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1.  DNA methyltransferase3a expression is an independent poor prognostic indicator in gastric cancer 
AIM: To explore the alteration of DNA methyltransferase expression in gastric cancer and to assess its prognostic value.
METHODS: From April 2000 to December 2010, 227 men and 73 women with gastric cancer were enrolled in the study. The expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, in the 300 cases of gastric carcinoma, of which 85 had paired adjacent normal gastric mucus samples, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) IgG was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between the above results and the clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Their prognostic value was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: In gastric cancer, expression of DNMTs was mainly seen in the nucleus. Weak staining was also observed in the cytoplasm. Expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in gastric cancer was significantly higher compared to that in the paired control samples (60.0% vs 37.6%, 61.2% vs 4.7%, and 94.1% vs 71.8%, P < 0.01). The overall survival rate was significantly higher in the DNMT3a negative group than in the DNMT3a positive group in gastric cancer patients (Log-rank test, P = 0.032). No significant correlation was observed between DNMT1 and DNMT3b expression and the overall survival time (Log-rank test, P = 0.289, P = 0.347). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that DNMT3a expression (P = 0.025) and TNM stage (P < 0.001), but not DNMT1 (P = 0.54) or DNMT3b (P = 0.62), were independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer. H. pylori infection did not induce protein expression of DNMTs.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that expression of DNMT3a is an independent poor prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. DNMT3a might play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i25.8201
PMCID: PMC4081693
DNA methyltransferase; Prognosis; Gastric cancer; Expression; Helicobacter pylori
2.  Estimation of the Exposure of the UK Population to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent through Dietary Intake During the Period 1980 to 1996 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94020.
Although the incidence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has declined to 1 since 2012 in the UK, uncertainty remains regarding possible future cases and the size of the subclinical population that may cause secondary transmission of the disease through blood transfusion. Estimating the number of individuals who were exposed to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectious agent and may be susceptible to vCJD will help to clarify related public health concerns and plan strategies. In this paper, we explore this estimate by describing the probability of potential exposure due to dietary intake throughout the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 as a stochastic Poisson process. We estimate the age- and gender-specific exposure intensities in food categories of beef and beef-containing dishes, burgers and kebabs, pies, and sausages, separating the two periods of 1980–1989 and 1990–1996 due to the specified bovine offal legislation of 1989. The estimated total number of (living) exposed individuals during each period is 5,089,027 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4,514,963–6,410,317), which was obtained by multiplying the population size of different birth cohorts by the probability of exposure via dietary intake and the probability of survival until the end of 2013. The estimated number is approximately doubled, assuming a contamination rate of . Among those individuals estimated, 31,855 (95% CI 26,849–42,541) are susceptible to infection. We also examined the threshold hypothesis by fitting an extreme-value distribution to the estimated infectious dose of the exposed individuals and obtained a threshold estimate of 13.7 bID50 (95% CI 6.6–26.2 bID50) (Weibull). The results provide useful information on potential carriers of prion disease who may pose a threat of infection via blood transfusion and thus provide insight into the likelihood of new incidents of vCJD occurring in the future.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094020
PMCID: PMC3988046  PMID: 24736322
3.  Primary testicular lymphoma with subcutaneous masses as the sole manifestation of the first relapse and central nervous system lymphoma as the second relapse: A case report and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2014;7(6):1881-1884.
Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) accounts for ~1% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and has a marked tendency for systemic relapse. The current study presents a unique case of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of non-germinal center B-cell subtype, with subcutaneous masses as the sole manifestation of the first relapse and central nervous system lymphoma as the second relapse. Subcutaneous relapse and subsequent brain relapse are extremely rare signs of PTL dissemination. The patient received methotrexate-based combined chemotherapy and achieved a partial response. This case presents a rare pattern of treatment failure in this malignant clinical entity.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2052
PMCID: PMC4049739  PMID: 24932252
primary testicular lymphoma; subcutaneous soft tissue; relapse
4.  A Nonparametric Shape Prior Constrained Active Contour Model for Segmentation of Coronaries in CTA Images 
We present a nonparametric shape constrained algorithm for segmentation of coronary arteries in computed tomography images within the framework of active contours. An adaptive scale selection scheme, based on the global histogram information of the image data, is employed to determine the appropriate window size for each point on the active contour, which improves the performance of the active contour model in the low contrast local image regions. The possible leakage, which cannot be identified by using intensity features alone, is reduced through the application of the proposed shape constraint, where the shape of circular sampled intensity profile is used to evaluate the likelihood of current segmentation being considered vascular structures. Experiments on both synthetic and clinical datasets have demonstrated the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The results on clinical datasets have shown that the proposed approach is capable of extracting more detailed coronary vessels with subvoxel accuracy.
doi:10.1155/2014/302805
PMCID: PMC3988742  PMID: 24803950
5.  A Novel Chitosan-γPGA Polyelectrolyte Complex Hydrogel Promotes Early New Bone Formation in the Alveolar Socket Following Tooth Extraction 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92362.
A novel chitosan-γPGA polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel (C-PGA) has been developed and proven to be an effective dressing for wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if C-PGA could promote new bone formation in the alveolar socket following tooth extraction. An animal model was proposed using radiography and histomorphology simultaneously to analyze the symmetrical sections of Wistar rats. The upper incisors of Wistar rats were extracted and the extraction sockets were randomly treated with gelatin sponge, neat chitosan, C-PGA, or received no treatment. The extraction sockets of selected rats from each group were evaluated at 1, 2, 4, or 6 wk post-extraction. The results of radiography and histopathology indicated that the extraction sockets treated with C-PGA exhibited lamellar bone formation (6.5%) as early as 2 wk after the extraction was performed. Moreover, the degree of new bone formation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the extraction sockets treated with C-PGA at 6 wk post-extraction than that in the other study groups. In this study, we demonstrated that the proposed animal model involving symmetrical sections and simultaneous radiography and histomorphology evaluation is feasible. We also conclude that the novel C-PGA has great potential for new bone formation in the alveolar socket following tooth extraction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092362
PMCID: PMC3962413  PMID: 24658174
6.  MC3 Mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line enriched cancer stem-like cells following chemotherapy 
Oncology Letters  2014;7(5):1569-1575.
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is common in human salivary glands. Surgery is the preferred treatment method for MEC and chemotherapy is often administered following surgery as an adjuvant cancer treatment; however, chemotherapy does not completely prevent tumor recurrence. Emerging evidence has indicated the existence of cancer stem-like (CSL)-cells in tumors. CSL-cells are important in the development, invasion and drug resistance of carcinomas. The present study aimed to investigate whether chemotherapy enriched the CSL-cells in the MEC cell line of MC3 using 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). The MC3 cells were treated with 5-Fu, which enhanced the spherogenesis and vitality of the cells and upregulated the pluripotency gene, octamer-binding transcription factor 4. Side population analysis demonstrated that the proportion of CSL-cells also increased. These findings showed that compared with other types of cancer cells, chemotherapy was unable to effectively kill the CSL-cells resulting in an enriched CSL-cell subpopulation with a higher resistance to chemotherapy, which may have been key the recurrence of MEC.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.1902
PMCID: PMC3997737  PMID: 24765178
cancer stem-like cells; mucoepidermoid carcinoma; octamer-binding transcription factor 4; cluster of differentiation 44; 5-fluorouracil
7.  Cryogen-free heterodyne-enhanced mid-infrared Faraday rotation spectrometer 
Optics Express  2013;21(1):740-755.
