The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment and the factors influencing the postoperative recurrence and survival time for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). A total of 39 patients with PMP who received treatment were analyzed in The General Hospital of PLA (Beijing, China) between 2002 and 2011. The patients received cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and 25 cases of PMP recurred. Seven patients received postoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC). The median follow-up was 40 months. There were eight mortalities in this period. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 89.0 and 35.0%, respectively. The medians of overall survival (OS) and recurrence time were 37 and 4 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that pathological subtype was able to influence the recurrence (P=0.042) and OS (P=0.033) times, as an independent prognostic factor. HIPEC was significantly associated with postoperative recurrence time (P=0.017). Patients with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis had a more favorable prognosis. CRS combined with HIPEC was able to extend the postoperative recurrence time for patients with PMP.
pseudomyxoma peritonei; cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion; prognosis
Cardiac hypertrophy is a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular stimuli. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy eventually leads to heart failure. Gambogic acid (GA) is a main active ingredient isolated from the gamboge resin of Garcinia hanburyi trees and has potent anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects that are associated with inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. We and others recently reported that GA can significantly inhibit the function of the proteasome with much less toxicity than conventional proteasome inhibitors. The increasing lines of evidence indicate that the inhibition of the proteasome can promote the regression of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload through the blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of GA on pressure overload or isoproterenol infusion induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and changes in myocardial NF-κB signaling. We observed that the heart weight/body weight ratio, the size of cardiomyocytes, interstitial fibrosis, and the reactivation of fetal genes (α-SK-actin and BNP mRNA) were markedly increased by abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) or isoproterenol infusion (ISO), all of which were effectively inhibited by GA treatment. Furthermore, GA treatment abolished proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity increases induced by AAC or ISO, led to increased myocardial IκB protein, decreased NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, decreased NF-κB DNA-binding activity, and reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to AAC or ISO. In conclusion, GA treatment can suppress cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by pressure overload or isoproterenol possibly through the inhibition of the proteasome and the NF-κB pathway, suggesting that GA treatment may provide a new strategy to treat cardiac hypertrophy.
Gambogic acid; cardiac hypertrophy; pressure overload; isoproterenol; proteasome; NF-κB
Hypertension is a highly prevalent disorder and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertensive vascular remodeling is the pathological mal-adaption of blood vessels to the hypertensive condition that contributes to further development of high blood pressure and end-organ damage. Hypertensive remodeling involves, at least in part, changes in protein turnover. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major protein quality and quantity control system. This study tested the hypothesis that the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, would attenuate AngII-induced hypertension and its sequelae such as aortic remodeling in rats.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to AngII infusion for two weeks in the absence or presence of bortezomib. Mean arterial pressure was measured in conscious rats. Aortic tissue was collected for estimation of wall area, collagen deposition and expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP), Ki67 (a marker of proliferation), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and VCAM-1 (a marker of inflammation). AngII infusion increased arterial pressure significantly (160±4 mmHg vs. vehicle treatment 133±2 mmHg). This hypertensive response was attenuated by bortezomib (138±5 mmHg). AngII hypertension was associated with significant increases in aortic wall to lumen ratio (∼29%), collagen deposition (∼14%) and expression of TIMP1 and TIMP2. AngII also increased MMP2 activity, proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, Ki67 staining, ROS generation and VCAM-1 immunoreactivity. Co-treatment of AngII-infused rats with bortezomib attenuated these AngII-induced responses.
Collectively, these data support the idea that proteasome activity contributes to AngII-induced hypertension and hypertensive aortic vascular remodeling at least in part by modulating TIMP1/2 and MMP2 function. Preliminary observations are consistent with a role for ROS, inflammatory and proliferative mechanisms in this effect. Further understanding of the mechanisms by which the proteasome is involved in hypertension and vascular structural remodeling may reveal novel targets for pharmacological treatment of hypertension, hypertensive remodeling or both.
Both cardiomyocyte-restricted proteasome functional enhancement and pharmacological proteasome inhibition (PSMI) were shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The role of cardiac proteasome dysfunction during I/R and the perspective to diminish I/R injury by manipulating proteasome function remain unclear.
We sought to determine proteasome adequacy in I/R hearts, create a mouse model of cardiomyocyte-restricted PSMI (CR-PSMI), and test CR-PSMI impact on I/R injury.
