Autophagy is essential to intracellular homeostasis and involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. Mechanisms regulating selective autophagy remain poorly understood. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex consisting of 8 subunits (CSN1 through CSN8) and known to regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). However, it is unknown whether CSN plays a role in autophagy.
Methods and Results
Marked increases in LC3-II and p62 proteins were observed upon Csn8 depletion in the cardiomyocytes of mouse hearts with cardiomyocyte-restricted knockout of the gene encoding CSN subunit 8 (CR-Csn8KO). The increases in autophagosomes were confirmed by probing with GFP-LC3 and electron microscopy. Autophagic flux assessments revealed that defective autophagosome removal was the cause of autophagosome accumulation and occurred prior to a global UPS impairment in Csn8-deficient hearts. Analyzing the prevalence of different stages of autophagic vacuoles revealed defective autophagosome maturation. Down-regulation of Rab7 was found to strikingly co-localize with the autophagosome accumulation at the individual cardiomyocyte level. A significantly higher percent of cardiomyocytes with autophagosome accumulation underwent necrosis in CR-Csn8KO hearts. Chronic lysosomal inhibition with Chloroquine induced cardiomyocyte necrosis in mice. Rab7 knockdown impaired autophagosome maturation of non-selective and selective autophagy and exacerbated cell death induced by proteasome inhibition in cultured cardiomyocytes.
Csn8/CSN is a central regulator in not only the proteasomal proteolytic pathway but also selective autophagy; (2) likely through regulating the expression of Rab7, Csn8/CSN plays a critical role in autophagosome maturation; and (3) impaired autophagosome maturation causes cardiomyocytes to undergo necrosis.
the COP9 signalosome; autophagy; lysosome; Rab7; necrosis
L-carnitine (LC) is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1) LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21cip1 gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27kip1; (4) LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5) LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6) LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21cip1 gene but not p27kip1 detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.
As exemplified by desmin-related cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, proteasome functional insufficiency plays an essential pathogenic role in the progression of cardiac diseases with elevated proteotoxic stress. Upregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and increased selective autophagy in cardiomyocytes may protect against proteotoxic stress in the heart. p62 may serve as a proteotoxic stress sensor, promote segregation and degradation of misfolded proteins by autophagy, and mediate the crosstalk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy.
Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter <2.5 um (PM2.5) was collected at Peking University (PKU) in Beijing, China before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics and analyzed for black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), lower molecular weight (MW<300) and MW302 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs). In addition, the direct and indirect acting mutagenicity of the PM2.5 and the potential for DNA damage to human lung cells were also measured. Significant reductions in BC (45%), OC (31%), MW< 300 PAH (26% – 73%), MW 302 PAH (22% – 77%), NPAH (15% – 68%) and OPAH (25% – 53%) concentrations were measured during the source control and Olympic Olympic period. However, the mutagenicity of the PM2.5 was significantly reduced only during the Olympic period. The PAH, NPAH, and OPAH composition of the PM2.5 was similar throughout the study, suggesting similar sources during the different periods. During the source control period, the parent PAH concentrations were correlated with NO, CO, and SO2 concentrations, indicating that these PAHs were associated with both local and regional emissions. However, the NPAH and OPAH concentrations were only correlated with the NO concentrations, indicating that the NPAH and OPAH were primarily associated with local emissions. The relatively high 2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene ratio (25 – 46) and 2-nitrofluoranthene/2-nitropyrene ratio (3.4 – 4.8), suggested a predominance of photochemical formation of NPAHs through OH-radical-initiated reactions in the atmosphere. On average, the ΣNPAH and ΣOPAH concentrations were 8% of the parent PAH concentrations, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (due to the NPAH and OPAH) was 200% higher than the indirect-acting mutagenicity (due to the PAH). This suggests that NPAH and OPAH make up a significant portion of the overall mutagenicity of PM2.5 in Beijing.
Recent studies suggest an important role of autophagy in protection against αB-crystallin-based (CryABR120G) desmin-related cardiomyopathies (DRC) but this has not been demonstrated in a different model of cardiac proteinopathy. Mechanisms underlying the response of cardiomyocytes to proteotoxic stress remain incompletely understood.
First, to determine whether and how the autophagic activity is changed in a mouse model of desminopathy; second, to investigate the role of p62 in the protein quality control of cardiomyocytes.