A new detection method for Faraday rotation spectra of paramagnetic molecular species is presented. Near shot-noise limited performance in the mid-infrared is demonstrated using a heterodyne enhanced Faraday rotation spectroscopy (H-FRS) system without any cryogenic cooling. Theoretical analysis is performed to estimate the ultimate sensitivity to polarization rotation for both heterodyne and conventional FRS. Sensing of nitric oxide (NO) has been performed with an H-FRS system based on thermoelectrically cooled 5.24 μm quantum cascade laser (QCL) and a mercury-cadmium-telluride photodetector. The QCL relative intensity noise that dominates at low frequencies is largely avoided by performing the heterodyne detection in radio frequency range. H-FRS exhibits a total noise level of only 3.7 times the fundamental shot noise. The achieved sensitivity to polarization rotation of 1.8 × 10−8 rad/Hz1/2 is only 5.6 times higher than the ultimate theoretical sensitivity limit estimated for this system. The path- and bandwidth-normalized NO detection limit of 3.1 ppbv-m/Hz1/2 was achieved using the R(17/2) transition of NO at 1906.73 cm−1.
doi:10.1364/OE.21.000740
PMCID: PMC3635467  PMID: 23388967
(300.6390) Spectroscopy, molecular; (300.6310) Spectroscopy, heterodyne; (140.5965) Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade
8.  C-Terminal Domain of ICA69 Interacts with PICK1 and Acts on Trafficking of PICK1-PKCα Complex and Cerebellar Plasticity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83862.
Background
PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a PKC (protein kinase C)-binding protein, which is essential for synaptic plasticity. The trafficking of PKCα-PICK1 complex to plasma membrane is critical for the internalization of GluR2 and induction of long-term depression. ICA69 (islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa) is identified as a major binding partner of PICK1. While heteromeric BAR domain complex is suggested to underlie the interaction between PICK1 and ICA69, the role of C-terminal domain of ICA69 (ICAC) in PICK1-ICA69 complex is unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We found that ICAC interacted with PICK1 and regulated the trafficking of PICK1-PKCα complex. ICAC and ΔICAC (containing BAR domain) might function distinctly in the association of ICA69 with PICK1. While ΔICAC domain inclined to form clusters, the distribution of ICAC was diffuse. The trafficking of PICK1 to plasma membrane mediated by activated PKCα was inhibited by ICA69. This action might ascribe to ICAC, because overexpression of ICAC, but not ΔICAC, interrupted PKCα-mediated PICK1 trafficking. Notably, infusion of maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein, MBP-ICA69 or MBP-ICAC, in cerebellar Purkinje cells significantly inhibited the induction of long-term depression at parallel fiber- and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses.
Conclusions
Our experiments showed that ICAC is an important domain for the ICA69-PICK1 interaction and plays essential roles in PICK1-mediated neuronal plasticity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083862
PMCID: PMC3865253  PMID: 24358315
9.  Decreased Galectin-9 and Increased Tim-3 Expression Are Related to Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81799.
Introduction
Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces adhesion and aggregation of certain cell types and inhibits the metastasis of tumor cells. T-cell immunoglobulin–and mucin domain-3–containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate Gal-9 and TIM-3 alterations in gastric cancer and their prognostic values.
Methods
Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was evaluated using a tissue microarray immunohistochemistry method in 305 gastric cancers, of which 84 had paired adjacent normal samples. Cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, MKN45 and GES-1 were also stained. Correlations were analyzed between expression levels of Gal-9 and Tim-3 protein and tumor parameters or clinical outcomes.
Results
Gal-9 and Tim-3 stained positive on tumor cells in 86.2% (263/305), and 60.0% (183/305) patients with gastric cancer, respectively. Gal-9 expression was significantly higher in cancer than in normal mucosa (P<0.001). Reduced Gal-9 expression was associated with lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and worse TNM staging (P = 0.034, P = 0.009, P = 0.002 and P = 0.043, respectively). In contrast, Tim-3 expression was significantly lower in cancer than in control mucosa (P<0.001). Patients with lymph-vascular invasion had higher expression levels of Tim-3 (P<0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis shows that both high Gal-9 expression and low Tim-3 expression were significantly associated with long overall survival (P = 0.002, P = 0.010, respectively); the combination of Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was an independent prognostic predictor for patients with gastric cancer (RR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.20–0.93). H.pylori infection status was not associated with Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression (P = 0.102, P = 0.565).