Methods and Results
Myocardial I/R were modeled by ligation (30min) and subsequent release of the left anterior descending artery in mice overexpressing GFPdgn, a validated surrogate proteasome substrate. At 24h of reperfusion, myocardial proteasome activities were significantly lower while total ubiquitin conjugates and GFPdgn protein levels were markedly higher in all regions of the I/R hearts than the sham controls, indicative of proteasome functional insufficiency. CR-PSMI in intact mice was achieved by transgenic (tg) overexpression of a peptidase-disabled mouse β5 subunit (T60A-β5) driven by an attenuated mouse mhc6 promoter. Overexpressed T60A-β5 can replace endogenous β5 and inhibits proteasome chymotrypsin-like activities in the heart. Mice with moderate CR-PSMI showed no abnormalities at the baseline but displayed markedly more pronounced structural and functional damage during I/R, compared with non-tg littermates. The exacerbation of I/R injury by moderate CR-PSMI was associated with significant increases in the protein level of PTEN and protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), decreased Akt activation, and reduced PKCε.
Myocardial I/R causes proteasome functional insufficiency in cardiomyocytes and moderate CR-PSMI augments PTEN and PKCδ, suppresses Akt and PKCε, increases cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and aggravates I/R injury in mice.
proteasome inhibition; myocardial reperfusion injury; transgenic mouse; Akt; PKCδ
Gambogic acid (GA) is the principal active ingredient of gamboges. GA was reported to exert anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have shown that GA is a more tissue-specific proteasome inhibitor than bortezomib and it is less toxic to peripheral white blood cells compared to bortezomib. Ubiquitous proteasome inhibition was shown by some reports, but not by others, to prevent cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload by blocking the NF-κB pathway; however, whether GA modulates the development of chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy has not been investigated yet. Here we report that GA can significantly attenuate right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia, reduce cardiac fibrosis, and remarkably block the reactivation of bona fide fetal genes in the cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we also investigated the potential molecular targets of GA on right ventricular hypertrophy. The results showed that GA could accumulate the IκB levels associated with decreased proteasomal activity, block the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, decrease NF-κB DNA-binding activity, and reduce IL-2 levels. In conclusion, GA is capable of preventing the development of chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy. GA has great potential to be developed into an effective anti-hypertrophy agent.
Gambogic acid; chronic hypoxia; right ventricular hypertrophy; NF-κB
Over the past decade, the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) has been the subject of numerous studies to elucidate its role in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. There have been many advances in this field including the use of proteomics to achieve a better understanding of how the cardiac proteasome is regulated. Moreover, improved methods for the assessment of UPS function and the development of genetic models to study the role of the UPS have led to the realization that often the function of this system deviates from the norm in many cardiovascular pathologies. Hence, dysfunction has been described in atherosclerosis, familial cardiac proteinopathies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies, and myocardial ischemia. This has led to numerous studies of the ubiquitin protein (E3) ligases and their roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. This has also led to the controversial proposition of treating atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia with proteasome inhibitors. Furthering our knowledge of this system may help in the development of new UPS-based therapeutic modalities for mitigation of cardiovascular disease.
Ubiquitin–proteasome system; Heart; Vascular; Atherosclerosis; Ubiquitin protein ligases; Protein quality control; Heart failure; Cardiomyopathy; Myocardial ischemia; Preconditioning
The COP9 signalosome (CSN), an evolutionally highly conserved protein complex composed of 8 unique subunits (CSN1 through CSN8) in higher eukaryotes, is purported to modulate protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) but this has not been demonstrated in a critical mitotic parenchymal organ of vertebrates. Hepatocyte-specific knockout of the Cops8 gene (HS-Csn8KO) was shown to cause massive hepatocyte apoptosis and liver malfunction but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that Csn8/CSN exerts profound impacts on hepatic UPS function and is critical to the stability of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. Significant decreases in CIS (cytokine-inducible Src homology 2 domain-containing protein), a Bim receptor of a cullin2-based ubiquitin ligase, were found to co-exist with a marked increase of Bim proteins. Csn8 deficiency also significantly decreased 19S proteasome subunit Rpt5 and markedly increased high molecular weight neddylated and ubiquitinated proteins. The use of a surrogate UPS substrate further reveals severe impairment of UPS-mediated proteolysis in HS-Csn8KO livers. Inclusion body-like materials were accumulated in Csn8 deficient hepatocytes. In addition to Bim, massive hepatocyte apoptosis in HS-Csn8KO livers is also associated with elevated expression of other members of the Bcl2 family, including pro-apoptotic Bax as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-XL. Increased interaction between Bcl2 and Bim, but not between Bcl2 and Bax, was detected. Hence, it is concluded that hepatic CSN8 deficiency impairs the UPS in the liver and the resultant Bim upregulation likely plays an important role in triggering hepatocyte apoptosis via sequestering Bcl2 away from Bax.