Methods and Results
Using an autophagosome reporter and determining changes in LC3-II protein levels in response to lysosomal inhibition, we found significantly increased autophagic flux in mouse hearts with transgenic overexpression of a DRC-linked mutant desmin. Similarly, autophagic flux was increased in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) expressing a mutant desmin. Suppression of autophagy by 3-methyladenine increased, whereas enhancement of autophagy by rapamycin reduced, the ability of a comparable level of mutant desmin overexpression to accumulate ubiquitinated proteins in NRVMs. Furthermore, p62 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes by transgenic overexpression of the mutant desmin or CryABR120G both in intact mice and in vitro. p62 depletion impaired aggresome and autophagosome formation, exacerbated cell injury, and decreased cell viability in cultured NRVMs expressing the misfolded proteins.
Autophagic flux is increased in desminopathic hearts and, as previously suggested in CryABR120G-based DRC, this increased autophagic flux serves as an adaptive response to overexpression of misfolded proteins. p62 is upregulated in mouse proteinopathic hearts. p62 promotes aggresome formation and autophagy activation and protects cardiomyocytes against proteotoxic stress.
p62/SQSTM1; autophagy; aggresome; ubiquitin; desmin related cardiomyopathy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level and play critical roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this report, miR-141 was identified to repress HBV expression by screening a small miRNA expressing library and synthetic miR-141 mimics could also significantly suppress HBV expression and replication in HepG2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis and experiment assays indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) was the target of hsa-miR-141 during this process. Furthermore, knockdown of PPARA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited HBV replication similar to levels observed for miR-141. Promoter functional analysis indicated that repression of HBV replication by miR-141 mimics or siRNA was mediated by interfering with the HBV promoter functions, consistent with previous studies demonstrating that PPARA regulated HBV gene expression through interactions with HBV promoter regulatory elements. Our results suggest that miR-141 suppressed HBV replication by reducing HBV promoter activities by down-regulating PPARA. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with HBV-host interactions. Furthermore, this information may facilitate the development of novel anti-HBV therapeutic strategies.
Several flavonoids have been reported to be proteasome inhibitors, but whether prenylated flavonoids are able to inhibit proteasome function remains unknown. We report for the first time that Sanggenon C, a natural prenylated flavonoid, inhibits tumor cellular proteasomal activity and cell viability. We found that (1) Sanggenon C inhibited tumor cell viability and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase; (2) Sanggenon C inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified human 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in H22 cell lysate, and Sanggenon C was able to dose-dependently accumulate ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome substrate protein p27; (3) Sanggenon C-induced proteasome inhibition occurred prior to cell death in murine H22 and P388 cell lines; (4) Sanggenon C induced death of human K562 cancer cells and primary cells isolated from leukemic patients. We conclude that Sanggenon C inhibits tumor cell viability via induction of cell cycle arrest and cell death, which is associated with its ability to inhibit the proteasome function and that proteasome inhibition by Sanggenon C at least partially contributes to the observed tumor cell growth-inhibitory activity.
Sanggenon C; proteasome inhibitor; cell death; cell cycle; flavonoid
Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as efficiently as dexamethasone. Shikonin at 4 μM reduced the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNFα release in rat primary macrophage cultures, and blocked the translocation of p65-NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, associated with decreased proteasomal activity. Consistently, shikonin accumulated IκB-α, an inhibitor of NF-κB, and ubiquitinated proteins in rat primary macrophage cultures, demonstrating that the proteasome is a target of shikonin under inflammatory conditions. Shikonin also induced macrophage cell apoptosis and cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that proteasome inhibition by shikonin contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. The novel finding about macrophage proteasome as a target of shikonin suggests that this medicinal compound has great potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory agent.
Shikonin; Proteasome inhibitor; Macrophage; Inflammation
Intensive investigations into the pathophysiological significance of the proteasome in the heart did not start until the beginning of the past decade but exciting progresses have been made and are summarized here as two fronts. First, strong evidence continues to emerge to support a novel hypothesis that proteasome functional insufficiency represents a common pathological phenomenon in a large subset of heart disease, compromises protein quality control in heart muscle cells, and thereby acts as a major pathogenic factor promoting the progression of the subset of heart disease to congestive heart failure. This front is represented by the studies on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cardiac proteinopathy, which have taken advantage of a transgenic mouse model expressing a fluorescence reporter for UPS proteolytic function. Second, pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome has been explored experimentally as a potential therapeutic strategy to intervene some forms of heart disease, such as pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, viral myocarditis, and myocardial ischemic injury. Not only between the two fronts but also within each one, a multitude of inconsistency and controversy remain to be explained and clarified. At present, the controversy perhaps reflects the sophistication of cardiac proteasomes in terms of the composition, assembly, and regulation, as well as the intricacy and diversity of heart disease in terms of its etiology and pathogenesis. A definitive role of altered proteasome function in the development of various forms of heart disease remains to be established.
proteasome; heart disease; desmin-related cardiomyopathy; myocardial ischemia; cardiac hypertrophy; myocarditis; diabetes
Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in cardiac pathogenesis. Understanding how cardiac UPS function is regulated will facilitate delineating the pathophysiological significance of UPS dysfunction and developing new therapeutic strategies. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) may regulate the UPS but this has not been tested in a critical vertebrate organ. Moreover, the role of CSN in a post-mitotic organ and the impact of cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS dysfunction on the heart have not been reported.