Conclusion
The results suggest that expression of Gal-9 and Tim-3 in tumor cells may be a potential, independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Gal-9 and TIM-3 may play an important part in the gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081799
PMCID: PMC3858245  PMID: 24339967
10.  The prognostic value of Foxp3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with glioblastoma 
Journal of Neuro-Oncology  2013;116:251-259.
Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) is known as a specific marker for regulatory T cells which contribute to immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. However, existing studies regarding clinical significance of Foxp3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in glioblastoma (GBM) remained discrepant. In this study, we aimed to explore whether this subtype of TILs correlated with prognosis in patients with GBM. Foxp3+ TILs as well as CD8+ ones were detected by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 62 patients. Staining for p53, MGMT and Ki-67 were also performed. The correlation of TIL subtypes with clinicopathologic features were analyzed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan–Meier method and compared using log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS were determined through univariate and multivariate analysis. Significant correlation was found between Foxp3 and CD8 expression (P = 0.003), but not between TIL subtypes and clinicopathologic characteristics. Patients with higher density of Foxp3+ TILs showed relatively shorter PFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.003) whereas patients with higher density of CD8+ TILs obtained no significant differences in survival. Survival analysis based on molecular classifications further clarified these predictive values. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that frequency of Foxp3+ TILs was probably associated with both PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the results suggest that Foxp3 positive infiltrates could provide an independent predictive factor in GBM.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11060-013-1314-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11060-013-1314-0
PMCID: PMC3890045  PMID: 24276989
Foxp3; Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; Regulatory T cell; Glioblastoma; Prognosis
11.  Thoracic aorta vasoreactivity in rats under exhaustive exercise: effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides supplementation 
Background
Reduced arterial compliance is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. Exercise is beneficial for compromised arterial compliance. However, the beneficial effects of exercise are lost with exhaustion. Lycium barbarum L. has been used in China for centuries to maintain good health. In this regard, the primary purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of the polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum (LBPs) on arterial compliance during exhaustive exercise.
Methods
A four-week swimming exercise program was designed for rats, and the blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide(NO) and heat shock protein 70(HSP70) were detected. The tension of aorta rings was measured to evaluate the response of rats on noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions.
Results
The rats administered LBPs showed longer swimming time until exhaustion than the control group of rats. Exercise-induced MDA elevation was repressed by LBPs supplementation. The LBPs-supplemented rats displayed a significant increase of SOD, NO, HSP70 than the non-supplemented rats. Additionally, LBPs significantly up-regulated the expression of eNOS and improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of the aorta ring.
Conclusion
Our study proved that LBPs administration significantly inhibited the oxidative stress, and improved the arterial compliance.
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-47
PMCID: PMC4015534  PMID: 24152940
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides; Exhaustive exercise; Thoracic aorta; Vasoreactivity
12.  HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG selectively eradicates lymphoma stem cells 
Cancer research  2012;72(17):4551-4561.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called tumor initiating cells) comprise tumor cell subpopulations that preserve the properties of quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation of normal stem cells. CSCs are also therapeutically important because of their key contributions to drug resistance. The hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF1α is critical for CSC maintenance in mouse lymphoma. Here we show that low concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG eliminate lymphoma CSCs in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the transcriptional function of HIF1α, a client protein of HSP90. 17-AAG preferentially induced apoptosis and eliminated the colony formation capacity of mouse lymphoma CSCs and human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) CSCs. However, low concentrations of 17-AAG failed to eliminate highly proliferative lymphoma and AML cells (non-CSCs), in which the AKT-GSK3 signaling pathway is constitutively active. The heat shock transcription factor HSF1 is highly expressed in non-CSCs but it was weakly expressed in lymphoma CSCs. However, siRNA-mediated attenuation of HSF1 abrogated the colony formation ability of both lymphoma and AML CSCs. This study supports the use of 17-AAG as a CSC targeting agent, and it also shows that HSF1 is an important target for elimination of both CSCs and non-CSCs in cancer.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3600
PMCID: PMC3443561  PMID: 22751135
13.  Laforin is Required for the Functional Activation of Malin in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Resistance in Neuronal Cells 
The FEBS journal  2012;279(14):2467-2478.
