In the genome of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, three genes belonging to ROK (Repressor, ORF, and Kinase) family are annotated as glucokinases (GLKs). Using enzyme assays, the three GLKs were identified as ATP-dependent GLK (ATP-GLK), ADP-dependent GLK (ADP-GLK), and N-acetyl-glucosamine/mannosamine kinase (glu/man-NacK). The kinetic properties of the three GLKs such as Km, Vmax, optimal pH, and temperature were characterized, demonstrating that these enzymes performed the specific functions against varied substrates and under different temperatures. The abundance of ATP-GLK was attenuated when culture temperature was elevated and was almost undetectable at 80°C, whereas the ADP-GLK abundance was insensitive to temperature changes. Using degradation assays, ATP-GLK was found to have significantly faster degradation than ADP-GLK at 80°C. Co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) could interact with ATP-GLK and ADP-GLK at 60 and 75°C, whereas at 80°C, the interaction was only effectively with ADP-GLK but not ATP-GLK. The functions of GLKs in T. tengcongensis are temperature dependent, likely regulated through interactions with HSP60.
Anorectal malformations (ARM) are common anomalies in neonates. Diagnostic and therapeutic delays in the management of ARM may lead to colonic perforation, and even death. Physical examination of the perineum is often sufficient to diagnose ARM in neonates. Notwithstanding, delayed diagnosis of ARM has become increasingly familiar to surgeons, as evidenced by the number of recent publications on this topic in the literature. In this commentary, we discuss spontaneous colonic perforation due to delayed diagnosis of ARM in neonates, and highlight the importance of early diagnosis in assuring good outcomes with surgical management. At this point, a thorough examination of the perineum during the initial newborn assessment is mandatory, particularly in those patients presenting with abdominal signs or symptoms.
Anorectal malformation; Imperforate anus; Bowel perforation; Colon
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is tightly regulated by cytokine signaling. Although phospho-flow cytometry allows us to study signaling in defined populations of cells, there has been tremendous hurdle to carry out this study in rare HSCs due to unrecoverable critical HSC markers, low HSC number, and poor cell recovery rate. Here, we overcame these difficulties and developed a “HSC phospho-flow” method to analyze cytokine signaling in murine HSCs at the single-cell level and compare HSC signaling profile to that of multipotent progenitors (MPPs), a cell type immediately downstream of HSCs, and commonly used Lin− cKit+ cells (LK cells, enriched for myeloid progenitors). We chose to study signaling evoked from three representative cytokines, stem cell factor (SCF) and thrombopoietin (TPO) that are essential for HSC function, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that is dispensable for HSCs. HSCs display a distinct TPO and GM-CSF signaling signature from MPPs and LK cells, which highly correlates with receptor surface expression. In contrast, although majority of LK cells express lower levels of cKit than HSCs and MPPs, SCF-evoked ERK1/2 activation in LK cells shows a significantly increased magnitude for a prolonged period. These results suggest that specific cellular context plays a more important role than receptor surface expression in SCF signaling. Our study of HSC signaling at the homeostasis stage paves the way to investigate signaling changes in HSCs under conditions of stress, aging, and hematopoietic diseases.
hematopoietic stem cells; multipotent progenitors; TPO signaling; SCF signaling; phospho-flow cytometry
Idiopathic erythrocytosis (IE) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hyperplasia of the erythroid lineage; however, in many cases, the molecular basis remains undetermined. Serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels can be raised, normal, or reduced, suggesting that there are at least two underlying etiologies involving either the control of EPO production or modulation of EPO-induced signaling. EPO production is regulated by the oxygen-sensing pathway via the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) complex. Proteasomal turnover of HIF is controlled by interactions with the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) and prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) proteins. Erythrocytosis-associated mutations have been detected in the oxygen sensing pathway indicating that EPO is regulated by the HIF-2alpha-PHD2-VHL axis (reviewed by McMullin ). Aberrant EPO-induced signaling in IE patients with subnormal serum EPO levels can arise from mutations in the EPO receptor (EpoR) gene which result in the receptor being hypersensitive to EPO with prolonged activation of the EPO-dependent signaling pathways (reviewed by Percy ).