We sought to determine the role of CSN-mediated deneddylation in UPS function and postnatal cardiac development and function.
Methods and Results
Cardiomyocyte-restricted Csn8 gene knockout (CR-Csn8KO) in mice was achieved using a Cre-LoxP system. CR-Csn8KO impaired CSN holocomplex formation and cullin deneddylation and resulted in decreases in F-box proteins. Probing with a surrogate misfolded protein revealed severe impairment of UPS function in CR-Csn8KO hearts. Consequently, CR-Csn8KO mice developed cardiac hypertrophy, which rapidly progressed to heart failure and premature death. Massive cardiomyocyte necrosis rather than apoptosis appears to be the primary cause of the heart failure. This is because (1) massive necrotic cell death and increased infiltration of leukocytes were observed prior to increased apoptosis; (2) increased apoptosis was not detectable until overt heart failure was observed; and (3) cardiac overexpression of Bcl2 failed to ameliorate CR-Csn8KO mouse premature death.
Csn8/CSN plays an essential role in cullin deneddylation, UPS-mediated degradation of a subset of proteins, and the survival of cardiomyocytes; therefore is indispensible in postnatal development and function of the heart. Cardiomyocyte-restricted UPS malfunction can cause heart failure.
COP9 signalosome; ubiquitin E3 ligases; proteasome; cell death; heart failure
Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) may play an important role in the progression of congestive heart failure but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) are degraded by the proteasome, and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway mediates cardiac remodelling. The present study examined the hypothesis that PFI activates the calcineurin–NFAT pathway and promotes maladaptive remodelling of the heart.
Methods and results
Using a reporter gene assay, we found that pharmacological inhibition of 20S proteasomes stimulated NFAT transactivation in both mouse hearts and cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Proteasome inhibition stimulated NFAT nuclear translocation in a calcineurin-dependent manner and led to a maladaptive cell shape change in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Proteasome inhibition facilitated left ventricular dilatation and functional decompensation and increased fatality in mice with aortic constriction while causing cardiac hypertrophy in the sham surgery group. It was further revealed that both calcineurin protein levels and NFAT transactivation were markedly increased in the mouse hearts with desmin-related cardiomyopathy and severe PFI. Expression of an aggregation-prone mutant desmin also directly increased calcineurin protein levels in cultured cardiomyocytes.
The calcineurin–NFAT pathway in the heart can be activated by proteasome inhibition and is activated in the heart of a mouse model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy that is characterized by severe PFI. The interplay between PFI and the calcineurin–NFAT pathway may contribute to the pathological remodelling of cardiomyocytes characteristic of congestive heart failure.
Proteasome; Calcineurin; Nuclear factors of activated T-cells; Cardiac remodelling; Desmin-related cardiomyopathy
Intracellular protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is ATP-dependent and the optimal ATP concentration to activate proteasome function in vitro is ~100 μM. Intracellular ATP levels are generally in the low millimolar range but ATP at a level within this range was shown to inhibit proteasome peptidase activities in vitro. Here we report new evidence that supports a hypothesis that intracellular ATP at the physiological levels bidirectionally regulates 26S proteasome proteolytic function in the cell. First, we confirmed that ATP exerted bidirectional regulation on the 26S proteasome in vitro, with the optimal ATP concentration (between 50–100 μM) stimulating proteasome chymotrypsin-like activities. Second, we found that manipulating intracellular ATP levels also led to bidirectional changes in the levels of proteasome-specific protein substrates in cultured cells. Finally, measures to increase intracellular ATP enhanced, while decreasing intracellular ATP attenuated, the ability of proteasome inhibition to induce cell death. These data strongly suggest that endogenous ATP within the physiological concentration range can exert a negative impact on proteasome activities, allowing the cell to rapidly up-regulate proteasome activity upon ATP reduction under stress conditions.
