation; agomir
Gpr97 is an orphan adhesion GPCR and is highly conserved among species. Up to now, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Gpr97 deficiency results in an extensive reduction in B220+ lymphocytes in mice. More intensive analyses reveal an expanded marginal zone but a decreased follicular B-cell population in Gpr97−/−spleen, which displays disorganized architecture characterized by diffuse, irregular B-cell areas and the absence of discrete perifollicular marginal and mantle zones. In vivo functional studies reveal that the mutant mice could generate antibody responses to T cell-dependent and independent antigens, albeit enhanced response to the former and weakened response to the latter. By screening for the molecular events involved in the observed phenotypes, we found that lambda 5 expression is downregulated and its upstream inhibitor Aiolos is increased in the spleen of mutant mice, accompanied by significantly enhanced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Interestingly, increased constitutive Nf-κb p50/p65 expression and activity were observed in Gpr97−/− spleen, implicating a crucial role of Gpr97 in regulating Nf-κb activity. These findings uncover a novel biological function of Gpr97 in regulating B-cell development, implying Gpr97 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of immunological disorders.
Gpr97; knockout mice; B lymphopoiesis; follicular B cells; lambda 5 gene
Induction of cell death and inhibition of cell survival are the main principles of cancer therapy. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a major problem in oncology, which limits the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. A variety of factors contribute to drug resistance, including host factors, specific genetic or epigenetic alterations in the cancer cells and so on. Although various mechanisms by which cancer cells become resistant to anticancer drugs in the microenvironment have been well elucidated, how to circumvent this resistance to improve anticancer efficacy remains to be defined. Autophagy, an important homeostatic cellular recycling mechanism, is now emerging as a crucial player in response to metabolic and therapeutic stresses, which attempts to maintain/restore metabolic homeostasis through the catabolic lysis of excessive or unnecessary proteins and injured or aged organelles. Recently, several studies have shown that autophagy constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy and the induction of autophagy in response to therapeutics can be viewed as having a prodeath or a prosurvival role, which contributes to the anticancer efficacy of these drugs as well as drug resistance. Thus, understanding the novel function of autophagy may allow us to develop a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the effects of chemotherapy and improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of cancer patients.
autophagy; chemotherapy resistance; cancer; therapy
Arginase, an arginine-degrading enzyme, has gained increased attention recently as a new experimental therapeutics for a variety of malignant solid cancers. In this study, we found that recombinant human arginase (rhArg) could induce remarkable growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and caspase-dependent apoptosis in Raji and Daudi non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cells through arginine deprivation. Interestingly, rhArg-treatment resulted in the appearance of autophagosomes and upregulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II, indicating that rhArg induced autophagy in lymphoma cells. Further study suggested that mammalian target of rapamycin/S6k signaling pathway may be involved in rhArg-induced autophagy in NHL cells. Moreover, blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitors (3-methyladenine and chloroquine) or genetic approaches (small interfering RNA targeting autophagy-related gene 5 and Beclin-1) enhanced the cell killing effect of rhArg. These results demonstrated that rhArg has a potent anti-lymphoma activity, which could be improved by in combination with autophagic inhibitors, suggesting that rhArg, either alone or in combination with autophagic inhibitors, could be a potential novel therapeutics for the treatment of NHL.
autophagy; apoptosis; recombinant human arginase; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
The importance of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in angiogenesis is unclear and contradictory. Here we show that inhibition of extracellular TG2 protein crosslinking or downregulation of TG2 expression leads to inhibition of angiogenesis in cell culture, the aorta ring assay and in vivo models. In a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture model, inhibition of extracellular TG2 activity can halt the progression of angiogenesis, even when introduced after tubule formation has commenced and after addition of excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In both cases, this leads to a significant reduction in tubule branching. Knockdown of TG2 by short hairpin (shRNA) results in inhibition of HUVEC migration and tubule formation, which can be restored by add back of wt TG2, but not by the transamidation-defective but GTP-binding mutant W241A. TG2 inhibition results in inhibition of fibronectin deposition in HUVEC monocultures with a parallel reduction in matrix-bound VEGFA, leading to a reduction in phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) at Tyr1214 and its downstream effectors Akt and ERK1/2, and importantly its association with β1 integrin. We propose a mechanism for the involvement of matrix-bound VEGFA in angiogenesis that is dependent on extracellular TG2-related activity.