Biomass pellets are emerging as a cleaner alternative to traditional biomass fuels. The potential benefits of using biomass pellets include improving energy utilization efficiency and reducing emissions of air pollutants. To assess the environmental, climate, and health significance of replacing traditional fuels with biomass pellets, it is critical to measure the emission factors (EFs) of various pollutants from pellet burning. However, only a few field measurements have been conducted on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the combustion of pellets. In this study, pine wood and corn straw pellets were burned in a pellet burner (2.6 kW) and the EFs of CO, organic carbon, elemental carbon, PM, and PAHs (EFCO, EFOC, EFEC, EFPM, and EFPAH) were determined. The average EFCO, EFOC, EFEC, and EFPM were 1520±1170, 8.68±11.4, 11.2±8.7, and 188±87 mg/MJ for corn straw pellets, and 266±137, 5.74±7.17, 2.02±1.57, and 71.0±54.0 mg/MJ for pine wood pellets, respectively. Total carbonaceous carbon constituted 8 to 14% of the PM mass emitted. The measured values of EFPAH for the two pellets were 1.02±0.64 and 0.506±0.360 mg/MJ, respectively. The secondary side air supply in the pellet burner did not change the EFs of most pollutants significantly (p > 0.05). The only exceptions were EFOC and EFPM for pine wood pellets because of reduced combustion temperatures with the increased air supply. In comparison with EFs for the raw pine wood and corn straw, EFCO, EFOC, EFEC, and EFPM for pellets were significantly lower than those for raw fuels (p < 0.05). However, the differences in EFPAH were not significant (p > 0.05). Based on the measured EFs and thermal efficiencies, it was estimated that 95, 98, 98, 88, and 71% reductions in the total emissions of CO, OC, EC, PM, and PAHs could be achieved by replacing the raw biomass fuels combusted in traditional cooking stoves with pellets burned in modern pellet burners.
Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC, respectively) were in the range of 0.38~6.4, 0.024~3.0 and 0.039~3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2±1.2, 0.62±0.64 and 0.83±0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p<0.05). Significant correlations between EFPM, EFOC and EFEC were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 µm (PM0.4), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1µm (PM2.1). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. Based on the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg.
Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. In current paper, we first report our clinical data regarding administration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation in treatment of cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with cerebral palsy was treated with multiple times of intravenous and intrathecal administration of MSCs derived from her young sister and was followed up for 28 months. The gross motor dysfunction was improved. Other benefits included enhanced immunity, increased physical strength, and adjusted speech and comprehension. Temporary low-grade fever was the only side effect during the treatment. MSCs may be a safe and effective therapy to improve symptoms in children with cerebral palsy.
Autophagy is essential to intracellular homeostasis and involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. Mechanisms regulating selective autophagy remain poorly understood. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex consisting of 8 subunits (CSN1 through CSN8) and known to regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). However, it is unknown whether CSN plays a role in autophagy.
Methods and Results
Marked increases in LC3-II and p62 proteins were observed upon Csn8 depletion in the cardiomyocytes of mouse hearts with cardiomyocyte-restricted knockout of the gene encoding CSN subunit 8 (CR-Csn8KO). The increases in autophagosomes were confirmed by probing with GFP-LC3 and electron microscopy. Autophagic flux assessments revealed that defective autophagosome removal was the cause of autophagosome accumulation and occurred prior to a global UPS impairment in Csn8-deficient hearts. Analyzing the prevalence of different stages of autophagic vacuoles revealed defective autophagosome maturation. Down-regulation of Rab7 was found to strikingly co-localize with the autophagosome accumulation at the individual cardiomyocyte level. A significantly higher percent of cardiomyocytes with autophagosome accumulation underwent necrosis in CR-Csn8KO hearts. Chronic lysosomal inhibition with Chloroquine induced cardiomyocyte necrosis in mice. Rab7 knockdown impaired autophagosome maturation of non-selective and selective autophagy and exacerbated cell death induced by proteasome inhibition in cultured cardiomyocytes.