Mutations in either EPM2A, the gene encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase named laforin, or NHLRC1, the gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase named malin, cause Lafora disease (LD) in humans. LD is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by progressive myoclonus epilepsy, severe neurological deterioration, and accumulation of poorly branched glycogen inclusions, called Lafora bodies (LBs) or polyglucosan bodies (PGBs), within the cell cytoplasm. The molecular mechanism underlying the neuropathogenesis of LD remains unknown. Here we present data demonstrating that in the cells expressing low levels of laforin protein, overexpressed malin and its LD-causing missense mutants are stably polyubiquitinated. Malin and malin mutants form ubiquitin-positive aggregates in or around the nuclei of the cells in which they are expressed. Neither wild type (WT) malin nor its mutants elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, although the mutants exaggerate the response to ER stress. Overexpressed laforin impairs the polyubiquitination of malin and recruits malin to PGBs. The recruitment and activities of laforin and malin are both required for the PGB disruption. Consistently, targeted deletion of laforin in brain cells from Epm2a knockout (KO) mice increases polyubiquitinated proteins. Knockdown of Epm2a or Nhlrc1 in neuronal Neuro2a cells shows that they cooperate to allow cells to resist ER stress and apoptosis. These results reveal that a functional laforin-malin complex plays a critical role in destroying LB and relieving ER stress, implying that a causative pathogenic mechanism underlies their deficiency in LD.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08627.x
PMCID: PMC3407668  PMID: 22578008
Laforin; Malin; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress; Neuronal Cells and Polyglucosan
14.  A simple strategy for heritable chromosomal deletions in zebrafish via the combinatorial action of targeting nucleases 
Genome Biology  2013;14(7):R69.
Precise and effective genome-editing tools are essential for functional genomics and gene therapy. Targeting nucleases have been successfully used to edit genomes. However, whole-locus or element-specific deletions abolishing transcript expression have not previously been reported. Here, we show heritable targeting of locus-specific deletions in the zebrafish nodal-related genes squint (sqt) and cyclops (cyc). Our strategy of heritable chromosomal editing can be used for disease modeling, analyzing gene clusters, regulatory regions, and determining the functions of non-coding RNAs in genomes.
doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-7-r69
PMCID: PMC4054832  PMID: 23815890
15.  Mutation Analysis of IDH1 in Paired Gliomas Revealed IDH1 Mutation Was Not Associated with Malignant Progression but Predicted Longer Survival 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67421.
Recurrence and progression to higher grade lesions are characteristic behaviorsof gliomas. Though IDH1 mutation frequently occurs and is considered as an early event in gliomagenesis, little is known about its role in the recurrence and progression of gliomas. We therefore analysed IDH1 and IDH2 statusat codon 132 of IDH1 and codon 172 of IDH2 by direct sequencing and anti-IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry in 53 paired samples and their recurrences, including 29 low- grade gliomas, 16 anaplastic gliomas and 8 Glioblastomas. IDH1/IDH2 mutation was detected in 32 primarytumors, with 25 low- grade gliomas and 6 anaplastic gliomas harboring IDH1 mutation and 1 low- grade glioma harboring IDH2 mutation. All of the paired tumors showed consistent IDH1 and IDH2 status. Patients were analyzed according to IDH1 status and tumor-related factors. Malignant progression at recurrence was noted in 22 gliomas and was not associated with IDH1 mutation. Survival analysis revealed patients with IDH1 mutated gliomas had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In conclusion, this study demonstrated a strong tendency of IDH1/IDH2 status being consistent during progression of glioma. IDH1 mutation was not a predictive marker for malignant progression and it was a potential prognostic marker for gliomas of Chinese patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067421
PMCID: PMC3696098  PMID: 23840696
16.  A TILLING Platform for Functional Genomics in Brachypodium distachyon 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65503.