ATP; proteasome; regulation; apoptosis
Protein quality control (PQC) senses and repairs misfolded/unfolded proteins and, if the repair fails, degrade the terminally misfolded polypeptides through an intricate collaboration between molecular chaperones and targeted proteolysis. Proteolysis of damaged proteins is performed primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Macroautophagy (commonly known as autophagy) may also play a role in PQC-associated proteolysis, especially when UPS function becomes inadequate. The development of a range of heart diseases, including bona fide cardiac proteinopathies and various forms of cardiac dysfunction has been linked to proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI). Both PFI and activation of autophagy have been observed in the heart of well-established mouse models of cardiac proteinopathy. A causal relationship between PFI and autophagic activation was suggested by a study using cultured cardiomyocytes but has not been established in the heart of intact animals. Taking advantage of an autophagy reporter, we demonstrated here that pharmacologically induced proteasome inhibition is sufficient to activate autophagy in cardiomyocytes in both intact animals and cell cultures, unveiling a potential cross-talk between the two major degradation pathways in cardiac PQC.
proteasome; autophagy; autophagic flux; cardiomyocytes; mice
This is an addendum to a recent report which demonstrates for the first time that autophagic flux is increased in the heart of a well-established mouse model of cardiac proteinopathy and p62 is transcriptionally upregulated in cardiomyocytes and hearts overexpressing human cardiomyopathy-linked misfolded proteins. The p62 plays a critical and protective role in aggresome formation and autophagic activation in cardiomyocytes overexpressing misfolded proteins.
autophagy; p62; cardiomyocytes; protein aggregation; desmin-related cardiomyopathy
The goal of this preclinical study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline (Doxy) for desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC) and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved.
DRC, exemplifying cardiac proteinopathy, is characterized by intrasarcoplasmic protein aggregation and cardiac insufficiency. No effective treatment for DRC is presently available. Doxy was shown to attenuate aberrant intranuclear aggregation and toxicity of misfolded proteins in non-cardiac cells and animal models of other proteinopathies.
Mice and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with transgenic (TG) expression of a human DRC-linked missense mutant αB-crystallin (CryABR120G) were used for testing the effect of Doxy. Doxy was administered via drinking water (6 mg/ml) initiated at 8 or 16 weeks of age.
Doxy treatment initiated at 16 weeks of age significantly delayed the premature death of CryABR120G TG mice, with a median lifespan of 30.4 weeks (placebo group 25 weeks, p<0.01). In another cohort of CryABR120G TG mice, Doxy treatment initiated at 8 weeks of age significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in one month. Further investigation revealed that Doxy significantly reduced the abundance of CryAB-positive microscopic aggregates, detergent-resistant CryAB oligomers, and total ubiquitinated proteins in CryABR120G TG hearts. In cell culture, Doxy treatment dose-dependently suppressed the formation of both microscopic protein aggregates and detergent-resistant soluble CryABR120G oligomers, and reversed the upregulation of p62 protein induced by adenovirus-mediated CryABR120G expression.
Doxy suppresses CryABR120G induced aberrant protein aggregation in cardiomyocytes and prolongs CryABR120G based DRC mouse survival.
Doxycycline; αB-crystallin; protein aggregation; cardiomyopathy; ubiquitin
Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from subcutaneous or visceral peripheral nerves, which are usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. They are almost always congenital lesions and often cause the surrounding soft tissue and bone to grow aberrantly. We treated a 12-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric pectus excavaum and an anterior chest wall plexiform neurofibroma. The pectus excavaum was corrected by modified Nuss procedure, followed by simultaneous resection of the giant mass. The patient is doing well at the 4 years follow-up visit.
Plexiform neurofibromas; Pectus excavaum; Nuss procedure
The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades most intracellular proteins, including misfolded proteins. Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) has been observed in proteinopathies, such as desmin-related cardiomyopathy, and implicated in many common diseases, including dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. However, the pathogenic role of PFI has not been established. Here we created inducible Tg mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of proteasome 28 subunit α (CR-PA28αOE) to investigate whether upregulation of the 11S proteasome enhances the proteolytic function of the proteasome in mice and, if so, whether the enhancement can rescue a bona fide proteinopathy and protect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that CR-PA28αOE did not alter the homeostasis of normal proteins and cardiac function, but did facilitate the degradation of a surrogate misfolded protein in the heart. By breeding mice with CR-PA28αOE with mice representing a well-established model of desmin-related cardiomyopathy, we demonstrated that CR-PA28αOE markedly reduced aberrant protein aggregation. Cardiac hypertrophy was decreased, and the lifespan of the animals was increased. Furthermore, PA28α knockdown promoted, whereas PA28α overexpression attenuated, accumulation of the mutant protein associated with desmin-related cardiomyopathy in cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CR-PA28αOE limited infarct size and prevented postreperfusion cardiac dysfunction in mice with myocardial I/R injury. We therefore conclude that benign enhancement of cardiac proteasome proteolytic function can be achieved by CR-PA28αOE and that PFI plays a major pathogenic role in cardiac proteinopathy and myocardial I/R injury.