Csn8/CSN is a central regulator in not only the proteasomal proteolytic pathway but also selective autophagy; (2) likely through regulating the expression of Rab7, Csn8/CSN plays a critical role in autophagosome maturation; and (3) impaired autophagosome maturation causes cardiomyocytes to undergo necrosis.
the COP9 signalosome; autophagy; lysosome; Rab7; necrosis
L-carnitine (LC) is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1) LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21cip1 gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27kip1; (4) LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5) LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6) LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21cip1 gene but not p27kip1 detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.
As exemplified by desmin-related cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, proteasome functional insufficiency plays an essential pathogenic role in the progression of cardiac diseases with elevated proteotoxic stress. Upregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and increased selective autophagy in cardiomyocytes may protect against proteotoxic stress in the heart. p62 may serve as a proteotoxic stress sensor, promote segregation and degradation of misfolded proteins by autophagy, and mediate the crosstalk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy.
Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter <2.5 um (PM2.5) was collected at Peking University (PKU) in Beijing, China before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics and analyzed for black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), lower molecular weight (MW<300) and MW302 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs). In addition, the direct and indirect acting mutagenicity of the PM2.5 and the potential for DNA damage to human lung cells were also measured. Significant reductions in BC (45%), OC (31%), MW< 300 PAH (26% – 73%), MW 302 PAH (22% – 77%), NPAH (15% – 68%) and OPAH (25% – 53%) concentrations were measured during the source control and Olympic Olympic period. However, the mutagenicity of the PM2.5 was significantly reduced only during the Olympic period. The PAH, NPAH, and OPAH composition of the PM2.5 was similar throughout the study, suggesting similar sources during the different periods. During the source control period, the parent PAH concentrations were correlated with NO, CO, and SO2 concentrations, indicating that these PAHs were associated with both local and regional emissions. However, the NPAH and OPAH concentrations were only correlated with the NO concentrations, indicating that the NPAH and OPAH were primarily associated with local emissions. The relatively high 2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene ratio (25 – 46) and 2-nitrofluoranthene/2-nitropyrene ratio (3.4 – 4.8), suggested a predominance of photochemical formation of NPAHs through OH-radical-initiated reactions in the atmosphere. On average, the ΣNPAH and ΣOPAH concentrations were 8% of the parent PAH concentrations, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (due to the NPAH and OPAH) was 200% higher than the indirect-acting mutagenicity (due to the PAH). This suggests that NPAH and OPAH make up a significant portion of the overall mutagenicity of PM2.5 in Beijing.
Recent studies suggest an important role of autophagy in protection against αB-crystallin-based (CryABR120G) desmin-related cardiomyopathies (DRC) but this has not been demonstrated in a different model of cardiac proteinopathy. Mechanisms underlying the response of cardiomyocytes to proteotoxic stress remain incompletely understood.
First, to determine whether and how the autophagic activity is changed in a mouse model of desminopathy; second, to investigate the role of p62 in the protein quality control of cardiomyocytes.
Methods and Results
Using an autophagosome reporter and determining changes in LC3-II protein levels in response to lysosomal inhibition, we found significantly increased autophagic flux in mouse hearts with transgenic overexpression of a DRC-linked mutant desmin. Similarly, autophagic flux was increased in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) expressing a mutant desmin. Suppression of autophagy by 3-methyladenine increased, whereas enhancement of autophagy by rapamycin reduced, the ability of a comparable level of mutant desmin overexpression to accumulate ubiquitinated proteins in NRVMs. Furthermore, p62 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes by transgenic overexpression of the mutant desmin or CryABR120G both in intact mice and in vitro. p62 depletion impaired aggresome and autophagosome formation, exacerbated cell injury, and decreased cell viability in cultured NRVMs expressing the misfolded proteins.
Autophagic flux is increased in desminopathic hearts and, as previously suggested in CryABR120G-based DRC, this increased autophagic flux serves as an adaptive response to overexpression of misfolded proteins. p62 is upregulated in mouse proteinopathic hearts. p62 promotes aggresome formation and autophagy activation and protects cardiomyocytes against proteotoxic stress.
p62/SQSTM1; autophagy; aggresome; ubiquitin; desmin related cardiomyopathy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level and play critical roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this report, miR-141 was identified to repress HBV expression by screening a small miRNA expressing library and synthetic miR-141 mimics could also significantly suppress HBV expression and replication in HepG2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis and experiment assays indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) was the target of hsa-miR-141 during this process. Furthermore, knockdown of PPARA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited HBV replication similar to levels observed for miR-141. Promoter functional analysis indicated that repression of HBV replication by miR-141 mimics or siRNA was mediated by interfering with the HBV promoter functions, consistent with previous studies demonstrating that PPARA regulated HBV gene expression through interactions with HBV promoter regulatory elements. Our results suggest that miR-141 suppressed HBV replication by reducing HBV promoter activities by down-regulating PPARA. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with HBV-host interactions. Furthermore, this information may facilitate the development of novel anti-HBV therapeutic strategies.