The new model plant for temperate grasses, Brachypodium distachyon offers great potential as a tool for functional genomics. We have established a sodium azide-induced mutant collection and a TILLING platform, called “BRACHYTIL”, for the inbred line Bd21-3. The TILLING collection consists of DNA isolated from 5530 different families. Phenotypes were reported and organized in a phenotypic tree that is freely available online. The tilling platform was validated by the isolation of mutants for seven genes belonging to multigene families of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. In particular, a large allelic series for BdCOMT6, a caffeic acid O-methyl transferase was identified. Some mutants show lower lignin content when compared to wild-type plants as well as a typical decrease of syringyl units, a hallmark of COMT-deficient plants. The mutation rate was estimated at one mutation per 396 kb, or an average of 680 mutations per line. The collection was also used to assess the Genetically Effective Cell Number that was shown to be at least equal to 4 cells in Brachypodium distachyon. The mutant population and the TILLING platform should greatly facilitate functional genomics approaches in this model organism.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065503
PMCID: PMC3686759  PMID: 23840336
17.  Microglial migration mediated by ATP-induced ATP release from lysosomes 
Cell Research  2012;22(6):1022-1033.
Microglia are highly motile cells that act as the main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system. Attracted by factors released from damaged cells, microglia are recruited towards the damaged or infected site, where they are involved in degenerative and regenerative responses and phagocytotic clearance of cell debris. ATP release from damaged neural tissues has been suggested to mediate the rapid extension of microglial process towards the site of injury. However, the mechanisms of the long-range migration of microglia remain to be clarified. Here, we found that lysosomes in microglia contain abundant ATP and exhibit Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli. By establishing an efficient in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated that endogenously-released ATP from microglia triggered by local microinjection of ATPγS is critical for the long-range chemotaxis of microglia, a response that was significantly inhibited in microglia treated with an agent inducing lysosome osmodialysis or in cells derived from mice deficient in Rab 27a (ashen mice), a small GTPase required for the trafficking and exocytosis of secretory lysosomes. These results suggest that microglia respond to extracellular ATP by releasing ATP themselves through lysosomal exocytosis, thereby providing a positive feedback mechanism to generate a long-range extracellular signal for attracting distant microglia to migrate towards and accumulate at the site of injury.
doi:10.1038/cr.2012.10
PMCID: PMC3367529  PMID: 22231629
microglia; migration; ATP; lysosome
18.  Association Study Confirmed Susceptibility Loci with Keloid in the Chinese Han Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62377.
Keloid is benign fibroproliferative dermal tumors with unknown etiology. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Japanese population has identified 3 susceptibility loci (rs873549 at 1q41, rs940187 and rs1511412 at 3q22.3, rs8032158 at 15p21.3) for keloid. In order to examine whether these susceptibility loci are associated with keloid in the Chinese Han population, twelve previously reported SNPs were selected for replication in 714 cases and 2,944 controls by using Sequenom MassArray system. We found three SNPs in two regions showed significant association with keloid in the Chinese Han population: 1q41 (rs873549, P = 3.03×10−33, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.82–2.31 and rs1442440, P = 9.85×10−18, OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.49–0.64, respectively) and 15q21.3 (rs2271289 located in NEDD4, P = 1.02×10−11, OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.58–0.74). We also detected one risk haplotype AG (P = 1.36×10−31, OR = 2.02) and two protective haplotypes of GA and AA (GA, P = 1.94×10−19, OR = 0.53, AA, P = 0.00043, OR = 0.78, respectively) from the two SNPs (rs873549 and rs1442440). Our study confirmed two previously reported loci 1q41 and 15q21.3 for keloid in the Chinese Han population, which suggested the common genetic factor predisposing to the development of keloid shared by the Chinese Han and Japanese populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062377
PMCID: PMC3646817  PMID: 23667473
19.  Central nervous system tumors: a single center pathology review of 34,140 cases over 60 years 
Background
Tumor epidemiology is a significant part of CNS (central nervous system) tumor studies. Reassessment of original sections can update our knowledge of tumor spectrum. Here, we discuss the features of CNS tumor pathology in a single center.