Essential Thrombocythaemia (ET) is a rare type of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by clonal expansion of the megakaryocyte and platelet lineage. Here, we describe a novel mutation (Y252H) in the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor, or MPL, in a JAK2 mutation-negative ET patient. The bone marrow examination revealed increased numbers of dysmorphic megakaryocytes with focal clustering. The x-inactivation pattern suggested clonal expansion of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Furthermore we found that the patient’s bone marrow cells were hypersensitive to TPO in generating megakaryocyte colonies in vitro. More importantly, we demonstrated that this MPL Y252H mutant confers increased TPO/MPL-mediated cell growth and increased cell survival upon cytokine withdrawal in BaF3 cells, indicating it is a disease-driving mutation and may contribute to the development of ET in vivo. In summary, this is the first report describing a mutation in the extracellular domain of MPL underlying ET.
We report here that a new superconducting phase with much higher Tc has been found in K intercalated FeSe compound with excess Fe. We successfully grew crystals by precisely controlling the starting amount of Fe. Besides the superconducting (SC) transition at ~30 K, we observed a sharp drop in resistivity and a kink in susceptibility at 44 K. By combining thermodynamic measurements with electron spin resonance (ESR), we demonstrate that this is a new SC transition. Structural analysis unambiguously reveals two phases coexisting in the crystals, which are responsible respectively for the SC transitions at 30 and 44 K. The structural experiments and first-principles calculations consistently indicate that the 44 K SC phase is close to a 122 structure, but with an unexpectedly large c-axis of 18.10 Å. We further find a novel monotonic dependence of the maximum Tc on the separation of neighbouring FeSe layers.
The Ca2+ paradox represents a good model to study Ca2+ overload injury in ischemic heart diseases. We and others have demonstrated that contracture and calpain are involved in the Ca2+ paradox-induced injury. This study aimed to elucidate their roles in this model. The Ca2+ paradox was elicited by perfusing isolated rat hearts with Ca2+-free KH media for 3 min or 5 min followed by 30 min of Ca2+ repletion. The LVDP was measured to reflect contractile function, and the LVEDP was measured to indicate contracture. TTC staining and the quantification of LDH release were used to define cell death. Calpain activity and troponin I release were measured after Ca2+ repletion. Ca2+ repletion of the once 3-min Ca2+ depleted hearts resulted in almost no viable tissues and the disappearance of contractile function. Compared to the effects of the calpain inhibitor MDL28170, KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, reduced the LVEDP level to a greater extent, which was well correlated with improved contractile function recovery and tissue survival. The depletion of Ca2+ for 5 min had the same effects on injury as the 3-min Ca2+ depletion, except that the LVEDP in the 5-min Ca2+ depletion group was lower than the level in the 3-min Ca2+ depletion group. KB-R7943 failed to reduce the level of LVEDP, with no improvement in the LVDP recovery in the hearts subjected to the 5-min Ca2+ depletion treatment; however, KB-R7943 preserved its protective effects in surviving tissue. Both KB-R7943 and MDL28170 attenuated the Ca2+ repletion-induced increase in calpain activity in 3 min or 5 min Ca2+ depleted hearts. However, only KB-R7943 reduced the release of troponin I from the Ca2+ paradoxic heart. These results provide evidence suggesting that contracture is the main cause for contractile dysfunction, while activation of calpain mediates cell death in the Ca2+ paradox.
The maintenance of genomic stability requires accurate genome replication, repair of DNA damage, and the precise segregation of chromosomes in mitosis. GEN1 possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity in vitro and presumably functions in homology driven repair of DNA double strand breaks. However, little is currently known about the cellular functions of human GEN1. In the present study we demonstrate that GEN1 is a novel centrosome associated protein and we characterize the various phenotypes associated with GEN1 deficiency. We identify an N-terminal centrosome localization signal in GEN1, which is required and sufficient for centrosome localization. We report that GEN1 depletion results in aberrant centrosome numbers associated with the formation of multiple spindle poles in mitosis, an increased number of cells with multi-nuclei, increased apoptosis and an elevated level of spontaneous DNA damage. We find homologous recombination severely impaired in GEN1 deficient cells, suggesting that GEN1 functions as a Holliday junction resolvase in vivo as well as in vitro. Complementation of GEN1 depleted cells with various GEN1 constructs revealed that centrosome association but not catalytic activity of GEN1 is required for preventing centrosome hyper-amplification, formation of multiple mitotic spindles, and multi-nucleation. Our findings provide novel insight into the biological functions of GEN1 by uncovering an important role of GEN1 in the regulation of centrosome integrity.
Quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTMs), stemming from their importance for understanding materials with unconventional properties, has continued to attract widespread theoretical and experimental attention. However, the observation of QTMs in the most promising candidates of molecular magnets and few iron-based compounds is limited to very low temperature. Herein, we first highlight a simple system, ultrasmall half-metallic V3O4 quantum dots, as a promising candidate for the investigation of QTMs at high temperature. The quantum superparamagnetic state (QSP) as a high temperature signature of QTMs is observed at 16 K, which is beyond absolute zero temperature and much higher than that of conventional iron-based compounds due to the stronger spin-orbital coupling of V3+ ions bringing high anisotropy energy. It is undoubtedly that this ultrasmall quantum dots, V3O4, offers not only a promising candidate for theoretical understanding of QTMs but also a very exciting possibility for computers using mesoscopic magnets.
Thermotoga maritima (T. maritima) is a typical thermophile, and its proteome response to environmental temperature changes has yet to be explored. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of T. maritima using comparative proteomic approach. T. maritima was cultured under four temperatures, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C, and the bacterial proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, a total of 224 spots, either cytoplasm or membrane, were defined as temperature-dependent. Of these spots, 75 unique bacterial proteins were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF MS. As is well known, the chaperone proteins such as heat shock protein 60 and elongation factor Tu, were up-regulated in abundance due to increased temperature. However, several temperature-dependent proteins of T. maritima responded very differently when compared to responses of the thermophile T. tengcongensis. Intriguingly, a number of proteins involved in central carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated at higher temperature. Their corresponding mRNA levels were elevated accordingly. The increase in abundance of several key enzymes indicates that a number of central carbohydrate metabolism pathways of T. maritima are activated at higher temperatures.
Microcephaly is a clinical characteristic for human nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS, mutated in NBS1 gene), a chromosomal instability syndrome. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that neuronal disruption of NBS (Nbn in mice) causes microcephaly characterized by the reduction of cerebral cortex and corpus callosum, recapitulating neuronal anomalies in human NBS. Nbs1-deficient neocortex shows accumulative endogenous DNA damage and defective activation of Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-Chk1 pathway upon DNA damage. Notably, in contrast to massive apoptotic cell death in Nbs1-deficient cerebella, activation of p53 leads to a defective neuroprogenitor proliferation in neocortex, likely via specific persistent induction of hematopoietic zinc finger (Hzf) that preferentially promotes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest whilst inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, Trp53 mutations substantially rescue the microcephaly in Nbs1-deficient mice. Thus, the present results reveal the first clue that developing neurons at different regions of brain selectively respond to endogenous DNA damage, and underscore an important role for Nbs1 in neurogenesis.
DNA damage response; Nbs1; microcephaly; p53; Hzf
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) functions are governed by intricate signaling networks. The tyrosine kinase JAK2 plays an essential role in cytokine signaling during hematopoiesis. The adaptor protein LNK is a critical determinant of this process through its inhibitory interaction with JAK2, thereby limiting HSPC self-renewal. LNK deficiency promotes myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) development in mice, and LNK loss-of-function mutations are found in human MPNs, emphasizing its pivotal role in normal and malignant HSPCs. Here, we report the identification of 14-3-3 proteins as LNK binding partners. 14-3-3 interfered with the LNK-JAK2 interaction, thereby alleviating LNK inhibition of JAK2 signaling and cell proliferation. Binding of 14-3-3 required 2 previously unappreciated serine phosphorylation sites in LNK, and we found that their phosphorylation is mediated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and PKA kinases. Mutations of these residues abrogated the interaction and augmented the growth inhibitory function of LNK. Conversely, forced 14-3-3 binding constrained LNK function. Furthermore, interaction with 14-3-3 sequestered LNK in the cytoplasm away from the plasma membrane-proximal JAK2. Importantly, bone marrow transplantation studies revealed an essential role for 14-3-3 in HSPC reconstitution that can be partially mitigated by LNK deficiency. We believe that, together, this work implicates 14-3-3 proteins as novel and positive HSPC regulators by impinging on the LNK/JAK2 pathway.