Several flavonoids have been reported to be proteasome inhibitors, but whether prenylated flavonoids are able to inhibit proteasome function remains unknown. We report for the first time that Sanggenon C, a natural prenylated flavonoid, inhibits tumor cellular proteasomal activity and cell viability. We found that (1) Sanggenon C inhibited tumor cell viability and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase; (2) Sanggenon C inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified human 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in H22 cell lysate, and Sanggenon C was able to dose-dependently accumulate ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome substrate protein p27; (3) Sanggenon C-induced proteasome inhibition occurred prior to cell death in murine H22 and P388 cell lines; (4) Sanggenon C induced death of human K562 cancer cells and primary cells isolated from leukemic patients. We conclude that Sanggenon C inhibits tumor cell viability via induction of cell cycle arrest and cell death, which is associated with its ability to inhibit the proteasome function and that proteasome inhibition by Sanggenon C at least partially contributes to the observed tumor cell growth-inhibitory activity.
Sanggenon C; proteasome inhibitor; cell death; cell cycle; flavonoid
Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as efficiently as dexamethasone. Shikonin at 4 μM reduced the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNFα release in rat primary macrophage cultures, and blocked the translocation of p65-NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, associated with decreased proteasomal activity. Consistently, shikonin accumulated IκB-α, an inhibitor of NF-κB, and ubiquitinated proteins in rat primary macrophage cultures, demonstrating that the proteasome is a target of shikonin under inflammatory conditions. Shikonin also induced macrophage cell apoptosis and cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that proteasome inhibition by shikonin contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. The novel finding about macrophage proteasome as a target of shikonin suggests that this medicinal compound has great potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory agent.
Shikonin; Proteasome inhibitor; Macrophage; Inflammation
Intensive investigations into the pathophysiological significance of the proteasome in the heart did not start until the beginning of the past decade but exciting progresses have been made and are summarized here as two fronts. First, strong evidence continues to emerge to support a novel hypothesis that proteasome functional insufficiency represents a common pathological phenomenon in a large subset of heart disease, compromises protein quality control in heart muscle cells, and thereby acts as a major pathogenic factor promoting the progression of the subset of heart disease to congestive heart failure. This front is represented by the studies on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cardiac proteinopathy, which have taken advantage of a transgenic mouse model expressing a fluorescence reporter for UPS proteolytic function. Second, pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome has been explored experimentally as a potential therapeutic strategy to intervene some forms of heart disease, such as pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, viral myocarditis, and myocardial ischemic injury. Not only between the two fronts but also within each one, a multitude of inconsistency and controversy remain to be explained and clarified. At present, the controversy perhaps reflects the sophistication of cardiac proteasomes in terms of the composition, assembly, and regulation, as well as the intricacy and diversity of heart disease in terms of its etiology and pathogenesis. A definitive role of altered proteasome function in the development of various forms of heart disease remains to be established.
proteasome; heart disease; desmin-related cardiomyopathy; myocardial ischemia; cardiac hypertrophy; myocarditis; diabetes
Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in cardiac pathogenesis. Understanding how cardiac UPS function is regulated will facilitate delineating the pathophysiological significance of UPS dysfunction and developing new therapeutic strategies. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) may regulate the UPS but this has not been tested in a critical vertebrate organ. Moreover, the role of CSN in a post-mitotic organ and the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS dysfunction on the heart have not been reported.
We sought to determine the role of CSN-mediated deneddylation in UPS function and postnatal cardiac development and function.