Methods
A total of 34140 cases from 1950 to 2009 were collected; sections from 1990 to 2009 were reassessed according to WHO 2007 classification, and cases from 1950 to 1989 were classified according to the previous pathological diagnosis.
Results
Seven CNS tumor categories during 1990 to 2009 were as follow: neuroepithelial tissue (38.0%), tumors of the meninges (36.5%), tumors of the sellar region (4.1%), germ cell tumors (1.3%), tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves (13.3%), lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasm (1.7%), metastatic tumors (5.1%), where histological types by age and sex were diverse. Overall, males exceeded females in distributions of most CNS tumor subtypes, while tumors of the meninges occurred more frequently in females. The case number of lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms grew the fastest during the past five years, and the distribution of neuroepithelial tumors remained stable over the past twenty years.
Conclusions
Despite the possibilities of cross sample biases, the data in this series could suggest a similar CNS tumor spectrum as might occur in other developing countries.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-13-14
PMCID: PMC3655926  PMID: 23639346
Central nervous system tumors; Epidemiology; Pathological review; Single center; WHO 2007 classification
20.  Understanding the Role of the ‘Self’ in the Social Priming of Mimicry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60249.
People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the ‘self’.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060249
PMCID: PMC3614954  PMID: 23565208
21.  Reconstruction of the Abdominal Vagus Nerve Using Sural Nerve Grafts in Canine Models 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58903.
Background
Recently, vagus nerve preservation or reconstruction of vagus has received increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing the severed vagal trunk using an autologous sural nerve graft.
Methods
Ten adult Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of five, the nerve grafting group (TG) and the vagal resection group (VG). The gastric secretion and emptying functions in both groups were assessed using Hollander insulin and acetaminophen tests before surgery and three months after surgery. All dogs underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. In TG group, latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in a vagal trunk were measured, and then nerves of 4 cm long were cut from the abdominal anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Two segments of autologous sural nerve were collected for performing end-to-end anastomoses with the cut ends of vagal trunk (8–0 nylon suture, 3 sutures for each anastomosis). Dogs in VG group only underwent partial resections of the anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Laparotomy was performed in dogs of TG group, and latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in their vagal trunks were measured. The grafted nerve segment was removed, and stained with anti-neurofilament protein and toluidine blue.
Results
Latency of the action potential in the vagal trunk was longer after surgery than before surgery in TG group, while the conduction velocity was lower after surgery. The gastric secretion and emptying functions were weaker after surgery in dogs of both groups, but in TG group they were significantly better than in VG group. Anti-neurofilament protein staining and toluidine blue staining showed there were nerve fibers crossing the anastomosis of the vagus and sural nerves in dogs of TG group.
Conclusion
Reconstruction of the vagus nerve using the sural nerve is technically feasible.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058903
PMCID: PMC3612066  PMID: 23555604
22.  Secretory meningiomas: clinical, radiological and pathological findings in 70 consecutive cases at one institution 
Secretory meningioma (SM) is a rare, benign subtype of meningioma. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 70 SMs were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological and immunohistochemical findings, and patient outcome to discuss the specific features of SMs. Cranial base preference, hyper-signal in T2 weighted MR image, “xenon light” gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement were frequently observed in the 70 cases. Non-skull base SMs, which received more complete resection (p<0.01) and had better short-term and long-term outcome, were observed with more severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) (p<0.001). In follow-up, only 1 cranial base SM case showed tumor progression. 3 cases died after operation, all with cranial base SMs. As for the 10 cases given Simpson grade 3 or 4 resection who were available at follow-up, 3 died, 5 received gamma-knife therapy, and the other 2 cases received no treatment at all. Only one of the 2 residual SMs without postoperative radiation presented minor progression at a median of 48 months follow-up. In conclusion, cranial base preference, hyper-signal T2 weighted MR image and “xenon light” GD-DTPA enhancement are specific for SMs. Prognosis of SMs is related with operation completeness and surgical risks, rather than the extent of PTBE. Residual SM grows slowly and reacts well to gamma-knife therapy.