We performed a genome-wide analysis of aberrant DNA methylation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using methylated CpG island amplification (MCA) coupled with a promoter microarray. We identified 280 potential targets of aberrant DNA methylation in CLL. These genes were located more frequently in chromosomes 19 (16%, p = 0.001), 16 (11%, p = 0.001), 17 (10%, p = 0.02) and 11 (9%, p = 0.02) and could be grouped in several functional networks. Methylation status was confirmed for 22 of these genes (SOX11, DLX1, FAM62C, SOX14, RSPO1, ADCY5, HAND2, SPOCK, MLL, ING1, PRIMA1, BCL11B, LTBP2, BNC1, NR2F2, SALL1, GALGT2, LHX1, DLX4, KLK10, TFAP2 and APP) in 78 CLL patients by pyrosequencing. As a proof of principle, we analyzed the expression of 2 genes, PRIMA1 and APP, in primary cells and of GALGT2, TFAP2C and PRIMA1 in leukemia cells. There was an inverse association between methylation and gene expression. This could be reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in cell lines. Treatment in a clinical trial with 5-azacitidine resulted in decreased methylation of LINE, DLX4 and SALL1 in the peripheral blood B-cells of patients with CLL. IgVH mutational status or ZAP-70 expression were not associated with specific methylation profiles. By multivariate analysis, methylation of LINE and APP was associated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.045 and 0.0035, respectively). This study demonstrates that aberrant DNA methylation is common and has potential prognostic and therapeutic value in CLL.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia; DNA methylation; MCA/promoter microarray; epigenetics
Several disease processes of the colon and rectum, including constipation and incontinence, have been associated with abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system. However, the autonomic innervation to the colon and rectum are not fully understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of stimulation of vagus nerves, pelvic nerves (PN) and hypogastric nerves (HGN) on colorectal motility in rats.
Four strain gauge transducers were implanted on the proximal colon, mid colon, distal colon and rectum to record circular muscle contractions in rats. Electrical stimulation was administered to the efferent distal ends of the cervical vagus nerve, PN and HGN. Motility index (MI) was evaluated before and during stimulation.
Electrical stimulation (5–20 Hz) of the cervical vagus elicited significant contractions in the mid colon and distal colon, whereas less pronounced contractions were observed in the proximal colon. PN stimulation elicited significant contractions in the rectum as well as the mid colon and distal colon. Atropine treatment almost completely abolished the contractions induced by vagus nerve and PN stimulation. HGN stimulation caused relaxations in the rectum, mid colon and distal colon. The relaxations in response to HGN stimulation were abolished by propranolol.
Conclusions & Inferences
Vagal innervation extends to the distal colon, while the PN has projections in the distribution of the rectum through the mid colon. This suggests a pattern of dual parasympathetic innervation in the left colon. Parasympathetic fibers regulate colorectal contractions via muscarinic receptors. The HGN mainly regulates colorectal relaxations via beta-adrenoceptors.
gastrointestinal motility; vagus nerve; pelvic nerve; sympathetic nerve; electrical stimulation
Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis could utilize galactose as a carbon source via the enzymes encoded by a novel gal operon, whose regulation mechanism has yet to be elucidated. We propose here that the gal operon in T. tengcongensis is regulated through a HisK:GalR two-component system. By using radioactive isotope assay and genetic analysis, we found that the kinase of this system, HisK, is phosphorylated by ATP, and the regulator, GalR, accepts a phosphoryl group during phosphorelay, in which the phosphoryl group at HisK-His-259 is transferred to GalR-Asp-56. Two-dimensional electrophoresis, followed by Western blotting, revealed that phosphorylation status of GalR is uniquely dependent on the galactose stimulus in vivo. Furthermore, DNA pulldown assays demonstrated that the phosphorylated GalR prefers binding to the operator DNA O2, whereas the unphosphorylated GalR to O1. A model of HisK:GalR is proposed to explain how galactose mediates the expression of the gal operon in T. tengcongensis.