Studies using lower organisms and cultured mammalian cells have revealed that the COP9 signalosome (CSN) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes. Conditional gene targeting was recently employed to study CSN function in murine T cell development and activation. Using the Cre-loxP system, here we have achieved postnatal hepatocyte-restricted knockout of the csn8 gene (HR-Csn8KO) in mice. The protein abundance of other 7 CSN subunits was differentially down-regulated by HR-Csn8KO and the deneddylation of all cullins examined was significantly impaired. Moreover, HR-Csn8KO induced massive hepatocyte apoptosis and evoked extensive reparative responses in the liver, including marked intralobular proliferation of biliary lineage cells and trans-differentiation and proliferation of the oval cells. However, division of pre-existing hepatocytes was significantly diminished in HR-Csn8KO livers. These findings indicate that Csn8 is essential to the ability of mature hepatocytes to proliferate effectively in response to hepatic injury. The histopathological examinations revealed striking hepatocytomegaly in Csn8-deficient livers. The hepatocyte nuclei were dramatically enlarged and pleomorphic with hyperchromasia and prominent nucleoli, consistent with dysplasia or preneoplastic cellular alteration in HR-Csn8KO mice at 6 weeks. Pericellular and perisinusoid fibrosis with distorted architecture was also evident at 6 weeks. It is concluded that CSN8/CSN is essential to postnatal hepatocyte survival and effective proliferation.
COP9 signalosome; CSN8; hepatocytes; liver regeneration; conditional gene targeting
Protein quality control (PQC) senses and repairs misfolded/unfolded proteins and, if the repair fails, degrades the terminally misfolded polypeptides through an intricate collaboration between molecular chaperones and targeted proteolysis. Proteolysis of damaged proteins is performed primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Macroautophagy (commonly known as autophagy) may also play a role in PQC-associated proteolysis, especially when UPS function becomes inadequate. The development of a range of heart diseases, including bona fide cardiac proteinopathies and various forms of cardiac dysfunction has been linked to proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI). Both PFI and activation of autophagy have been observed in the heart of well-established mouse models of cardiac proteinopathy. A causal relationship between PFI and autophagic activation was suggested by a study using cultured cardiomyocytes but has not been established in the heart of intact animals. Taking advantage of an autophagy reporter, we demonstrated here that pharmacologically induced proteasome inhibition is sufficient to activate autophagy in cardiomyocytes in both intact animals and cell cultures, unveiling a potential cross-talk between the two major degradation pathways in cardiac PQC.
Proteasome; autophagy; autophagic flux; cardiomyocytes; mice
Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE). However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors.
A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients.
No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems.
The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were associated with patients' impairment of psychosocial functioning.
Protein quality control (PQC) depends on elegant collaboration between molecular chaperones and targeted proteolysis in the cell. The latter is primarily carried out by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but recent advances in this area of research suggest a supplementary role for the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in PQC-related proteolysis. The (patho)physiological significance of PQC in the heart is best illustrated in cardiac proteinopathy, which belongs to a family of cardiac diseases caused by expression of aggregation-prone proteins in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI) is best studied in desmin-related cardiomyopathy, a bona fide cardiac proteinopathy. Emerging evidence suggests that many common forms of cardiomyopathy may belong to proteinopathy. This review focuses on examining current evidence, as it relates to the hypothesis that PFI impairs PQC in cardiomyocytes and contributes to the progression of cardiac proteinopathies to heart failure.
Protein quality control; Ubiquitin; Proteasome; Desmin-related cardiomyopathy; Chaperone; Autophagy
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a very potent anti-cancer agent but its usage is limited by its dose-dependent irreversible cardiotoxicity. Despite intensive research efforts, the mechanism of Dox cardiotoxicity remains to be poorly understood and consequently the means available for clinicians to prevent or effectively manage Dox cardiotoxicity are very limited. Recent studies have excitingly revealed that a therapeutic dose of Dox can activate ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) mediated proteolysis in cardiomyocytes and that the UPS-mediated degradation of a number of pivotal cardiac transcription factors and/or survival factors is enhanced by Dox treatment. These suggest that the Dox induced UPS activation may represent a new mechanism underlying Dox cardiotoxicity. Notably, recent experimental studies suggest that proteasome activation promotes cardiac remodeling during hypertension. This review surveys the current literature on the impact of Dox on the UPS and the potential mechanisms by which UPS activation may compromise the heart during Dox therapy.