Methods and Results
Cardiomyocyte-restricted Csn8 gene knockout (CR-Csn8KO) in mice was achieved using a Cre-LoxP system. CR-Csn8KO impaired CSN holocomplex formation and cullin deneddylation and resulted in decreases in F-box proteins. Probing with a surrogate misfolded protein revealed severe impairment of UPS function in CR-Csn8KO hearts. Consequently, CR-Csn8KO mice developed cardiac hypertrophy, which rapidly progressed to heart failure and premature death. Massive cardiomyocyte necrosis rather than apoptosis appears to be the primary cause of the heart failure. This is because (1) massive necrotic cell death and increased infiltration of leukocytes were observed prior to increased apoptosis; (2) increased apoptosis was not detectable until overt heart failure was observed; and (3) cardiac overexpression of Bcl2 failed to ameliorate CR-Csn8KO mouse premature death.
Csn8/CSN plays an essential role in cullin deneddylation, UPS-mediated degradation of a subset of proteins, and the survival of cardiomyocytes; therefore is indispensible in postnatal development and function of the heart. Cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS malfunction can cause heart failure.
COP9 signalosome; ubiquitin E3 ligases; proteasome; cell death; heart failure
Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) may play an important role in the progression of congestive heart failure but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) are degraded by the proteasome, and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway mediates cardiac remodelling. The present study examined the hypothesis that PFI activates the calcineurin–NFAT pathway and promotes maladaptive remodelling of the heart.
Methods and results
Using a reporter gene assay, we found that pharmacological inhibition of 20S proteasomes stimulated NFAT transactivation in both mouse hearts and cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Proteasome inhibition stimulated NFAT nuclear translocation in a calcineurin-dependent manner and led to a maladaptive cell shape change in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Proteasome inhibition facilitated left ventricular dilatation and functional decompensation and increased fatality in mice with aortic constriction while causing cardiac hypertrophy in the sham surgery group. It was further revealed that both calcineurin protein levels and NFAT transactivation were markedly increased in the mouse hearts with desmin-related cardiomyopathy and severe PFI. Expression of an aggregation-prone mutant desmin also directly increased calcineurin protein levels in cultured cardiomyocytes.
The calcineurin–NFAT pathway in the heart can be activated by proteasome inhibition and is activated in the heart of a mouse model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy that is characterized by severe PFI. The interplay between PFI and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway may contribute to the pathological remodelling of cardiomyocytes characteristic of congestive heart failure.
Proteasome; Calcineurin; Nuclear factors of activated T-cells; Cardiac remodelling; Desmin-related cardiomyopathy
Intracellular protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is ATP-dependent and the optimal ATP concentration to activate proteasome function in vitro is ~100 μM. Intracellular ATP levels are generally in the low millimolar range but ATP at a level within this range was shown to inhibit proteasome peptidase activities in vitro. Here we report new evidence that supports a hypothesis that intracellular ATP at the physiological levels bidirectionally regulates 26S proteasome proteolytic function in the cell. First, we confirmed that ATP exerted bidirectional regulation on the 26S proteasome in vitro, with the optimal ATP concentration (between 50–100 μM) stimulating proteasome chymotrypsin-like activities. Second, we found that manipulating intracellular ATP levels also led to bidirectional changes in the levels of proteasome-specific protein substrates in cultured cells. Finally, measures to increase intracellular ATP enhanced, while decreasing intracellular ATP attenuated, the ability of proteasome inhibition to induce cell death. These data strongly suggest that endogenous ATP within the physiological concentration range can exert a negative impact on proteasome activities, allowing the cell to rapidly up-regulate proteasome activity upon ATP reduction under stress conditions.
ATP; proteasome; regulation; apoptosis
Protein quality control (PQC) senses and repairs misfolded/unfolded proteins and, if the repair fails, degrade the terminally misfolded polypeptides through an intricate collaboration between molecular chaperones and targeted proteolysis. Proteolysis of damaged proteins is performed primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Macroautophagy (commonly known as autophagy) may also play a role in PQC-associated proteolysis, especially when UPS function becomes inadequate. The development of a range of heart diseases, including bona fide cardiac proteinopathies and various forms of cardiac dysfunction has been linked to proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI). Both PFI and activation of autophagy have been observed in the heart of well-established mouse models of cardiac proteinopathy. A causal relationship between PFI and autophagic activation was suggested by a study using cultured cardiomyocytes but has not been established in the heart of intact animals. Taking advantage of an autophagy reporter, we demonstrated here that pharmacologically induced proteasome inhibition is sufficient to activate autophagy in cardiomyocytes in both intact animals and cell cultures, unveiling a potential cross-talk between the two major degradation pathways in cardiac PQC.
proteasome; autophagy; autophagic flux; cardiomyocytes; mice