Mutations of the MEN1 gene predispose to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Our group and others have shown that Men1 disruption in mice recapitulates MEN1 pathology. Intriguingly, rare lesions in hormone-dependent tissues, such as prostate and mammary glands, were also observed in the Men1 mutant mice.
To study the occurrence of prostate lesions, we followed a male mouse cohort of 47 Men1+/- mice and 23 age-matched control littermates, starting at 18 months of age, and analysed the prostate glands from the cohort.
Six Men1+/- mice (12.8%) developed prostate cancer, including two adenocarcinomas and four in situ carcinomas, while none of the control mice developed cancerous lesions. The expression of menin encoded by the Men1 gene was found to be drastically reduced in all carcinomas, and partial LOH of the wild-type Men1 allele was detected in three of the five analysed lesions. Using immunostaining for the androgen receptor and p63, a basal epithelial cell marker, we demonstrated that the menin-negative prostate cancer cells did not display p63 expression and that the androgen receptor was expressed but more heterogeneous in these lesions. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27), a Men1 target gene known to be inactivated during prostate cell tumorigenesis, was notably decreased in the prostate cancers that developed in the mutant mice.
Our work suggests the possible involvement of Men1 inactivation in the tumorigenesis of the prostate gland.
The V617F mutation, which causes the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 617 of the Janus kinase (JAK) 2 gene (JAK2), is often present in patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis. However, the molecular basis of these myeloproliferative disorders in patients without the V617F mutation is unclear.
We searched for new mutations in members of the JAK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene families in patients with V617F-negative polycythemia vera or idiopathic erythrocytosis. The mutations were characterized biochemically and in a murine model of bone marrow transplantation.
We identified four somatic gain-of-function mutations affecting JAK2 exon 12 in 10 V617F-negative patients. Those with a JAK2 exon 12 mutation presented with an isolated erythrocytosis and distinctive bone marrow morphology, and several also had reduced serum erythropoietin levels. Erythroid colonies could be grown from their blood samples in the absence of exogenous erythropoietin. All such erythroid colonies were heterozygous for the mutation, whereas colonies homozygous for the mutation occur in most patients with V617F-positive polycythemia vera. BaF3 cells expressing the murine erythropoietin receptor and also carrying exon 12 mutations could proliferate without added interleukin-3. They also exhibited increased phosphorylation of JAK2 and extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2, as compared with cells transduced by wild-type JAK2 or V617F JAK2. Three of the exon 12 mutations included a substitution of leucine for lysine at position 539 of JAK2. This mutation resulted in a myeloproliferative phenotype, including erythrocytosis, in a murine model of retroviral bone marrow transplantation.
JAK2 exon 12 mutations define a distinctive myeloproliferative syndrome that affects patients who currently receive a diagnosis of polycythemia vera or idiopathic erythrocytosis.
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion is regulated by intrinsic signaling pathways activated by cytokines. The intracellular kinase JAK2 plays an essential role in cytokine signaling, and activating mutations in JAK2 are found in a number of hematologic malignancies. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte adaptor protein (Lnk, also known as Sh2b3) binds JAK2 and attenuates its activity, thereby limiting HSPC expansion. Here we show that loss of Lnk accelerates and exacerbates oncogenic JAK2-induced myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs) in mice. Specifically, Lnk deficiency enhanced cytokine-independent JAK/STAT signaling and augmented the ability of oncogenic JAK2 to expand myeloid progenitors in vitro and in vivo. An activated form of JAK2, unable to bind Lnk, caused greater myeloid expansion than activated JAK2 alone and accelerated myelofibrosis, indicating that Lnk directly inhibits oncogenic JAK2 in constraining MPD development. In addition, Lnk deficiency cooperated with the BCR/ABL oncogene, the product of which does not directly interact with or depend on JAK2 or Lnk, in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) development, suggesting that Lnk also acts through endogenous pathways to constrain HSPCs. Consistent with this idea, aged Lnk–/– mice spontaneously developed a CML-like MPD. Taken together, our data establish Lnk as a bona fide suppressor of MPD in mice and raise the possibility that Lnk dysfunction contributes to the development of hematologic malignancies in humans.