PMCID: PMC3563189  PMID: 23412548
Location; prognosis; radiology; secretory meningiomas
23.  Mitochondrial Fission Triggered by Hyperglycemia Is Mediated by ROCK1 Activation in Podocytes and Endothelial Cells 
Cell Metabolism  2012;15(2):186-200.
SUMMARY
Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy. However, the signaling pathways by which hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) on mitochondrial dynamics by generating two diabetic mouse models with targeted deletions of ROCK1, and an inducible podocyte-specific knock-in mouse expressing a constitutively active (cA) mutant of ROCK1. Our findings suggest that ROCK1 mediates hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial fission by promoting dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) recruitment to the mitochondria. Deletion of ROCK1 in diabetic mice prevented mitochondrial fission, whereas podocyte-specific cA-ROCK1 mice exhibited increased mitochondrial fission. Importantly, we found that ROCK1 triggers mitochondrial fission by phosphorylating Drp1 at Serine 600 residue. These findings provide insights into the unexpected role of ROCK1 in a signaling cascade that regulates mitochondrial dynamics.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.01.009
PMCID: PMC3278719  PMID: 22326220
24.  Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Duck Circovirus Strain GH01 from Southwestern China 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00166-12.
A novel duck circovirus (DuCV) strain, designated GH01, was isolated from ducklings in southwestern China. We report the genome sequence of GH01 and the genomic organization and genetic relationship to other DuCVs. The availability of the genome sequence will be helpful to investigations of epidemiology and the evolutionary biology of this organism and the development of preventive vaccines.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00166-12
PMCID: PMC3569302  PMID: 23405313
25.  Increased expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer 
AIM: To explore the alteration of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 protein expression in gastric cancer and to assess its prognostic values.
METHODS: Three hundred and five consecutive cases of gastric cancer were enrolled into this study. SHP-2 expression was carried out in 305 gastric cancer specimens, of which 83 were paired adjacent normal gastric mucus samples, using a tissue microarray immunohistochemical method. Correlations were analyzed between expression levels of SHP-2 protein and tumor parameters or clinical outcomes. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate prognostic values by compassion of the expression levels of SHP-2 and disease-specific survivals in patients.
RESULTS: SHP-2 staining was found diffuse mainly in the cytoplasm and the weak staining was also observed in the nucleus in gastric mucosa cells. Thirty-two point five percent of normal epithelial specimen and 62.6% of gastric cancer specimen were identified to stain with SHP-2 antibody positively (P < 0.001). Though SHP-2 staining intensities were stronger in the H. pylori (+) group than in the H. pylori (-) group, no statistically significant difference was found in the expression levels of SHP-2 between H. pylori (+) and H. pylori (-) gastric cancer (P = 0.40). The SHP-2 expression in gastric cancer was not significantly associated with cancer stages, lymph node metastases, and distant metastasis of the tumors (P = 0.34, P = 0.17, P = 0.52). Multivariate analysis demonstrated no correlation between SHP-2 expression and disease-free survival (P = 0.86).
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of SHP-2 protein in gastric cancer specimen suggesting the aberrant up-regulation of SHP-2 protein might play an important role in the gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i4.575
PMCID: PMC3558584  PMID: 23382639
Gastric cancer; SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2; Expression; Helicobacter pylori

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