tissue transglutaminase; angiogenesis; crosslinking; tubule and VEGF
A clearer definition of the molecular determinants that drive the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) is urgently needed. Efforts to map recurrent somatic deletions in the tumor genome, especially homozygous deletions (HODs), have provided important positional information in the search for cancer-causing genes. Analyzing HODs in the tumors of 244 patients from two independent cohorts and 22 PCa xenografts using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, herein we report the identification of CHD1, a chromatin remodeler, as one of the most frequently homozygously deleted genes in PCa, second only to PTEN in this regard. The HODs observed in CHD1, including deletions affecting only internal exons of CHD1, were found to completely extinguish the expression of mRNA of this gene in PCa xenografts. Loss of this chromatin remodeler in clinical specimens is significantly associated with an increased number of additional chromosomal deletions, both hemi- and homozygous, especially on 2q, 5q and 6q. Together with the deletions observed in HEK293 cells stably transfected with CHD1 small hairpin RNA, these data suggest a causal relationship. Downregulation of Chd1 in mouse prostate epithelial cells caused dramatic morphological changes indicative of increased invasiveness, but did not result in transformation. Indicating a new role of CHD1, these findings collectively suggest that distinct CHD1-associated alterations of genomic structure evolve during and are required for the development of PCa.
CHD1; homozygous deletion; prostate cancer
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a tumor suppressor originally identified in acute promyelocytic leukemia and implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple forms of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the PML protein undergoes ubiquitination-mediated degradation facilitated by an E3 ligase UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1), which is commonly upregulated in various human malignancies. Furthermore, UHRF1 negatively regulates PML protein accumulation in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), HEK 293 cells and cancer cells. Knockdown of UHRF1 upregulates whereas ectopic overexpression of UHRF1 downregulates protein abundance of endogenous or exogenous PML, doing so through its binding to the N-terminus of PML. Overexpression of wild-type UHRF1 shortens PML protein half-life and promotes PML polyubiquitination, whereas deletion of the RING domain or coexpression of the dominant-negative E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2D2, attenuates this modification to PML. Finally, knockdown of UHRF1 prolongs PML half-life and increases PML protein accumulation, yet inhibits cell migration and in vitro capillary tube formation, whereas co-knockdown of PML compromises this inhibitory effect. These findings suggest that UHRF1 promotes the turnover of PML protein, and thus targeting UHRF1 to restore PML-mediated tumor suppression represents a promising, novel, anticancer strategy.
UHRF1; PML; ubiquitination; cell migration; capillary tube formation
Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of
long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) gene can cause
insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved
in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the
relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of
ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control
study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy
subjects). Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were
evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR)
and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene
were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length
polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT
and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the
samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of
the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT
genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition,
no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele
frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447.
The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism
rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an
increase in insulin resistance.
Elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Insulin resistance; β-cell function
: Haemophilic pseudotumour (HP) is an extremely rare lesion. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of maxillary bone HPs and introduce the key points to differentiate HP from the mimicking entities in the region.
: We retrospectively reviewed three paediatric patients with histology-proven HPs arising from the maxillary bone. All three patients underwent CT and/or MRI. Combined with six previously reported cases in the literature, the imaging features were comprehensively analysed.
: All HPs showed a well-demarcated, multilobulated expansile osteolytic lesion in the maxillary bone. On non-enhanced CT, HPs appeared of mixed density relative to grey matter. The lesions appeared to have markedly heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images, with septa-like enhancement following the administration of contrast material, which corresponded to blood products in various stages of evolution. The lesions caused cortical thinning and even focal disappearance and multiple bone septa were identified within the involved maxillary bone. Some HPs were associated with radiated periosteal proliferation, which can easily be misdiagnosed as a malignant bone tumour.
: A high index of suspicion for HP and a familiarity with imaging findings may help to accurately diagnose this rare entity.
Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson’s disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson’s and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–10 Hz), high alpha (10.5–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (31–50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents – at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold – to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20–25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive and motor effects of vestibular stimulation, and noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation may provide an additional non-invasive means for neuromodulation of functional brain networks.