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis depends on the balance between self renewal and lineage commitment, but what regulates this decision is not well understood. Using loss-of-function approaches in mice, we found that glycogen synthase kinase–3 (Gsk3) plays a pivotal role in controlling the decision between self renewal and differentiation of HSCs. Disruption of Gsk3 in BM transiently expanded phenotypic HSCs in a β-catenin–dependent manner, consistent with a role for Wnt signaling in HSC homeostasis. However, in assays of long-term HSC function, disruption of Gsk3 progressively depleted HSCs through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). This long-term HSC depletion was prevented by mTOR inhibition and exacerbated by β-catenin knockout. Thus, GSK-3 regulated both Wnt and mTOR signaling in mouse HSCs, with these pathways promoting HSC self renewal and lineage commitment, respectively, such that inhibition of Gsk3 in the presence of rapamycin expanded the HSC pool in vivo. These findings identify unexpected functions for GSK-3 in mouse HSC homeostasis, suggest a therapeutic approach to expand HSCs in vivo using currently available medications that target GSK-3 and mTOR, and provide a compelling explanation for the clinically prevalent hematopoietic effects observed in individuals prescribed the GSK-3 inhibitor lithium.
The asymmetric unit of the crystal structure of the title compound, C8H9ClN2O2, contains four independent molecules. The dihedral angles between the urea N—(C=O)—N planes and the benzene rings are 83.3 (3), 87.8 (1), 89.1 (1) and 17.5 (2)° in the four molecules. Extensive N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure.
Successful ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) would greatly benefit the treatment of disease and the understanding of crucial questions of stem cell biology. Here we show, using microarray studies, that the HSC-supportive mouse fetal liver CD3+ cells specifically express the proteins angiopoietin-like 2 (Angptl2) and angiopoietin-like 3 (Angptl3). We observed a 24- or 30-fold net expansion of long-term HSCs by reconstitution analysis when we cultured highly enriched HSCs for 10 days in the presence of Angptl2 or Angptl3 together with saturating levels of other growth factors. The coiled-coil domain of Angptl2 was capable of stimulating expansion of HSCs. Furthermore, angiopoietin-like 5, angiopoietin-like 7 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 also supported expansion of HSCs in culture.
In addition to its role in megakaryocyte production, signaling initiated by thrombopoietin (TPO) activation of its receptor, myeloproliferative leukemia virus protooncogene (c-Mpl, or Mpl), controls HSC homeostasis and self-renewal. Under steady-state conditions, mice lacking the inhibitory adaptor protein Lnk harbor an expanded HSC pool with enhanced self-renewal. We found that HSCs from Lnk–/– mice have an increased quiescent fraction, decelerated cell cycle kinetics, and enhanced resistance to repeat treatments with cytoablative 5-fluorouracil in vivo compared with WT HSCs. We further provide genetic evidence demonstrating that Lnk controls HSC quiescence and self-renewal, predominantly through Mpl. Consistent with this observation, Lnk–/– HSCs displayed potentiated activation of JAK2 specifically in response to TPO. Biochemical experiments revealed that Lnk directly binds to phosphorylated tyrosine residues in JAK2 following TPO stimulation. Of note, the JAK2 V617F mutant, found at high frequencies in myeloproliferative diseases, retains the ability to bind Lnk. Therefore, we identified Lnk as a physiological negative regulator of JAK2 in stem cells and TPO/Mpl/JAK2/Lnk as a major regulatory pathway in controlling stem cell self-renewal and quiescence.
Studies using thrombopoietin -/- (TPO-/-) or TPO receptor, mpl -/- mice have established a critical role for TPO/mpl signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) development. In this study, we further dissected mpl signaling in both megakaryopoiesis and HSC function, using mice bearing a truncated mpl receptor lacking the distal 60 amino acids (Δ60). This deletion removes three major signaling tyrosines on the mpl cytoplasmic domain, but retains the membrane proximal Box1 and Box2 domains required for JAK2 activation.
Competitive bone marrow transplantations (BMT) and serial BMTs were performed to study HSC function. Western blot analysis was used to study TPO- stimulated signaling pathways. BM cell cultures in the presence of TPO were used to study megakaryocyte development.
In agreement with prior findings, we show that Δ60 bone marrow (BM) cells cultured in TPO generated normal numbers of megakaryocytes, but with greatly reduced ploidy. As expected from the deletion of three signaling tyrosine residues, freshly isolated Δ60 megakaryocytes showed marked reduction in all known TPO-stimulated signaling pathways tested, including Stat5, Stat3, Akt, and p42/44MAPK. We found that Δ60 mice displayed normal short-term (ST-HSC) activities and marginally compromised long-term (LT-HSC) stem cell activities in primary transplantation. In addition, Δ60 mice supported HSC self-renewal for at least two serial BMTs.
Our data reveal a pivotal role for an unknown signal emanating from the membrane proximal region of the mpl receptor or from JAK2 itself in maintaining stem cell activity and self-renewal, in addition to its role in megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis.
hematopoiesis; hematopoietic stem cells; cytokine receptors; megakaryocytes; signal transduction
The oncoproteins E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 38 (HPV38) display several transforming activities in vitro, including immortalization of primary human keratinocytes. To evaluate the oncogenic activities of the viral proteins in an in vivo model, we generated transgenic mice expressing HPV38 E6 and E7 under the control of the bovine homologue of the human keratin 10 (K10) promoter. Two distinct lines of HPV38 E6/E7-expressing transgenic mice that express the viral genes at different levels were obtained. In both lines, HPV38 E6 and E7 induced cellular proliferation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the epidermis. The rate of occurrence of these events was proportional to the levels of HPV38 E6 and E7 expression in the two transgenic lines. Exposure of the epidermis of nontransgenic mice to UV led to p21WAF1 accumulation and cell cycle arrest. In contrast, keratinocytes from transgenic mice continued to proliferate and were not positive for p21WAF1, indicating that cell cycle checkpoints are altered in keratinocytes expressing the viral genes. Although the HPV38 E6/E7-expressing transgenic mice did not develop spontaneous tumors during their life span, two-stage carcinogen treatment led to a high incidence of papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and squamous-cell carcinomas in HPV38 mice compared with nontransgenic animals. Together, these data show that HPV38 E6 and E7 display transforming properties in vivo, providing further support for the role of HPV38 in carcinogenesis.
Thrombopoietin (Tpo) is the primary cytokine regulating megakaryocyte development and platelet production. Tpo signaling through its receptor, c-mpl, activates multiple pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5, phosphoinositide 3-kinase–Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The adaptor protein Lnk is implicated in cytokine receptor and immunoreceptor signaling. Here, we show that Lnk overexpression negatively regulates Tpo-mediated cell proliferation and endomitosis in hematopoietic cell lines and primary hematopoietic cells. Lnk attenuates Tpo-induced S-phase progression in 32D cells expressing mpl, and Lnk decreases Tpo-dependent megakaryocyte growth in bone marrow (BM)–derived megakaryocyte culture. Consistent with this result, we found that in both BM and spleen, Lnk-deficient mice exhibited increased numbers of megakaryocytes with increased ploidy compared with wild-type mice. In addition, Lnk-deficient megakaryocytes derived from BM and spleen showed enhanced sensitivity to Tpo during culture. The absence of Lnk caused enhanced and prolonged Tpo induction of STAT3, STAT5, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways in CD41+ megakaryocytes. Furthermore, the Src homology 2 domain of Lnk is essential for Lnk's inhibitory function. In contrast, the conserved tyrosine near the COOH terminus is dispensable and the pleckstrin homology domain of Lnk contributes to, but is not essential for, inhibiting Tpo-dependent 32D cell growth or megakaryocyte development. Thus, Lnk negatively modulates mpl signaling pathways and is important for Tpo-mediated megakaryocytopoiesis in vivo.
hematopoiesis; megakaryocytes; cytokine receptors; cell proliferation; endomitosis